This period of history in Europe succeeded the fall of the great Roman Empire. Medieval Europe – new institutions emerged to replace those of the fallen Roman Empire. They were fragmented unlike the civilizations in China and Southwest Asia.
BROUGHT WITH THEM DISRUPTION OF TRADE DECLINE OF LEARNING Business collapsed as a result Germanic invaders: NO of recurring invasions. READ, NO WRITE. DOWNFALL OF CITIES Romans abandoned cities as LOSS OF A COMMON centers of administration. LANGUAGE POPULATION SHIFTS Latin began to be fragmented From city to countryside ▪ FRENCH (URBAN to RURAL) ▪ SPANISH ▪ Other Roman based languages
Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces. Church is the only institution which survived the fall of the Roman Empire. The Church provided order and security. Important part in the Medieval History of Europe.
ROMAN SOCIETY GERMANIC SOCIETY Loyalty to the public Family ties and personal government loyalty Written law Unwritten rules and traditions
FRANKS are a Germanic people who held power in the Roman province of Gaul. Their first king was named Clovis who was said to have brought Christianity to this region.
The Church in Rome welcomed Clovis’s conversion and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples. This marked the beginning of an alliance between two powerful forces/ institutions, the Kingdom and the Church.
POLITICS Church and King converted many Germanic people. MISSIONARIES – borders of the Roman Empire FEAR OF COASTAL ATTACKS BY MUSLIMS
BENEDICT SCHOLASTICA Wrote a book on practical Adapted the same rules for set of rules for women. monasteries. MONASTERY- religious communities that the Church built to adapt to rural conditions.
SECULAR means worldly, power involved in politics. Gregory the Great broadened the authority of the papacy. CENTRAL THEME: Churchly kingdoms ruled by a Pope
ASECULARIZEDPOPE POPE’S PALACE- center of the Roman government.CHANGES IN Church revenues for raisingTHE POWER armies, repairing roads, helping the poor.OF THE POPE Negotiating peace treaties with invaders (ex. Lombards) Pope being the Mayor of Rome
Roman Empire was Major Domo= mayors divided. of the palace. England = seven tiny Became the most kingdoms. powerful person in the Franks = controlled kingdom. Gaul, the largest and In charge of the royal strongest of Europe’s households and estates kingdoms. (official responsibility) Clovis- first king of Gaul. Commanded armies and ▪ Started and strengthened made policies. the Merovingian Dynasty.
CHARLES MARTEL PEPIN THE SHORT Extended Franks’ reign to Succeeded Charles Martel. the North, South, and East of Gaul. Supported the Church in their fight against the Also defeated a Muslim Lombards (invading raiding party from Spain at Central Italy). the Battle of Tours. “King by the Grace of God.” Started the Carolingian Dynasty.
Pepin the Short left two successors, Carloman and Charles. CHARLES- would eventually be known as Charlemagne. A tall, bold man who stood 6’4” Einhard says he was “the most potent prince with the greatest skill and success in different countries during the forty-seven years of his reign.” Doubled the area of his father’s reign His conquests helped spread Christianity Is the first German “Roman Emperor”. WHY WAS IT HISTORIC?
Limited the authority Encouraged learning of the nobles English, German, Italian , and Spanish scholars Regularly visited every Opened a palace school part of his kingdom. for the children at the court. Judged cases, settled Monasteries opened disputes, rewarded schools that trained monks and priests followers.
Louis the Pious – devoutly a religious man Lothair Charles the Bald Louis the German TREATY OF VERDUN- divided Charlemagne’s empire into 3 kingdoms.
FAMILIARIZE YOURSELF WITH THE MAP OF CHARLEMAGNE’S EMPIRE.
WHAT IS FEUDALISM? WHERE DOES FEUDALISM BASE ITS POWER? DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE PRESENT IN THIS PERIOD. COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE FEUDALISM THAT EXISTED IN JAPAN AND CHINA WITH THE ONE THAT EXISTED IN EUROPE. DRAW THE TYPICAL MANOR THAT EXISTED DURING THIS ERA.