Africa RISING
Review of Progress Ghana 2013

Asamoah Larbi, IITA
Africa RISING West Africa Review and Planning Meeting,
Ba...
Africa RISING – Program

Purpose of Africa RISING:
Provide pathways out of hunger and poverty for small holder families, e...
Africa RISING – Intervention communities
Africa RISING – Ghana: National partners
ARI
CBOs
CRI
FRI
GLDB
INSTI
KNUST
MOFA
MOH
SARI
SEEDPAG
SRI
UDS
UG

Animal Resear...
Africa RISING – Ghana: International partners
AVRDC

The World Vegetable Center

CIAT

International Center for Tropical A...
Approach: Farming Systems Research
Characterization
Designing
Testing/Adapting
Diffusion

Extension Agent

Researcher
Africa RISING Research Outputs vrs. Stages in
Farming Systems Research
Africa RISING Research Outputs

Farming Systems Res...
Community analysis and mobilization
Cropping systems - cereals
Cropping systems – sorghum and millet
Cropping systems – cereals-legume
Cropping systems – legumes
Cropping systems – vegetables
Livestock – small ruminants
Livestock – rural poultry and pigs
Livestock – production constrains and solutions
Constrains to livestock production in the intervention communities and sug...
Africa RISING-Ghana: 2013 Work plan
Situation analysis (Research output 1)
1Community mobilization and innovation platform...
Cereals: rice yield gap
6000

Filled grain (kg/ha)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

Farmer-managed

Researcher-managed
Cereals – improved management effects on rice
Farmer practice

Improved practice

Filled grain (kg/ha)

8000

6000

4000

...
Vegetables: Okra fruit yield – farmers’ field day
NOKH1004

FV (Unn Manna)

NOKH1003

TZ-SMN-86

FV (Unn)

0

2

4

6

8

...
Livestock – rural poultry and pigs
Tibali

Tingoli

Guo

Papu

Gia
60

50

60

50

40
30
20
10

50
40
30
20

40
30
20

10
...
Livestock – sources of ruminant diets
Bonia, Upper East
Naturally
occuring &
collected
forage
11%

Purchased
10%
Crop
resi...
Rural poultry and pig systems characterization
Regions

Communities

Bongo

Samboligo

Kassena-Nankana

Bonia, Gia

Nadowl...
Species of poultry reared by farmers (%)
Species

Upper East

Upper West

Northern

Guinea fowls

100

76.3

64.3

Chicken...
Poultry production systems and management practices (%)

System of production

Semi-intensive
Free Range

UER
100
0

UWR
9...
Sale of poultry and uses of income (%)
UER

UWR

NR

Mean

Sale
No sale

94.1
5.9

89.8
10.2

97.1
2.9

93.7
6.3

Income (...
Poultry production constraints (%)
UER

UWR

NR

Mean

Pests and diseases

100

91.5

85.7

92.4

High keet mortality

78....
Breeds of pigs reared and their sources (%)
Breeds

Upper East Upper West Northern

Exotic
Local
Crosses

14.6
78.2
6.2

S...
Pig production systems and management practices (%)
Intensive
Semi-intensive
Extensive

Upper East
27.1
64.6
8.3

Upper We...
 MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PIGS)

 Housing
Major diseases and their treatment (%)

Internal parasites
External parasites

2.1

1.8

0

African Swine Fever

2.1

5.3
...
Pigs – sales, market channels and profitability (%)
Sale
No sale

Upper East
66.5
33.5

Upper West Northern
70.1
88.9
29.9...
Constrains – pig production
Upper East

Upper West Northern

Pests and diseases 97.9

89.5

100

Housing materials

97.9

...
Improving farm household nutrition
Improving farm household nutrition
 Problem – wasting and under weight high among children
 Causes
 Food insecurity
 M...
Household nutrition survey
 Provide baseline data
 Study food consumption patterns
 Nutritional status of children and ...
Stunting in children (0-60 months of age: HAZ score)
Severely

Moderately Marginally

Normal

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

...
Nutritional status of children (0-60 months of age)

Percentage (%)

Malnourished

Nourished

100
80
60
40
20
0
Chayoli

T...
Stunting in children by sex
Household consumption of different food groups
Spices
Sweets
*

Oils
*

Milk

Upper West
Upper East
Northern

Legumes
Fish...
Micro-nutrient concentration–leafy vegetables (mg/kg,
weight weight)
Vegetable species

Iron

Zinc

Amaranthus leaves

54....
Dissemination – farmers’ field day Upper West
Capacity building – experimental design short-course
Capacity building – graduate training

University of Ghana

MSc
3

PhD
0

Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science & Techn 1

2

Uni...
Looking ahead………..???????
 Technology development versus socio-economics..????
 Focus on farming systems research
 Inte...
Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation

africa-rising.net
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013
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Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013

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Presented by Asamoah Larbi (IITA) at the Africa RISING West Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Bamako, Mali, 3-4 February 2014

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  • - Coordination whole period: training, template dev and field work; pushed- Future, important to partner with capable survey firms, but even then, close supervision crucialCAPI saved time, reuseAsk to add
  • - Coordination whole period: training, template dev and field work; pushed- Future, important to partner with capable survey firms, but even then, close supervision crucialCAPI saved time, reuseAsk to add
  • An interactive stepwise process that involves mainly three actors – researchers, extension and farmer in the conduct of four basic phases
  • Cereal-legume intercropping: Groundnut, early and late millet sorghum and vegetables
  • 11 farmers from four communities one was made to host a researcher managed on-farm trial. They were given inputs and technical backstopping
  • Good agricultural practices – land preparation, weed control, nitrogen application, land management
  • Farmers: Poultry – 18 communities – 10 household=180 households; pigs 12 communities = 120 households
  • Diets of most rural people dominated by staples foods – millet, sorghum, rice and maize – low in micronutrients zinc and iron necessary to comback mal nutrition35% of children are stunted; 78% anaemic; Stunting, wasting and under weight – severe in the northern region due to food insecurity, chronic mal-nutrition; poverty, in appropriate food processing and feeding practices
  • The fact that 90% of the household produce their own food but dietary diversity score was 5.5, indicate that nutrition communication through behaviour change strategies (what they should eat and why they should eat it) and agricultural productivity – could increase household nutrition
  • - Coordination whole period: training, template dev and field work; pushed- Future, important to partner with capable survey firms, but even then, close supervision crucialCAPI saved time, reuseAsk to add
  • Africa RISING review of progress Ghana 2013

    1. 1. Africa RISING Review of Progress Ghana 2013 Asamoah Larbi, IITA Africa RISING West Africa Review and Planning Meeting, Bamako, Mali, 3-4 February 2014
    2. 2. Africa RISING – Program Purpose of Africa RISING: Provide pathways out of hunger and poverty for small holder families, especially for women and children, through sustainably intensified farming systems that sufficiently improve productivity, nutrition, and income security and conserve or enhance the natural resource base
    3. 3. Africa RISING – Intervention communities
    4. 4. Africa RISING – Ghana: National partners ARI CBOs CRI FRI GLDB INSTI KNUST MOFA MOH SARI SEEDPAG SRI UDS UG Animal Research Institute Community-based Organizations Crops Research Institute Food Research Institute Grains and Legumes Development Board Institute for Scientific and Technological Information Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Ministry of Food and Agriculture Ministry of Health Savanna Agricultural Research Institute Seed Producers Association of Ghana Soil Research Institute University for Development Studies University of Ghana
    5. 5. Africa RISING – Ghana: International partners AVRDC The World Vegetable Center CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture ILRI International Livestock Research Institute IWMI International Water Management Institute
    6. 6. Approach: Farming Systems Research Characterization Designing Testing/Adapting Diffusion Extension Agent Researcher
    7. 7. Africa RISING Research Outputs vrs. Stages in Farming Systems Research Africa RISING Research Outputs Farming Systems Research Stages Situation analysis Farming systems characterization Designing Integrated systems development Testing Adapting Scaling and delivery Diffusion
    8. 8. Community analysis and mobilization
    9. 9. Cropping systems - cereals
    10. 10. Cropping systems – sorghum and millet
    11. 11. Cropping systems – cereals-legume
    12. 12. Cropping systems – legumes
    13. 13. Cropping systems – vegetables
    14. 14. Livestock – small ruminants
    15. 15. Livestock – rural poultry and pigs
    16. 16. Livestock – production constrains and solutions Constrains to livestock production in the intervention communities and suggested solutions Main problems Suggested solutions 1. Poor housing Support in cash for housing construction or housing package 2. High disease and mortality 3. Lack of improved breeds 4. Conflict with crops farmers 5. Inadequate feed Confinement of animals to reduce exposure and better access to veterinary services Better management of the local breeds, buying the improved breeds and the supply of these breeds in the form of support. Confinement and herding of the flock Collection and conservation of crops residue; subsidized concentrate feeds and training in better feeding practices 6 Low prices offered by marketing agents 1.Formation of farmer groups to negotiate good prices for members; and processors for animals 2.Weighing of animals and sell according to animals’ weight. 8. Lack water in the dry season Construction of dug-outs and small reservoirs and supply of materials for rain water harvesting. 9. Access to credit Formation of farmers groups and cooperative to facilitate access to credit and external support. 10. High cost of veterinary drags Government subsidy and support from NGOs in form animal health service package.
    17. 17. Africa RISING-Ghana: 2013 Work plan Situation analysis (Research output 1) 1Community mobilization and innovation platforms 2Farming systems analysis 3Inventory of innovations Leader IITA WUR IITA Integrated systems management (Research output 2) 4Improving cereal-legume systems 5Land management strategies 6Agricultural water management 7Improving cattle, sheep and goat production 8Intensifying rural pig and poultry production 9Improving farm household nutrition IITA CIAT IWMI ILRI KNUST GHS, FRI Scaling and delivery (Research output 3) 10Comparison of delivery approaches MoFA, UDS
    18. 18. Cereals: rice yield gap 6000 Filled grain (kg/ha) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Farmer-managed Researcher-managed
    19. 19. Cereals – improved management effects on rice Farmer practice Improved practice Filled grain (kg/ha) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 2 3 4 Farmers 5 6 7
    20. 20. Vegetables: Okra fruit yield – farmers’ field day NOKH1004 FV (Unn Manna) NOKH1003 TZ-SMN-86 FV (Unn) 0 2 4 6 8 Fruit yield (t/ha) 10 12
    21. 21. Livestock – rural poultry and pigs Tibali Tingoli Guo Papu Gia 60 50 60 50 40 30 20 10 50 40 30 20 40 30 20 10 Landless Small Medium Wealth Category Northern region Large 10 0 0 • • • • % of the Household 70 % of the Household % of the Household 60 Bonia 0 Landless Small Medium Large Wealth Category Upper West region Landless household: No land, no livestock; Small household : < 3 acre of land & < 6 ruminant; Medium Household: 3 – 10 acre of land & 6 – 30 ruminant; Large Household: > 10 acre of land & > 30 ruminant Landless Small Medium Wealth Category Upper East region Large
    22. 22. Livestock – sources of ruminant diets Bonia, Upper East Naturally occuring & collected forage 11% Purchased 10% Crop residues 13% Grazing 66% Guo, Upper West Tibali, Northern Naturally occuring & collected forage 18% Naturally occuring & collected forage 13% Crop residues 16% Grazing 63% Purchased 5% Crop residues 22% Cultivated fodder 8% Cultivated fodder 5% Grazing 50%
    23. 23. Rural poultry and pig systems characterization Regions Communities Bongo Samboligo Kassena-Nankana Bonia, Gia Nadowli-Kaleo Goriyiri, Guo, Goli, Gy illi Wa West Nato-Duori, Nyaggli Savelugu-Nanton Upper East Districts Jana, Libiga, Tibale, Tolon-Kumbungu Gbanjong, Tibongnaayili, Kpirim, Cheyohi Upper West Northern
    24. 24. Species of poultry reared by farmers (%) Species Upper East Upper West Northern Guinea fowls 100 76.3 64.3 Chickens Turkeys Ducks Pigeons 100 0 19.6 5.9 96.6 6.8 15.3 1.7 91.4 0 4.3 0
    25. 25. Poultry production systems and management practices (%) System of production Semi-intensive Free Range UER 100 0 UWR 94.9 5.1 NR 97.1 2.9 Mean 97.3 2.7 Housing Mud Wooden Others 78.4 13.7 7.8 96.6 0 0 87.2 11.4 1.4 87.4 8.4 3.1 Feeding Grains + scavenging Feed + scavenging Scavenging only 98 0 2 100 0 0 82.9 14.3 2.9 93.6 4.8 1.6 Breeding Uncontrolled mating Incub. & brood. by hen 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 UER: Upper East Region; UWR: Upper West Region; NR: Northern Region
    26. 26. Sale of poultry and uses of income (%) UER UWR NR Mean Sale No sale 94.1 5.9 89.8 10.2 97.1 2.9 93.7 6.3 Income (birds) Income (eggs) 96.1 3.9 84.7 5.1 50 44.3 76.9 17.8 Buying of food Paying of schools fees Health-care 86.3 72.5 35.3 79.7 54.2 49.2 78.6 70 24.3 81.5 65.6 36.3 UER: Upper East Region; UWR: Upper West Region; NR: Northern Region
    27. 27. Poultry production constraints (%) UER UWR NR Mean Pests and diseases 100 91.5 85.7 92.4 High keet mortality 78.4 69.5 68.6 72.2 Predation 82.4 69.5 61.4 71.1 Lack of knowledge 60.8 62.7 30 51.2 Feed shortage 56.9 62.7 25.7 48.4 UER: Upper East Region; UWR: Upper West Region; NR: Northern Region
    28. 28. Breeds of pigs reared and their sources (%) Breeds Upper East Upper West Northern Exotic Local Crosses 14.6 78.2 6.2 Source of breeds Local producers Other producers Breeding stations Relative/friend 70.8 25 8.4 8.4 8.8 82.5 1.8 22.2 77.8 0 88.1 7.1 5.3 0 88.9 11 9 0
    29. 29. Pig production systems and management practices (%) Intensive Semi-intensive Extensive Upper East 27.1 64.6 8.3 Upper West 7 77.2 8.8 Northern 88.9 11.1 0 Enclosed structures Confinement Partial confinement 97.9 22.9 64.6 68.4 5.3 70.2 100 100 0 Feeding Complete feed only Scavenging+Supplement Scavenging only 23 35.4 8.3 24.6 64.9 1.8 100 0 0 Breeding Uncontrolled mating Controlled mating 100 0 100 0 0 100 System of production Housing
    30. 30.  MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PIGS)  Housing
    31. 31. Major diseases and their treatment (%) Internal parasites External parasites 2.1 1.8 0 African Swine Fever 2.1 5.3 11.1 2.1 0 0 Veterinary officer Handling Upper West 36.8 Diarrhoea Disease Upper East 72.9 52.1 14 33.3 Comm. Livestock Worker 2.1 8.8 0 Farmer 15.8 66.7 20.8 Northern 100
    32. 32. Pigs – sales, market channels and profitability (%) Sale No sale Upper East 66.5 33.5 Upper West Northern 70.1 88.9 29.9 11.1 Middlemen Pito brewers Butchers Public 47.9 4.2 35.6 2.1 35.1 3.5 35.2 7 77.8 0 66.7 0 Profitable Not profitable 87.5 12.5 73.7 26.3 100 0
    33. 33. Constrains – pig production Upper East Upper West Northern Pests and diseases 97.9 89.5 100 Housing materials 97.9 89.5 100 Feed shortage 87.5 82.5 100
    34. 34. Improving farm household nutrition
    35. 35. Improving farm household nutrition  Problem – wasting and under weight high among children  Causes  Food insecurity  Mal-nutrition – poverty, food processing, feeding practices  Solutions  Improve quality food intake -crop varieties, livestock breeds  Diversification – production, diets  Processing – better cooking practices
    36. 36. Household nutrition survey  Provide baseline data  Study food consumption patterns  Nutritional status of children and caretakers  Document food processing and cooking methods  Mineral profiles of leafy vegetables  Design appropriate nutritional interventions
    37. 37. Stunting in children (0-60 months of age: HAZ score) Severely Moderately Marginally Normal n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Northern (n=201) 19 (9.5) 63 (31.3) 56 (27.9) 63 (31.3) Upper West (n=149) 3 (2.0) 19 (12.8) 46 (30.9) 81 (54.4) Upper East (n=146) 5 (3.4) 23 (15.8) 48 (32.9) 70 (47.9) Total (N=496) 27 (5.4) 105 (21.2) 150 (30.2) 214 (43.1) p-value= < 0.0001*
    38. 38. Nutritional status of children (0-60 months of age) Percentage (%) Malnourished Nourished 100 80 60 40 20 0 Chayoli Tibali Zanko Goli Intervention community Bonia Sambulgu
    39. 39. Stunting in children by sex
    40. 40. Household consumption of different food groups Spices Sweets * Oils * Milk Upper West Upper East Northern Legumes Fish & Seafoods Eggs Meat * Fruits Vegetables Roots & Tubers Cereals 0 20 40 60 Households (%) 80 100 120
    41. 41. Micro-nutrient concentration–leafy vegetables (mg/kg, weight weight) Vegetable species Iron Zinc Amaranthus leaves 54.02±6.34m 5.87±0.88jz Sorrel leaves 49.42±4.70m 2.62±0.22xy Bitter leaves 34.94±0.13k 9.58±0.57b Pumpkin leaves 70.63±1.51p 9.38±1.31b
    42. 42. Dissemination – farmers’ field day Upper West
    43. 43. Capacity building – experimental design short-course
    44. 44. Capacity building – graduate training University of Ghana MSc 3 PhD 0 Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science & Techn 1 2 University of Development Studies 1 0 Total 5 2
    45. 45. Looking ahead………..???????  Technology development versus socio-economics..????  Focus on farming systems research  Integration of activities  Small-scale mechanization and post-harvest losses….???  Value addition…???
    46. 46. Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation africa-rising.net
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