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EVALUATING USE OF CROP RESIDUES FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN MZIMBA DISTRICT, MALAWI J. TANGANYIKA,  E. BANDASO...
Introduction  <ul><li>Farmers in Northern Malawi practice mixed crop livestock production. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock fee...
<ul><li>Livestock production represents an opportunity that has not appropriately been addressed, considering the high dem...
<ul><li>To describe the types and utilization of crop residues available in the context of small-scale farming systems in ...
Study site and methodology  <ul><li>Mzimba is situated about 250 km North of Lilongwe, and the project site is 65km West o...
<ul><li>Focus group discussions  </li></ul><ul><li>Household surveys  </li></ul>
Results and discussion   <ul><li>Land use system  and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop livestock farming as domina...
Farming systems characterization : Crops <ul><li>Maize is  dominant followed by groundnuts; with largest share of cropland...
<ul><li>Poultry production is most common, keeping ruminants is  more limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of cattle and g...
Functions of livestock  Livestock’ s most important function is cash income . Farmers, although they might have few animal...
<ul><li>Cash  and income  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>role of livestock in supporting farmer’s livelihoods </li></ul></ul></...
<ul><li>Maize  and groundnuts are the main suppliers of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>The main uses of these crop residu...
Examples of the uses  of crop residues
Management decisions <ul><li>Across crops  and livestock  most management decisions are made jointly, by women  and men. <...
Conclusions  <ul><li>Intensification of crop (grain) production is high through government support  programmes. </li></ul>...
Recommendations  <ul><li>Technical interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is  need to promote improved dual purpose...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>This study is supported by the Systemwide Livestock Programme (SLP) and the International Crops R...
<ul><li>Thank you!!! </li></ul>
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Evaluating use of crop residues for sustainable livestock production in Mzimba district, Malawi

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Paper presented by Elisabeth Bandason, Bunda College, at the 10th African Crop Science Society Conference, 10-13th October 2011 in Maputo

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Evaluating use of crop residues for sustainable livestock production in Mzimba district, Malawi

  1. 1. EVALUATING USE OF CROP RESIDUES FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN MZIMBA DISTRICT, MALAWI J. TANGANYIKA, E. BANDASON, T.N. GONDWE, AND S. HOMANN-KEE TUI 10th African Crop Science Society Conference,10-13 October 2011 , Maputo SLP project :Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia ( www.vslp.org )
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Farmers in Northern Malawi practice mixed crop livestock production. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock feed on rangelands and crop residues during dry seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Government has invested in crop production through input subsidy programme, leading to increased yields and enabling the government to export maize. </li></ul><ul><li>Less support is given to the livestock sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports of livestock products are high. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Livestock production represents an opportunity that has not appropriately been addressed, considering the high demand for livestock products and its potential for growth. </li></ul><ul><li>With more grazing land being converted into cropland it is expected that feed resources will become a major bottleneck for livestock production. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved crop residue utilization not only improves livestock nutrition, but also has a potential for soil fertility and water use efficiency. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>To describe the types and utilization of crop residues available in the context of small-scale farming systems in Mzimba district </li></ul>Objective of the study
  5. 5. Study site and methodology <ul><li>Mzimba is situated about 250 km North of Lilongwe, and the project site is 65km West of Mzuzu town. </li></ul><ul><li>Mzimba is one of the districts with highest livestock production in the small-scale farming sector. </li></ul><ul><li>The area has a human population density of about 60 persons km -2 . </li></ul><ul><li>The average annual rainfall fluctuates at around 700mm. </li></ul><ul><li>8 villages were selected, with different distance from Kafukule Trading Centre, belonging to Njuyu and Euthini Extension Planning Areas . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Focus group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Household surveys </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results and discussion <ul><li>Land use system and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop livestock farming as dominant form of land use (40% of the total area) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated uses of the cultivated land : </li></ul><ul><li>44% maize, 3 % other cereals, </li></ul><ul><li>11% groundnuts </li></ul><ul><li>10% tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>22% fallow and other crops </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock is composed of </li></ul><ul><li>cattle (65%) </li></ul><ul><li>goats (14%), </li></ul><ul><li>pigs (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>poultry ( 6%) </li></ul><ul><li>donkies (2%) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Farming systems characterization : Crops <ul><li>Maize is dominant followed by groundnuts; with largest share of cropland and highest yield. </li></ul><ul><li>This confirms high availability of crop residues from maize and groundnuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Land sizes and crop yields are not different across wealth categories and gender. </li></ul>Crop production (% households) Average yield
  9. 9. <ul><li>Poultry production is most common, keeping ruminants is more limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of cattle and goats differs by wealth categories, </li></ul><ul><li>but not by gender of household headship, indicating that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cattle and goats are important wealth assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female headed households have equal access to cattle and goats. </li></ul></ul>Farming systems characterization: Livestock
  10. 10. Functions of livestock Livestock’ s most important function is cash income . Farmers, although they might have few animals, make broad use of livestock.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Cash and income </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>role of livestock in supporting farmer’s livelihoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>farmers do participate in livestock markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conducive conditions will make farmers responding to the growing demand for livestock products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mainly poultry, goats and pigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for cattle mainly milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Draft power and manure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appreciated but underutilized </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Maize and groundnuts are the main suppliers of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>The main uses of these crop residues are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>livestock grazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mulching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collection and feeding to a limited extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>burning, indicating underutilization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmers thus are not aware of the value of crop residues, probably due to limited livestock extension services. </li></ul>Uses of crop residues
  13. 13. Examples of the uses of crop residues
  14. 14. Management decisions <ul><li>Across crops and livestock most management decisions are made jointly, by women and men. </li></ul><ul><li>This indicates the important role women play as farm managers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Intensification of crop (grain) production is high through government support programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop residues are abundantly available from maize and groundnuts but underutilized. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a potential to enhance overall farming productivity through improved use of residues for livestock feeding and soil amendment. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved livestock production is an important opportunity for farmers to increase their income and benefit from the real demand for livestock products at local and national markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop-livestock is a real alternative to tobacco production, which is losing its market value. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Recommendations <ul><li>Technical interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is need to promote improved dual purpose (food and feed) maize and groundnut varieties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using the existing inputs supply outlets (local retailers, government programs) can help to disseminate these varieties relatively quickly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Market improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and services development for crops and livestock products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market value of crop residues is an opportunity for farmers without livestock to generate income . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Policies need to integrate crop and livestock production </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government programs on farming systems integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity strengthening for frontline staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extend input supply programmes to livestock production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness creation on the value of crop residues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Acknowledgements <ul><li>This study is supported by the Systemwide Livestock Programme (SLP) and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). </li></ul><ul><li>Special thanks to the farmers and agricultural extension staff in Njuyu and Euthini EPA </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Thank you!!! </li></ul>

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