Livestock goods - Pathways out of poverty: experiences from South Asia

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Presentation by Narayan Hegde for ILRI Annual Program Meeting, Addis Ababa, 15 April 2010

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Livestock goods - Pathways out of poverty: experiences from South Asia

  1. 1. LIVESTOCK GOODS: PATHWAYS OUT OF POVERTY EXPERIENCES FROM SOUTH EAST ASIA Narayan G. Hegde BAIF Development Research Foundation Dr. Manibhai Desai Nagar, Warje, Pune 411058, India www.baif.org.in
  2. 2. CHALLENGES OF RURAL INDIA <ul><li>Rural Population 65-70 % </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on Agriculture 80-85 % </li></ul><ul><li>Land Holding: </li></ul><ul><li>Landless 18.83 % </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal Holders (< 1 ha) 46.16 % </li></ul><ul><li>Small Holders (1 to 2 ha) 14.72 % </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Poverty 30-40 % </li></ul><ul><li>Over 75% farmers being small land holders, </li></ul><ul><li>livestock is the major source of livelihood </li></ul>
  3. 3. LIVESTOCK STATUS IN SOUTH EAST ASIA Livestock India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Sri Lanka Bhutan China Vietnam Indonesia Population in Million (2006) Cattle 185 30 24 7 1.5 0.35 118 6.5 11 Buffaloes 98 27 1 3 0.3 0.001 23 3 2.5 Sheep 61 26 1.1 1 0.4 0.03 174 -- 8.5 Goats 124 53 33 6 0.02 199 1.5 14 Total 469 137 59 17 2.2 0.40 514 11 36 Annual Production (Million tons) Milk 97 37 2 1 0.4 -- 36 0.2 1 Meat 4.9 2.4 0.6 0 -- -- 81 3 2.5 Total 101.9 39.4 2.6 1 0.4 -- 117 3.2 3.5
  4. 4. Livestock Goods in the SAARC REGION <ul><li>Bhutan has 0.3 m. yaks on high altitude (Above 3000 m); </li></ul><ul><li>Yak and Mithun are used for breeding cattle to improve fat in milk in the Himalayan regions; </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock is an important source of livelihood for small farmers, as 50 to 80% families own small herds of ruminants; </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, meat, bullock power for agriculture and dung for manure are the benefits from livestock; </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic improvement, improved nutrition, disease </li></ul><ul><li>containment and investment in processing of milk and meat are major priorities in these countries. </li></ul>Bos frontalis Cross of yak Bos grunniens
  5. 5. GOODS: LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>DAIRY DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for milk by 2022: 180 MT/year (80% more) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for increased Milk Consumption:75 kg/year </li></ul><ul><li>GOAT AND SHEEP DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Small holders dependent for livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for meat </li></ul><ul><li>Good scope for sustainable goat husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>PIGGERY, POULTRY AND FISHERY </li></ul><ul><li>Source of livelihood for landless </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities in selected locations </li></ul>
  6. 6. LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT: APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLITY <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Milk yield: 600 kg/ lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural income for landless and marginal land-owners is very low </li></ul><ul><li>Drain on resources </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic pressure on environment </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial insemination </li></ul><ul><li>at doorsteps with elite germplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, follow up and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of cattle, buffaloes and goats </li></ul><ul><li>Support Activities: Minor veterinary care, forage production, feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Milk yield: 2,200 – 3,000 kg/ lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in income: </li></ul><ul><li>Rs. 7,000-8,000 /cow/year </li></ul><ul><li>Each crossbred worth Rs.25,000-30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood for women </li></ul><ul><li>Food & nutrition security </li></ul><ul><li>Employment generation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Forest conservation - Stall feeding decreases pressure on forests </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming – dung used as farmyard manure; efficient recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy - Biogas plant </li></ul><ul><li>Less pressure on environment - Farmer maintains a smaller herd of productive cattle </li></ul>
  7. 7. CROSSBRED COWS: ‘GOODS <ul><li>Milk yield: 2200 - 2700 kg / lactation / cow </li></ul><ul><li>Net Income: USD180 / cow / year; Families with 3 crossbreds are out of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Community pasture development and Stall -feeding: Conservation of Eco-system </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Dung Collection; Biogas plants </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Recycling of Nutrients: Dung and Crop residues; </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Bullock Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s preference for livestock leading to their empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Assured supply to meet growing demand for milk and other products </li></ul>Crossbred bullock in action Crossbreds to eradicate poverty
  8. 8. <ul><li>Shift from large unproductive herd to small </li></ul><ul><li>herd of high yielding cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Good incentive to promote fodder cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>on barren lands </li></ul><ul><li>Food security for majority of small </li></ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3 million families in 55000 villages </li></ul><ul><li>availing services of which 60-70% are out of </li></ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul>DAIRY HUSBANDRY PROGRAMME OF BAIF GOOD IMPACTS OF
  9. 9. <ul><li>LIVESTOCK BADS? </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on natural resources for fodder, resulting </li></ul><ul><li>in denudation of vegetation and loss of biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Emission of Green House Gases to accelerate </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>TRANSFORMING BADS INTO GOODS? </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTIONS WITHIN THE REACH </li></ul><ul><li>Development of community lands and private wastelands </li></ul><ul><li>into silvipastures </li></ul><ul><li>Population reduction through productivity improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of stall-feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of crop residues as fodder </li></ul><ul><li>Research initiatives to reduce emission of GHC s </li></ul>
  11. 11. Livestock induce forage production on wastelands
  12. 12. COMMUNITY PASTURE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Effective participation of community </li></ul><ul><li>Viable Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Fodder security </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and water conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Eco-system </li></ul>
  13. 13. AWARENESS ON REDUCING METHANE EMISSION <ul><li>Balanced feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Improving feed quality </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding superior quality forage </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Health status </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of efficient microbes and methane traps </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient management of dung: Biogas and FYM </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock population Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breed conservation policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breed improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection, culling and export </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU [email_address] www.baif.org.in

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