Integrated Term Project

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Integrated Term Project

  1. 1. Integrated Term Project PLASTIC BOTTLES
  2. 2. History of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>Timeline of development : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonardo Da Vinci, 16 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Parkes, 1862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leo Bakeland, 1907 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Commercial plastic bottle, 1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Density Polyethylene, 1960’s </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Concept of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>The concept of plastic bottle came from the fact that they are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible & Durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion Resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically Inert & Non- Permeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Pressure withstanding Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact- resistant & non- Brittle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight & High Strength. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Plasticity Stress- Strain Curve: Ductile Material Non Ductile Material
  5. 5. Mechanism of Polymerization <ul><ul><li>Chain Initiation Step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain Propagation Step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain Termination Step </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Physical & Chemical Property Properties LDPE HDPE Melting Point 115 0 C 135 0 C Crystallinity Low Crystallinity High Crystallinity Flexibility High Low Strength Low High Heat Resistance Good to use at NTP Useful above 100 0 C Transparency Good Less transparent than LDPE
  7. 7. Properties LDPE HDPE Density 0.91-0.94 g/cm 3 0.95-0.97 g/cm 3 Chemical Bonding Covalent bond & vander waal forces of attraction Covalent bond & vander waal forces of attraction Toxicity low toxicity low toxicity Molecular Mass 20000 - 500000 3100000 - 5670000 Reactivity Chemically Inert Chemically Inert Schematic Diagram
  8. 8. Types of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>On the basis of Material Used : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PETE – Polyethylene terephthalate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDPE - High-density polyethylene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC - Polyvinyl chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDPE - Low-density polyethylene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PP –Polypropylene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PS - Polystyrene </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>On the Basis of Colour : </li></ul></ul>GREEN CLEAR WHITE AMBER BLUE NATURAL
  10. 10. Plastic Bottle Material Code
  11. 11. PROPERTIES PETE HDPE PVC LDPE PP PS TRANSPARENCY CLEAR TRANSLUCENT TRANSLUCENT TRANSLUCENT TRANSLUCENT CLEAR MAX. TEMP 140F 248F 158F 176F 275F 158F BRITTLENESS TEMP 14F -148F -22F -148F 32F 72F MOISTURE BARRIER GOOD EXCELLENT FAIR GOOD EXCELLENT FAIR SUNLIGHT BARRIER GOOD FAIR FAIR FAIR FAIR FAIR OXYGEN BARRIER GOOD POOR GOOD POOR POOR FAIR TENSILE STRENGTH 8000 4000 5000 2000 5000 6000 FLEXIBILITY SEMI SEMI RIGID FLEXIBLE RIGID RIGID IMPACT RESISTANCE EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR
  12. 12. Uses & Applications: <ul><ul><li>HDPE: Bleach bottles, detergent bottles, shampoo bottles, motor oil bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDPE: Squeezable Bottle of Honey, Mustard and Flexible Container Lids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PETE: Soft drink, Juice, Water, Detergent and Cleaner Bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC: Window Cleaner, Food Stuff Bottles, Cooking Oil, Detergent Bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PP: Yoghurt bottles, Microwaveable Disposable take-away Containers. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Geometry of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>Distinct Parts of a General Plastic Bottle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conical Frustum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cylindrical Part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular Bottom </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Plastic Bottle <ul><ul><li>On the Basis of Shape: </li></ul></ul>BOSTON ROUND COSMO ROUND CYLINDRICAL OVAL ROUND PHARMACEUTICAL
  15. 15. Manufacturing <ul><li>Plastic bottles are prepared by a process </li></ul><ul><li>known as BLOW MOLDING . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrusion blow molding, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injection blow molding, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch blow molding </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Injection Blow Molding <ul><ul><li>Preform injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blow molding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejection. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Industrial Visit INITIAL HEATER HOOPER
  18. 18. Industrial Visit DIGITAL CONTROLLER INJECTION MOULDING
  19. 19. Industrial Visit COLOUR MIXER GRINDER
  20. 20. Environmental Impacts & Recycling <ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Decomposable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastage of Petroleum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of Trash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect on fertility of Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incineration takes 2 times of the energy to manufacture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery to recycling facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDPE/PETE flakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Technological Advancement and R&D <ul><ul><li>Shift from rigid packaging to flexible packaging. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the thickness of plastic bottle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of hot fill containers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion of antioxidant additives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of smart plastic bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of bioplastic for manufacturing bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of handles with PET bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing manufacturing costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of recyclable material. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Thank you.

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