Potential Contributions of the System of Rice Intensification  to Balancing Food and Environmental Security -- with Agricu...
More tillers and more than 400 grains per panicle
SRI is something quite remarkable and promising <ul><li>but still “a work in progress”   </li></ul><ul><li>SRI appears   ‘...
SRI  IS  A  METHODOLOGY <ul><li>rather than a   “TECHNOLOGY”   </li></ul><ul><li>Different  paradigm  for growing rice </l...
The basic idea of SRI is that  RICE PLANTS DO BEST <ul><li>(A) When their  ROOTS  can grow large and deep because they hav...
“ Starting Points” for SRI <ul><li>Transplant   young seedlings ,   8-15 days  (2 leaves) --  quickly  and very   carefull...
These practices produce a different  PHENOTYPE <ul><li>Profuse  TILLERING  -- 30 to 50/plant,  80-100 possible, sometimes ...
 
Plant Physical Structure and  Light Intensity Distribution  at Heading Stage   (CNRRI Research: Tao et al. 2002)
 
 
OBSERVABLE  BENEFITS <ul><li>Average yields  about 8 t/ha  --   </li></ul><ul><li>twice present world average of 3.8 t/ha ...
LESS OR NO NEED FOR: <ul><li>Changing varieties , though best yields from  high-yielding varieties  and  hybrids  -- tradi...
ADDITIONAL BENEFITS <ul><li>Seeding rate   reduced as much as 90%, 5-10 kg/ha gives more than 50-100 kg </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Analysis of SRI in Sri Lanka <ul><li>  SRI   Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Yields (tons/ha)   8     4    +88% </li></ul><ul><...
DISADVANTAGES / COSTS <ul><li>SRI is more   labor-intensive ,   at least initially -- but can become  labor-saving </li></...
SRI is COUNTERINTUITIVE <ul><li>LESS CAN BCOME MORE   -- utilizing the  potentials and dynamics of biology </li></ul><ul><...
These results more often come from farms than experiment stations <ul><li>Though increasing number of scientists working o...
 
 
Initial Experience with SRI <ul><li>Average yields of irrigated rice with standard methods around Ranomafana National Park...
 
Spread beyond Madagascar <ul><li>Nanjing Agricultural University - 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Agency for Agricultural Research...
Reports from Sanya Conference
Critical Factor is  Root Growth <ul><li>In continuously flooded soil,  3/4 of rice roots  remain in top 6 cm (Kirk and Sol...
 
Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage  (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002...
Root Activity in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Rice (Nanjing Agr. Univ. research: Wang et al. 2002) (Wuxianggeng 9 variety)
 
With young transplants and unimpeded root growth, <ul><li>Tillering  will be profuse;  maximum tillering = PI  -- not max....
 
 
 
What speeds up the biological clock?   (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) <ul><li>Shorter phyllochrons   Longer phyllochron...
Better growing conditions  shorten  the phyllochron <ul><li>More phyllochrons of growth are then completed before the plan...
 
SRI capitalizes on the fact that the  uptake of N  is a demand-led process
Paths for Increased Grain Yield in Relation to N Uptake, using QUEFTS Analytical Model  (Barison, 2002)
The contributions of  soil microbial activity  need to be taken more seriously <ul><li>“ The microbial flora causes a larg...
Consider the potentials of: <ul><li>Biological nitrogen fixation  (BNF) </li></ul><ul><li>P solubilization  (Turner & Hayg...
SRI  Raises More Questions  than It Gives ANSWERS <ul><li>This is a   PRACTICE-LED  innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist...
Contribution to Diversification <ul><li>World doesn’t need 2x more rice output </li></ul><ul><li>This would have adverse e...
THANK YOU <ul><li>More information is available  </li></ul><ul><li>on the  SRI WEB PAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>http://ciifad....
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0206 Potential Contributions of the System of Rice Intensification to Balancing Food and Environmental Security -- with Agricultural Diversification

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0206 Potential Contributions of the System of Rice Intensification to Balancing Food and Environmental Security -- with Agricultural Diversification

  1. 1. Potential Contributions of the System of Rice Intensification to Balancing Food and Environmental Security -- with Agricultural Diversification 2nd International Agronomy Congress, New Delhi, November 26-30, 2002 Norman Uphoff, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development
  2. 2. More tillers and more than 400 grains per panicle
  3. 3. SRI is something quite remarkable and promising <ul><li>but still “a work in progress” </li></ul><ul><li>SRI appears ‘too good to be true’ like the agronomists’ equivalent of economists’ $100 bill on the sidewalk </li></ul><ul><li>However there is increasing evidence that this system is ‘for real’ </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is being used successfully by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a growing number of farmers in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a growing number of countries (16+) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SRI IS A METHODOLOGY <ul><li>rather than a “TECHNOLOGY” </li></ul><ul><li>Different paradigm for growing rice </li></ul><ul><li>that can be justified from the literature </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is really a set of PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>and INSIGHTS that get applied </li></ul><ul><li>through a set of PRACTICES that </li></ul><ul><li>farmers are encouraged to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>to suit their local conditions </li></ul>
  5. 5. The basic idea of SRI is that RICE PLANTS DO BEST <ul><li>(A) When their ROOTS can grow large and deep because they have been </li></ul><ul><li>transplanted carefully , </li></ul><ul><li>without trauma, and there is </li></ul><ul><li>wide spacing between plants; also </li></ul><ul><li>(B) When they grow in SOIL that is kept </li></ul><ul><li>well aerated , with abundant and diverse </li></ul><ul><li>soil microbial populations </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Starting Points” for SRI <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings , 8-15 days (2 leaves) -- quickly and very carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Single plants per hill with wide spacing in a square pattern -- 25x25 cm or wider </li></ul><ul><li>No continuous flooding of field during the vegetative growth phase (AWD ok) </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding with rotating hoe early (10 DAT) and often -- 2 to 4 times </li></ul><ul><li>Application of compost is recommended </li></ul>
  7. 7. These practices produce a different PHENOTYPE <ul><li>Profuse TILLERING -- 30 to 50/plant, 80-100 possible, sometimes 100+ </li></ul><ul><li>Greater ROOT GROWTH -- 5-6x more resistance (kg/plant) for uprooting </li></ul><ul><li>Larger PANICLES -- 150-250+ grains </li></ul><ul><li>Higher GRAIN WEIGHT -- often 5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>A POSITIVE CORRELATION between tillers/plant and grains/panicle </li></ul><ul><li>LESS SENESCENCE of leaves/roots </li></ul>
  8. 9. Plant Physical Structure and Light Intensity Distribution at Heading Stage (CNRRI Research: Tao et al. 2002)
  9. 12. OBSERVABLE BENEFITS <ul><li>Average yields about 8 t/ha -- </li></ul><ul><li>twice present world average of 3.8 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum yields can be twice this -- 15-16 t/ha, with some over 20 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Water required reducible by about 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Increased factor productivity from land, labor, capital and water ( > yield) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production -- this is often most important to farmers </li></ul>
  10. 13. LESS OR NO NEED FOR: <ul><li>Changing varieties , though best yields from high-yielding varieties and hybrids -- traditional varieties produce 4-10 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers -- these give a very positive yield response with SRI, but best results are obtained with compost </li></ul><ul><li>Agrochemicals – plants more resistant to pests and diseases with SRI methods </li></ul>
  11. 14. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS <ul><li>Seeding rate reduced as much as 90%, 5-10 kg/ha gives more than 50-100 kg </li></ul><ul><li>No lodging because of stronger roots </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly production due to water saving, no/fewer chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>More accessible to poor households because few capital requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Can be more drought-resistant </li></ul>
  12. 16. Analysis of SRI in Sri Lanka <ul><li> SRI Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Yields (tons/ha) 8 4 +88% </li></ul><ul><li>Market price (Rs/ton) 1,500 1,300 +15% </li></ul><ul><li>Total cash cost (Rs/ha) 18,000 22,000 -18% </li></ul><ul><li>Gross returns (Rs/ha) 120,000 58,500 +74% </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit (Rs/ha) 102,000 36,500 +180% </li></ul><ul><li>Family labor earnings Increased with SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Water savings 40-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Data from Dr. Janaiah Aldas, formerly economist at IRRI, now at Indira Gandhi Development Studies Institute, Mumbai, based on visit to Sri Lanka and interviews with SRI farmers, October, 2002 </li></ul>
  13. 17. DISADVANTAGES / COSTS <ul><li>SRI is more labor-intensive , at least initially -- but can become labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires greater knowledge/skill from farmers to become better decision-makers and managers -- but this contri-butes to human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires good water control to get best results, making regular applications of smaller amounts of water -- this can be obtained through investments </li></ul>
  14. 18. SRI is COUNTERINTUITIVE <ul><li>LESS CAN BCOME MORE -- utilizing the potentials and dynamics of biology </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, younger seedlings will give larger, more productive mature plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per hill and per m 2 can give more yield with other conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Half the water can give a higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer or no external inputs are associated with greater output </li></ul><ul><li>New phenotypes from existing genotypes </li></ul>
  15. 19. These results more often come from farms than experiment stations <ul><li>Though increasing number of scientists working on SRI -- NAU, AARD, TNAU, CNHRRDC, CNRRI, BRRI, Cuban IRR </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is the due entirely to the work of Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J . (1920-1995), trained in agriculture at INA (1937-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>He lived and worked with farmers in Madagascar, 1961-1995, SRI from 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI now being promoted by NGO named Association Tefy Saina , assisted by CIIFAD </li></ul>
  16. 22. Initial Experience with SRI <ul><li>Average yields of irrigated rice with standard methods around Ranomafana National Park were about 2 t/ha in 1990 -- very low </li></ul><ul><li>NC State University working with farmers got average yield of 3 t/ha, max. of 5 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>We would have been satisfied with an increase up to 3-5 t/ha -- a doubling of yield </li></ul><ul><li>Tefy Saina helped farmers average 8 t/ha over 1994-1999 period, some yields 16 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers in a French project improving small-scale irrigation on the high plateau had same results over same 5-year period </li></ul>
  17. 24. Spread beyond Madagascar <ul><li>Nanjing Agricultural University - 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia - 1999-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>China Hybrid Rice Center - 2000-2001 </li></ul><ul><li>International conference, Sanya, China, April 2001 -- 15 countries represented </li></ul>
  18. 25. Reports from Sanya Conference
  19. 26. Critical Factor is Root Growth <ul><li>In continuously flooded soil, 3/4 of rice roots remain in top 6 cm (Kirk and Solivas 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>In continuously flooded soil, 3/4 of rice roots degenerate by flowering (Kar et al. 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>In unflooded soils, “irrigated” rice varieties do not form aerenchyma (Puard et al. 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>With SRI methods -- with young seedlings, wide spacing, and soil aeration -- rice root growth is profuse </li></ul>
  20. 28. Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002) Root dry weight (g)
  21. 29. Root Activity in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Rice (Nanjing Agr. Univ. research: Wang et al. 2002) (Wuxianggeng 9 variety)
  22. 31. With young transplants and unimpeded root growth, <ul><li>Tillering will be profuse; maximum tillering = PI -- not max. tillering < PI </li></ul><ul><li>This is best understood in terms of phyllochrons -- “discovered” by the Japanese scientist Katayama (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Tillering pattern follows sequence of ‘ Fibonacci series ’ -- 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13... </li></ul>
  23. 35. What speeds up the biological clock? (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) <ul><li>Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons </li></ul><ul><li>Higher temperatures > cold temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy </li></ul><ul><li>More illumination > shading of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Soil penetrability > compaction of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient moisture > drought conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions </li></ul>
  24. 36. Better growing conditions shorten the phyllochron <ul><li>More phyllochrons of growth are then completed before the plant switches from (a) vegetative growth phase to (b) reproductive phase </li></ul><ul><li>More tillering means there is also more root development </li></ul>
  25. 38. SRI capitalizes on the fact that the uptake of N is a demand-led process
  26. 39. Paths for Increased Grain Yield in Relation to N Uptake, using QUEFTS Analytical Model (Barison, 2002)
  27. 40. The contributions of soil microbial activity need to be taken more seriously <ul><li>“ The microbial flora causes a large number of biochemical changes in the soil that largely determine the fertility of the soil.” (DeDatta, 1981, p. 60, emphasis added) </li></ul>
  28. 41. Consider the potentials of: <ul><li>Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) </li></ul><ul><li>P solubilization (Turner & Haygarth 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizal associations (VAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizobia (Yanni et al. 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions of root exudation and rhizodeposition to soil microbial dynamics -- roots need to be understood as ‘2-way streets’ (Pinton et al. 2001) </li></ul>
  29. 42. SRI Raises More Questions than It Gives ANSWERS <ul><li>This is a PRACTICE-LED innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have a challenge/opportunity to develop and “retrofit” explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotypical changes are the starting point -- these can surely be explained </li></ul><ul><li>SRI by raising factor productivity and reducing need for water/agrochemicals should be beneficial particularly for poor households and for the environment </li></ul>
  30. 43. Contribution to Diversification <ul><li>World doesn’t need 2x more rice output </li></ul><ul><li>This would have adverse effects on price </li></ul><ul><li>By raising productivity of land, labor, water and capital, we want to enable farmers to redeploy their factors of production to other crops, more nutritious and with higher economic value </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification should lead to diversification and modernization of agriculture </li></ul>
  31. 44. THANK YOU <ul><li>More information is available </li></ul><ul><li>on the SRI WEB PAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>including Sanya conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>available free in CD ROM foremat: </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL ADDRESSES : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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