0502 The System of Rice Intensification's Potential for Food Security in Cambodia Fact or Fallacy?

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff

Presented at: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Phnom Penh

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  • Slides for presentation to national workshop on SRI, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, March 21, 2005.
  • This was the message which started presentation on SRI to the 10 th scientific meeting on the theory and practice of high-quality, high-yielding rice in China, held in Haerbin, August, 2004. This is a ‘bottom-line’ message summarizing what has been learned from SRI experience: the rice plant has much more potential for productivity than has been achieved because common practices constrain the expression of this potential.
  • Summary of main benefits from SRI seen in many countries now. Others are discussed, such as conservation of rice biodiversity, and resistance to abiotic stresses, in extra slides following those chosen for this presentation.
  • Summary of main benefits from SRI seen in many countries now. Others are discussed, such as conservation of rice biodiversity, and resistance to abiotic stresses, in extra slides following those chosen for this presentation.
  • Summary of main benefits from SRI seen in many countries now. Others are discussed, such as conservation of rice biodiversity, and resistance to abiotic stresses, in extra slides following those chosen for this presentation.
  • This field was harvested in March 2004 with representatives from the Department of Agriculture present to measure the yield. Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project, which has worked with Association Tefy Saina in spreading the use of SRI to reduce land pressures on the remaining rainforest areas.
  • The Center for Integrated Agricultural University in the College of Humanities and Development at China Agricultural University did a socioeconomic evaluation of SRI in August 2004. The village selected had only 7 SRI users least year, but 398 this year. The size of SRI plot had also increased 14-fold, with a very positive attitude in the village toward SRI, for reasons seen on the next slide.
  • 2003 was a drought year. The regular rice methods gave one-third lower yield; average yield that year with SRI methods (for the 7 farmers who tried them) was about a 4% increase, with SRI producing almost 50% more than regular methods. That has spurred the spread of SRI. In 2004, with more normal weather, SRI increased another 15%. The water saving calculated is also an incentive. But the survey of farmers found that LABOR SAVING with SRI methods was the most attractive advantage in their opinion.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Zhu Defeng, China National Rice Research Institute, September 2004.
  • Two fields of rice growth with normal methods and the 3-S system. The phenotypical differences are evident, much as seen with SRI.
  • Seedlings are started in heated greenhouses when there is still snow on the ground.
  • This is a 3-S seedling in upper left, and a 3-S plant in lower right.
  • This is a brief historical background. Fr. de Laulanie came to Madagascar from France in 1961 and started working on improvement of rice opportunities for the people there. It was not even tried anywhere outside China until 1999 (Nanjing Agricultural University), but it is now spreading rapidly. Vietnam is the 21 st country where SRI results have been demonstrated and documented. The 19 th and 20 th were Mozambique and Senegal.
  • This picture was provided by Association Tefy Saina, showing Fr. de Laulanie the year before his death in 1995, at age 75.
  • These are the president and secretary of Association Tefy Saina, the NGO set up by Fr. de Laulanie, Sebastien, Justin and some other Malagasies in 1990 to promote SRI and rural development in Madagascar more generally.
  • This figure shows research findings from the China National Rice Research Institute, reported at the Sanya conference in April 2002 and published in the Proceedings. Two different rice varieties were used with SRI and conventional (CK) methods. The second responded more positively to the new methods in terms of leaf area and dry matter as measured at different elevations, but there was a very obvious difference in the phenotypes produced from the first variety's genome by changing cultivation methods from conventional to SRI. Both leaf area and dry matter were significantly increased by using SRI methods.
  • Figure from Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences research on SRI, comparing leaf area of SRI rice with conventional rice, same variety and otherwise same growing conditions.
  • This figure from a report by Nanjing Agricultural University researchers to the Sanya conference, and reproduced from those proceedings, shows that the oxygenation ability of rice roots growing under SRI conditions are about double the ability, throughout the growth cycle, compared to the same variety grown under conventional conditions. At maturity, the SRI roots have still almost 3x the oxygenation ability of conventionally grown rice plants.
  • This is the most succinct statement of what SRI is all about.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez of SRI field in 2002 at the cooperative where SRI got its start in Cuba. This field gave yields of about 6 t/ha before. This cooperative has expanded from 2 ha to 20 ha in SRI.
  • Picture provided by Gamini Batuwitage, at the time Sr. Asst. Secretary of Agriculture, Sri Lanka, of SRI field that yielded 13 t/ha in 2000, the first year SRI was used in that country. Such performance got SRI started there..
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • This is the most succinct statement of what SRI is all about.
  • This is the most succinct statement of what SRI is all about.
  • Picture provided by Dr. P. V. Satyanarayana, the plant breeder who developed this very popular variety, which also responds very well to SRI practices.
  • These two rice plants are ‘twins,’ planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa's paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods. The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an "indicator species" presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost). NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N. On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies of the Green Revolution, not requiring any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. The latter can be reduced.
  • SRI may contribute to a revised strategy for agricultural development in the 21 st century.
  • SRI defies usual logic – that to get more, you have to invest more. But “less” can produce “more,” for a number of different, but reinforcing reasons, well grounded in the scientific literature. USDA research by Kumar and associates (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, US, 2004) shows how changed growing conditions in the root zone affects the expression of genes in leaf tissue cells, affecting senescence and disease resistance. This research gives clues for explaining how SRI practices produce different phenotypes.
  • Despite (or maybe because of) the positive feedback coming on SRI from many countries, there has been this year a small spate of journal articles critiquing (dismissing) SRI. These are respected agronomists who, however, are making these claims with little or no systematic, empirical evidence to support them. The FCR article relied on data from three small trials done in China, not following any protocol that we would recognize as proper SRI methodology. The Hunan trials had so much N fertilizer applied that the SRI rice lodged, something rare (because SRI should be done with little external fertilization and preferably with organic fertilizers). The researchers ignored the 4-5 years of research results from leading rice research institutions in China (CNRRI, CNHRRDC, SAAS, NAU, CAU) in making these unfounded claims. Fortunately, a growing number of excellent scientists in China and elsewhere are engaging with SRI so that soon the accumulation of scientifically-acceptable data will make these dismissive claims irrelevant. The growing use of SRI by farmers will be the final refutation.
  • This was developed in 2003 by Mr. L. Reddy, to replace the use of strings and sticks to mark lines for planting, or the use of a wooden “rake” that could mark lines when pulled across the paddy in two directions. This implement, which can be built for any spacing desired, enables farmers, after it is pulled across the paddy in one direction, to plant SRI seedlings in a 25x250 cm square pattern. It saves as lot of labor time for transplanting because only one pass is needed across the field, and this is wider than a rake could be. Even wider ones have been built. Mr. Reddy is a very innovative and successful SRI farmer, with a superb yield last rabi season, measured and reported by the Department of Extension in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Mr. Gopal Swaminthan, an educated farmer in the Cauvery Delta of Tamil Nadu, India, built this weeder which can cultivate four rows at a time, removing weeds and aerating the soil, cutting labor time for this operation by half or more. He has also devised an innovative system for crop establishment, suited to hot climates, called the Kadiramangalam system, described on our SRI home page (http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/)
  • Mr. Ariyaratna has 2 ha and thus found it difficult to manage the weeding of his SRI field himself. So he designed and built this weeder which he says enables him to weed his field in one day’s work. The cost of construction, with a Chinese motor attached, was $800. This could be lowered if the weeder were mass produced.
  • Built by Luis Romero, one of the most successful SRI farmers in Cuba, to plant germinated seeds at 40x40 cm spacing. The seeds are put in the respective bins and dropped at the bins rotate. For his field, Luis found that 40x40 cm was too wide, because of weed problems. He has built one for 30x30 cm now. His neighbor built a seeder with 12 bins, four times as wide, that can be pulled by oxen to further save labor. The important thing to know is that farmers are working on their own ways to reduce SRI labor requirements because they see the benefits of wide spacing, aerated soil, etc.
  • Yield is a simple, usually dramatic number to talk about, but it is less important than profitability (at which SRI excels) and factor productivity (SRI is the only innovation to raise the productivity of all four simultaneously, something that most economists would regard as impossible, because they expect always tradeoffs). By utilizing existing biological processes and potentials, SRI can break out of the usual constraint of zero-sum relations and diminishing returns. This makes it hard for many to understand and accept at first, but over the last few years, we have gained a still-incomplete but nevertheless reasonable understanding of SRI processes from experience, from controlled experiments, and from the literature. SRI is not magic. It is fully understandable and explainable within what is already known in the realms of plant physiology and genetics and soil biology and ecology.
  • Yield is a simple, usually dramatic number to talk about, but it is less important than profitability (at which SRI excels) and factor productivity (SRI is the only innovation to raise the productivity of all four simultaneously, something that most economists would regard as impossible, because they expect always tradeoffs). By utilizing existing biological processes and potentials, SRI can break out of the usual constraint of zero-sum relations and diminishing returns. This makes it hard for many to understand and accept at first, but over the last few years, we have gained a still-incomplete but nevertheless reasonable understanding of SRI processes from experience, from controlled experiments, and from the literature. SRI is not magic. It is fully understandable and explainable within what is already known in the realms of plant physiology and genetics and soil biology and ecology.
  • Yield is a simple, usually dramatic number to talk about, but it is less important than profitability (at which SRI excels) and factor productivity (SRI is the only innovation to raise the productivity of all four simultaneously, something that most economists would regard as impossible, because they expect always tradeoffs). By utilizing existing biological processes and potentials, SRI can break out of the usual constraint of zero-sum relations and diminishing returns. This makes it hard for many to understand and accept at first, but over the last few years, we have gained a still-incomplete but nevertheless reasonable understanding of SRI processes from experience, from controlled experiments, and from the literature. SRI is not magic. It is fully understandable and explainable within what is already known in the realms of plant physiology and genetics and soil biology and ecology.
  • This is a growing concern of many scientists, farmers, policy makers and citizens.
  • This is Liu Zhibin with a plot that was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. I was most interested in his experimentation with no-till methods and SRI.
  • The Paraboowa Farmers Association has a dozen ‘wild rice’ varieties that it can grow for marketing or for export. The rice is grown ‘organically’ so can get a premium price in overseas markets. 17 tons have been exported to Italy already. The farmers want to preserve these varieties for future generations, and SRI enables them to do this.l
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, though it can handle English. CIIFAD has worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet.
  • 0502 The System of Rice Intensification's Potential for Food Security in Cambodia Fact or Fallacy?

    1. 1. SRI’s Potential for Food Security in Cambodia: Fact or Fallacy? Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD March 21, 2005
    2. 2. SRI Proposition: For Centuries, Even Millennia, We Have Been ABUSING and even MISTREATING Rice Plants <ul><li>We have FLOODED rice plants – drowning their roots </li></ul><ul><li>We have CROWDED them – inhibiting the growth potential of their canopy and roots </li></ul><ul><li>We use FERTILIZERS/AGROCHEMICALS that adversely affect the soil biota </li></ul><ul><li>These provide many services to plants: N fixation, P solubilization, protection against diseases and abiotic stresses, etc. </li></ul>
    3. 3. SRI Results are Remarkable -- but They Have Been Replicated Widely <ul><li>Yield increases – 50-100% or more </li></ul><ul><li>No need to change varieties – all respond </li></ul><ul><li>No need for mineral fertilizers – these are beneficial, but compost gives better yield </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemicals -- SRI plants more resistant to pests/diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in seed requirement by 80-90% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in water requirement by 25-50% </li></ul><ul><li>More labor is required initially -- but over time, SRI can even become labor-saving </li></ul>
    4. 4. Additional Benefits <ul><li>Because it has low capital requirements , SRI is more accessible to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>The initial labor-intensity of SRI can generate more employment </li></ul><ul><li>By increasing factor productivity for land, labor, capital and water, it raises incomes </li></ul><ul><li>IWMI and GTZ evaluations: reduced risk </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to abiotic stresses (storm, frost) </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality, shorter maturity, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits from reduced water, fertilizer and agrochemicals – get better water quality, fewer health hazards </li></ul>
    5. 5. Too Good to Be True? <ul><li>This perception has been a problem for getting SRI accepted, even tried </li></ul><ul><li>Logical arguments have been used to avoid testing SRI empirically </li></ul><ul><li>SRI creates a new logic for rice – new paradigm that is different from the ‘Green Revolution’ </li></ul><ul><li>Need to separate questions of FACT from questions of EXPLANATION </li></ul><ul><li>Many good reasons to be skeptical of SRI – but skepticism is better to be optimized than maximized – focus on evidence, then attempt explanations </li></ul>
    6. 7. Madagascar SRI field, 2003, yield measured by Department of Agriculture as 17.2 t/ha
    7. 8. Some Independent Evaluations <ul><li>IWMI evaluation: Purulia, West Bengal (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers (N=110) using both methods in fields </li></ul><ul><li>Number of SRI users working went from 4 in rabi season 2003, to 150 in kharif 2004 – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Still partial utilization : seedlings <15 days (53/110), water management (13/110), weeding (59/110), wide spacing (110/110), and one/hill (107/110) </li></ul><ul><li> Conv. SRI Incr. Straw </li></ul><ul><li>Balrampur 1.677 2.513 49.8% 49% </li></ul><ul><li>Jhalda 1.510 1.716 11.9% 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Yield with 4 weedings 9.02 t/ha; one field 15 t/ha </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>IWMI evaluation: Purulia, West Bengal (contd) </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity of inputs (kg rice/unit of input) </li></ul><ul><li> Conv. SRI Incr. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds (kg rice/kg seed) 61.3 845.6 38.5x </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer (kg rice/kg) 36.6 42.4 16% </li></ul><ul><li>Labor (kgs rice/day) 32.3 46.2 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Land (kg rice/acre) 32% more </li></ul><ul><li>Labor inputs/acre 401.8 369.1 - 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Labor s aved = Rs. 184/acre ($75/hectare); this time is now available to use for other activities </li></ul>
    9. 10. China Agricultural University evaluation: Xinsheng Village, Dongxi Township, Jianyang County, China (August 2004) <ul><li>2003 – 7 farmers used SRI (SAAS) </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – 398 farmers used SRI (65%) </li></ul><ul><li>2003 – SRI plot size average 0.07 mu </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – SRI plot size average 0.99 mu </li></ul><ul><li>86.6% of SRI farmers (65/75) said they would expand their SRI area next year or keep their whole rice area under SRI </li></ul>
    10. 11. Analysis of Farmer Rice Yields [N = 75] (20% sample of all users) <ul><li> RICE YIELD (kg/mu) </li></ul><ul><li>2002 2003* 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 403.73 297.88 375.77 </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>SRI -- 439.87 507.16 </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>SRI Increase (%) +46.6% +34.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Drought year Water saving/mu = 43.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers said: Labor saving main benefit </li></ul>
    11. 12. SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 – 18 t/ha
    12. 13. Normal 3-S 3-S is system of rice cultivation developed in Heilongjiong Province, China in 1990s, essentially the same as SRI
    13. 14. 3-S seedlings are started at the end of winter in plastic greenhouses
    14. 15. 3-S seedling ready for transplanting at 45 days-- and resulting plant
    15. 16. <ul><li>A. P. Agricultural University evaluation, India </li></ul><ul><li>Started on-farm trials [N=300) in wet season 2003, in all 22 districts: results good </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 t/ha yield advantage in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 t/ha advantage in Telangana region </li></ul><ul><li>4.8 t/ha advantage in Rayalseema region </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Better-drained soils responded better to SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Next two seasons, more on-farm controlled trials </li></ul><ul><li> N Conv. SRI Diff. </li></ul><ul><li>DS 2003-04 94 7.13 9.67 2.54 </li></ul><ul><li>WS 2004 476 5.48 7.92 2.44 </li></ul><ul><li>Again: much better SRI results with soil aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Lakshmana Reddy: ave. yield of 16.25 t/ha on 9 acres </li></ul><ul><li>N.V.K.D. Raju: ave. yield of 11.15 t/ha on >100 acres </li></ul>
    16. 17. Swarna variety, normally ‘shy-tillering’
    17. 18. Lakshmana Reddy’s SRI field: 17.25 t/ha
    18. 19. The System of Rice Intensification <ul><li>Evolved in Madagascar over 20 years by Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J. – working with farmers, observing, doing experiments, also having some luck in 1983-84 season </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is now spreading around the world – ‘SRI effect’ has been seen in 22 countries </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is a set of principles and insights that when translated into certain practices change the growing environment of rice to get healthier, more vigorous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Get different, more productive phenotypes from any rice genotype : HYVs, hybrids, local variety </li></ul>
    19. 20. Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
    20. 21. Sebastien Rafaralahy and Justin Rabenandrasana, Association Tefy Saina
    21. 22. Plant Physical Structure and Light Intensity Distribution at Heading Stage (Tao et al., CNRRI, 2002)
    22. 23. Change of Leaf Area Index (LAI) during growth cycle (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003)
    23. 24. Roots’ Oxygenation Ability with SRI vs. Conventionally-Grown Rice Research done at Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxianggeng 9 variety (Wang et al. 2002)
    24. 25. What Are SRI Practices? <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings (8-12 d old, <15 days), quickly (15-30 min), carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Plant with wider spacing than at present: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 seedling per hill , or at most 2 seedlings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in square pattern , starting at 25x25 cm, but often get better results at even wider spacing as soil improves biologically, up to 50x50 cm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice water control , keeping soil moist but not continuously saturated </li></ul><ul><li>Control weeds and aerate soil with rotary weeder; weed/aerate as often as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Apply as much organic matter as available </li></ul>
    25. 26. Mrs. Im Sarim (Takeo) with rice plant grown from single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6.72 t/ha
    26. 27. Tillering with SRI practices: single rice plant grown by Dr. Musliar Kasim (Andalas Univ. West Sumatra, Indonesia)
    27. 28. SRI field in Cuba – CFA Camilo Cienfuegos, Bahia Honda, 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9 cv. -- 2003
    28. 29. SRI field in Sri Lanka – with many panicles having 400+ grains
    29. 30. Two rice fields in Sri Lanka -- same variety, same irrigation system, and same drought : conventional methods (left), SRI (right)
    30. 32. SRI is still controversial for several reasons <ul><li>SRI is counterintuitive – less gives MORE -- but this can be explained in scientific terms </li></ul><ul><li>SRI results are quite variable , between and within countries – because more is involved than genetic potential and external inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil biological resources are the key to SRI performance – not industrial operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI results often higher on farmers’ fields than on research stations – scientists often cannot replicate farmers’ results, which is the reverse of the usual situation </li></ul>
    31. 33. What Can Explain these Anomalies? Soil differences assessed in biological terms IRRI trial results with SRI – average 2.1 t/ha WHY? Soils at Los Banos have been in rice continuously rice for 30+ years – same root exudations reduce soil biodiversity They have been mostly kept flooded – anaerobic conditions change soil biota Huge amounts of agrochemicals have been added, affecting soil biota adversely
    32. 34. Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071) grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
    33. 35. Cuba – 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084
    34. 37. Different P aradigms of Production <ul><li>The GREEN REVOLUTION paradigm: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Changed the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increased the use of external inputs -- more water, fertilizer, insecticides, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI changes certain management practices for plants, soil, water and nutrients, so as to: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Promote the growth of root systems , and </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Increase the abundance and diversity of </li></ul><ul><li>soil organisms , and also </li></ul><ul><li>(C) Reduce water use and costs of production </li></ul>
    35. 38. 21st Century Agriculture Should Be <ul><li>More PRODUCTIVE AGRONOMICALLY : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND -- per unit area -- per ha or per acre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LABOR -- per hour or per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER -- per cubic meter or per acre/ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAPITAL -- more profitable for $ invested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More robust in face of CLIMATE CHANGE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More SOCIALLY BENEFICIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCESSIBLE to the poor, reducing poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing greater FOOD SECURITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing more to HUMAN HEALTH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI can contribute to all of these goals </li></ul>
    36. 39. LESS CAN PRODUCE MORE <ul><li>by utilizing biological potentials & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, younger seedlings become larger, more productive mature plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per hill and per m 2 will give higher yield if used with other SRI practices </li></ul><ul><li>Half as much water produces more rice because aerobic soil conditions are better </li></ul><ul><li>Greater output is possible with use of </li></ul><ul><li>fewer or even no external/chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>There is nothing magical about SRI – but it is ‘controversial’ in some scientific circles </li></ul>
    37. 40. SRI is not just ‘a niche innovation’ as argued by Dobermann, Agricultural Systems (2004) <ul><li>Nor is it ‘voodoo science’ as claimed by Cassman & Sinclair, ACSSA (2004)  UFOs? c old fusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion of Sheehy et al., Field Crops Research (2004): “[SRI] has no major role in improving rice production generally” was based on very dubious scientific evidence – and it is contradicted by the work of major rice research institutions in China </li></ul><ul><li>Further: IRRI is not institutionally opposed to SRI; and WARDA has been cooperating since 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is ‘not finished yet’ – still evolving and improving with FARMER INNOVATIONS </li></ul>
    38. 41. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; his yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
    39. 42. 4-row weeder designed by Gopal Swaminathan, Thanjavur, TN, India AERATE SOIL at same time weeds are removed/incorporated
    40. 43. Motorized weeder developed by S. Ariyaratna Sri Lanka
    41. 44. Seeder Developed in Cuba Direct seeding will probably replace transplanting in future Essential principle is to avoid trauma to the young roots
    42. 45. Greatest SRI Benefit Is Not YIELD <ul><li>Yield can vary -- often widely; farmers need/want profitability more than yield </li></ul><ul><li>Also risk reduction : drought, pests, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>From society’s perspective, what is most important is factor productivity – kg of rice per land, labor, capital, and water ! </li></ul><ul><li>No question any longer of whether SRI methods give higher yields/productivity but rather how to explain & exploit them </li></ul><ul><li>SRI can/will surely be further improved -- too soon for final conclusion (not necessary) </li></ul>
    43. 46. What Are Negatives? <ul><li>Initially requires more labor/ha, during learning period; becomes labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>Labor productivity and profitability go up as a rule, so added labor is remunerated </li></ul><ul><li>For best results need good water control and water control needed first few weeks – some limitation on what soils are suitable </li></ul><ul><li>Need more farmer knowledge and skill and farmer involvement in decision-making and evaluation – these are assets </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes and golden snail may be problems </li></ul>
    44. 47. The Aim of SRI Is Not to Double the Production of Rice <ul><li>Real aim: RAISE FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Support REDEPLOYMENT of some of a country’s land, labor, water and capital from the production of its staple food to higher-value activities – giving people more income and better nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>We expect intensification to contribute to the DIVERSIFICATION of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Leading also to its MODERNIZATION </li></ul>
    45. 48. SRI Comes at Opportune Time Green Revolution is losing momentum Water scarcities are becoming more and more severe SRI concepts and practices are showing relevance to other crops : wheat, sugar cane, ragi, bajra, etc. SRI may show us the way to achieve “ post-modern agriculture ”
    46. 49. Liu Zhibin, Meishan Inst. of Science & Technology, in raised-bed,no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
    47. 51. MEASURED DIFFERENCES IN GRAIN QUALITY Characteristic SRI (3 spacings) Conventional Diff. Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China, Haerbin, 8/2004 + 17.5 38.87 - 39.99 41.81 - 50.84 Head milled rice (%) + 16.1 41.54 - 51.46 53.58 - 54.41 Milled rice outturn (%) - 65.7 6.74 - 7.17 1.02 - 4.04 General chalkiness (%) - 30.7 39.89 - 41.07 23.62 - 32.47 Chalky kernels (%)
    48. 52. THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] or </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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