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Demonstrated Opportunities to
Raise Agricultural Production
with Water-Saving and with
Climate-Change Resilience for
Diver...
Although there has been controversy over some of
the high yields reported with the System of Rice
Intensification (SRI) --...
SPREAD OF SRI METHODS -- developed in Madagascar in the
1970s and 1980s; validation and spread started in China (1999) and...
SRI is constituted of ideas and insights rather than
being a fixed technology like the Green Revolution –
SRI is still a w...
What does the System of Rice Intensification
involve?Changes in how plants, soil, water, nutrients are
managed:
• Wider sp...
According to FAO, achieving three major impacts
qualifies SRI as ‘climate-smart agriculture’:
1.Increased production, toge...
1. Increased production
Generally 20-50%, often 100% higher
production, sometimes 200% or more –
with less water, fewer ex...
Data (2013) on production increases in China, India,
Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia where SRI has
had extension support f...
This is attributable to better expression of rice
plants’ genetic potential with same varieties
(same genotypes)
-- visual...
Picture of a rice plant phenotype in Indonesia,
with
223 tillers grown from a single seed using SRI
methods
Presented by S...
Rice plant phenotypes in Cuba -- of same age
(52 DAS) and same variety (VN 2084), so have
same genetics
SRI plant on right...
Comparisons of rice plant phenotypes of same
variety in Iran and Iraq showing effects of SRI
management
Pictures sent to C...
Test plots at Al-Mishkhab research station at Najaf,
Iraq, where varietal responses to SRI management
were compared
SRI ma...
SRI
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
IH H FH MR WR YRStage
Organdryweight(g/hill)
I H H FH MR WR YR
CK Yellow leaf
and sheath
Pani...
SRI effects on the soil biota are not as
easy to see, but they are similarly crucial
for SRI results
Results from research...
Beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria
associated with SRI practices seen in replicated trials at
Anjomakely, Madagasca...
Effects on root architecture of inoculating two rice varieties with
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii E11 : (a) Rootlet...
“Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from
Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of
Benefits to Rice ...
“Proteomic analysis of rice seedlings infected by
Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021”
Feng Chi et al., Proteomics 10: 1861-1874 (...
Increased water productivity
Development of larger, less senescing
root systems and having soil that is
better structured ...
reported in 29 published studies between 2006 and 2013
Average water use: Standard mgmt. = 15.33 million
liters ha-1
SRI m...
Phenotypic (plant-level) evidence on water productivity
Comparative analysis of same-variety phenotypes of rice, with all
...
2. EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE RESILIENCE
which makes SRI ‘climate-smart agriculture’
* Drought resilience
* Resistance to lodging...
Visual evidence of drought resilience in Sri Lanka: rice
fields planted with same variety and served by the same
irrigatio...
On-farm evidence of SRI plants’ drought resilience
Team from the International Water Management Institute
(IWMI) did evalu...
Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total
SRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067 941,068
SRI...
Two seasons of trials evaluating System of Wheat Intensification
(SWI) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI...
Visual evidence of
orm resistance in Vietnam:
Adjacent paddy fields after
being hit by a tropical storm
in Dông Trù villag...
More visual evidence of storm resistance in Vietnam:
Adjacent
paddy fields in Trà Vinh province in the Mekong Delta, after...
Phenotypical data on resistance to lodging
Lodging-related traits of the third internode from the top of rice plants
as af...
Field evidence of disease and pest resistance
from Vietnam: evaluation by its National IPM Program with
data averaged from...
Visual evidence of resistance to both biotic and abiotic
stresses in E. Java, Indonesia: both fields were hit by brown
pla...
Data on resistance to cold temperatures from
India:
Yield and meteorological data from an IPM experiment
affected by sudde...
3. Reduced net GHG emissions
Flooded paddies are major source of CH4
-- stopping continuous flooding reduces
CH4 emissions...
Data on reductions in GHG emissions
• An evaluation for GIZ in the Mekong Delta of
Vietnam found a significant reduction i...
Comparison of methane gas emissionComparison of methane gas emission
CT SRI
kgCH4/ha
0
200
400
600
800
1000
840.1
237.6
72...
SRI ideas and practices have been adapted and
extended to the broader System of Crop
Intensification (SCI) -- with many re...
SWI wheat crop in Bihar state of India, Chandrapura
village, Khagarla district – these fields are the same age
and same va...
Size and width of
finger millet panicles
and roots with
alternative crop
management methods:
SFMI plants on left, and
farm...
Sustainable Sugarcane Intensification (SSI)
plants in Maharashtra, India
SSI sugarcane in Cuba @ 10.5 months;
eventual yie...
System of Tef Intensification in Ethiopia – yields of
3-6 t/ha with TP STI vs. 1 t/ha with broadcasting --
direct-seeded S...
4. Data from China on improvements in grain
quality
Conv. methods SRI methods
Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings)
Dif...
5. Crop duration reduced in Nepal by average of 16 days,
from seed to seed, for 8 rice varieties -- SRI = 125 days (averag...
6. Field studies show SRI methods improving
health and reducing discomfort of women
working in rice paddies
Vent, Sabarmat...
7. Nutritient/nutritional impacts of SRI:
Research on nutrient uptake from the soil and
the concentrations of nutrients in...
Micronutrient accumulation (mg kg-1
) in rice
grains under conventional flooded crop
management vs. System of Rice Intensi...
Treatme
nt
S
(%)
Zn
(ppm)
Fe
(ppm)
Mn
(ppm)
Cu
(ppm)
Grain Straw Grain Straw
Grai
n Straw
Grai
n Straw Grain
SRI 0.075a
0....
Effects of cultivation practices and nutrient
management on the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu
and Mn (mg kg-1
) in rice gra...
Effects of cultivation practices and nutrient
management on micronutrient uptake (kg ha-1
) in
rice grains
Treatments Iron...
8. Labor-saving: Mechanization of SRI
Pioneered in Punjab province of Pakistan
by Mr. Asif Sharif, Pedaver Pvt. Ltd.
Agric...
Mechanized System of Crop
Intensification (MSCI) leading to
Conserving/Regenerative
Paradoxical Agriculture (PA)
Rice crop...
Raised-beds making on laser-leveled land –
Giving more control over water and improving the soil
-- first ‘test plot’ was ...
Furrow irrigation –
Saving of energy also economizes on water
10-day-old seedlings are dropped into mechanically-
punched holes, which are then filled with water. The field
is flooded ...
Radio-controlled tractor-weeding of precision-
planted raised beds, actively aerating the soil
while furrow irrigation eco...
PA wheat plantation on raised beds
PA carrots planted on raised beds --
more uniform carrots get higher price
Summary results to date from applications of
‘Paradoxical Agriculture’ (PA) in Punjab
province, Pakistan, by crop
Yields (...
SRI-Rice: ntu1@cornell.edu
Website:
http://sri.cals.cornell.edu
Thank you
1709 - Opportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience
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1709 - Opportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience

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Author: Norman Uphoff
Title: Opportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience for Diverse Crops and CountriesOpportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience for Diverse Crops and Countries
Presented at: The Brown Bag Lunch with Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA
Date: November 6, 2017
Venue: FAS/USDA, Washington D.C.

Published in: Environment
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1709 - Opportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience

  1. 1. Demonstrated Opportunities to Raise Agricultural Production with Water-Saving and with Climate-Change Resilience for Diverse Crops and Countries Norman Uphoff SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice), Cornell University Brown bag lunch with Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA, Washington DC, November 6, 2017
  2. 2. Although there has been controversy over some of the high yields reported with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) -- an agroecological crop/water management system developed in Madagascar -- SRI has been gaining acceptance around the world. Demonstrable improvements in plant phenotype and substantial increases in average yield have been reported from >50 countries when farmers have used SRI methods, not even always using them fully. It is average yields that feed people and make farmers richer – but we can learn a lot from ‘super-yields’
  3. 3. SPREAD OF SRI METHODS -- developed in Madagascar in the 1970s and 1980s; validation and spread started in China (1999) and then in Indonesia (1999-2000). To date, SRI methods have been validated in 58 countries (http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html) (validation = better, more robust phenotypes from any given genotype) SRI effect is seen with both traditional and improved varieties (HYVs/hybrids)
  4. 4. SRI is constituted of ideas and insights rather than being a fixed technology like the Green Revolution – SRI is still a work in progress (SRI has been called disparagingly or respectfully “just good agronomy” – yes, Agronomy 101) SRI use is a matter of degree > kind It is an open-access innovation based on knowledge rather than on particular inputs This makes SRI somewhat difficult to evaluate -- But those who work with SRI ideas and insights have little difficulty in understanding and using them SRI is better understood as an adjective than as a noun
  5. 5. What does the System of Rice Intensification involve?Changes in how plants, soil, water, nutrients are managed: • Wider spacing : transplanting of single seedlings in square pattern, usually 25x25 cm  reduction in plant population m-2 by 80-90% • Young seedlings : transplant before 4th phyllochron, when <15 days old; this promotes more vigorous tillering and greater root growth • Mostly aerobic soil conditions : stop continuous flooding; AWD avoids degeneration of roots and promotes more aerobic soil biota • Active soil aeration, using mechanical push-weeder to control weeds • Enhanced soil organic matter  better soil structure and functioning for better root growth and more abundant, diverse, active soil biota
  6. 6. According to FAO, achieving three major impacts qualifies SRI as ‘climate-smart agriculture’: 1.Increased production, together with 2. Adaptation to climatic stresses, including a. reduced water requirements and b. greater pest and disease resistance, and 3. Mitigation of global warming – GHGs ↓ Additional benefits: 4. Higher milling outturn (kg rice/paddy) 5. Shorter growing season -- reduced risks 6. Less burden for women -- gender equity 7. Higher micronutrient content in grains 8. Often labor-saving (mechanization possible)
  7. 7. 1. Increased production Generally 20-50%, often 100% higher production, sometimes 200% or more – with less water, fewer external inputs (seed, fertilizer), often with less labor Make better use of available resources Average yields are more important than super-yields
  8. 8. Data (2013) on production increases in China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia where SRI has had extension support from the governments > 3,466,710 farmers were using SRI methods on > 9,527,366 ha with average yield 6.22 t ha-1 vs. comparison yield of 4.56 t ha-1 = 40% increase with reductions in inputs and cost Average increase in SRI yield (1.66 t ha-1 ) x SRI area (3.467 m ha) means an SRI increase in rice production of 5.75 million tons. -- @ a farmgate price of $150 ton-1 this means that farmer incomes were increased by $862 million With lower cost of production, estimated @ $160 million,* this comes to >$1 billion, plus the value of water saved and lower GHG emissions. @ farmgate price of $300 ton-1 the value to farmers was >$2 billion * Based on a 2013 study in India by TNAU/IWMI researchers of 2,234 farmers in 13 states Data reported in “Developments in the system of rice intensification (SRI),” N. Uphoff, in Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Rice, Burleigh-Dodds, Cambridge, UK (2016)
  9. 9. This is attributable to better expression of rice plants’ genetic potential with same varieties (same genotypes) -- visual evidence of this from Indonesia and Liberia While these comparisons are extreme, they show the impact that management changes can
  10. 10. Picture of a rice plant phenotype in Indonesia, with 223 tillers grown from a single seed using SRI methods Presented by SRI farmers in East Java, Indonesia, to Uphoff in 2009; in 2004, a Sri Lankan farmer showed him SRI panicle with 930 grains
  11. 11. Rice plant phenotypes in Cuba -- of same age (52 DAS) and same variety (VN 2084), so have same genetics SRI plant on right was transplanted from the same nursery when 9 days old and put into an SRI growing environment  43 tillers vs. 5 tillers Note also the significant difference in the color of the
  12. 12. Comparisons of rice plant phenotypes of same variety in Iran and Iraq showing effects of SRI management Pictures sent to Cornell by researchers at the national rice research stations at Haraz and Al-Mishkhab, respectively, showing how they found SRI methods inducing the growth of larger, healthier rice root systems
  13. 13. Test plots at Al-Mishkhab research station at Najaf, Iraq, where varietal responses to SRI management were compared SRI management methods induce the growth of larger root systems which also resist senescenceSRI practices (young seedlings, wider spacing, compost, etc.) were used in the left-hand plots of these paired plots, each with
  14. 14. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) I H H FH MR WR YR CK Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Average weight of rice plant organs at initial heading (IR), heading (H), full heading (FH), milky rice (MR), waxy rice (WR), yellow rice (YR) stages Phenotypical comparisons made at the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou in 2002 by Dr. Tao Longxing (CK = control)
  15. 15. SRI effects on the soil biota are not as easy to see, but they are similarly crucial for SRI results Results from research at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, ICRISAT, and Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) “A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial soil organisms in rice soil rhizospheres,” I. Anas, O.P. Rupela, T.M. Thiyagarajan and N. Uphoff, Paddy
  16. 16. Beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria associated with SRI practices seen in replicated trials at Anjomakely, Madagascar, 2001 (Andriankaja thesis, 2002) CLAY SOIL Azospirillum in rice plant roots (103 CFU/mg) Tillers/plant Yield (t/ha) Farmer methods with no soil amendments 65 17 1.8 SRI methods with no soil amendments 1,100 45 6.1 SRI methods with NPK amendments 450 68 9.0 SRI cultivation with compost 1,400 78 10.5 LOAM SOIL SRI methods with no soil amendments 75 32 2.1 SRI methods with compost 2,000 47 6.6
  17. 17. Effects on root architecture of inoculating two rice varieties with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii E11 : (a) Rootlets per plant (no.); (b) Cumulative root length (mm); (c) Surface area (cm2 ); (d) Root biovolume (cm3 ) Y. G. Yanni et al., Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28: 845–870 (2001) Evidence of positive interactions between soil microbes and growth of rice plant roots Dark bars = inoculated roots; light bars = uninoculated
  18. 18. “Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology” Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71: 7271-7278 (2005) Rhizo- bium strain Total plant root vol/pot (cm3 ) ± SE Shoot dry wt/pot (g) ± SE Net photosyn- thesis rate (µmol of CO2 m-2 s-1 ) ± SE Water utilization efficiency ± SE Grain yield/pot (g) ± SE Ac-ORS 571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.63 ± 0.17BC 86 ± 5A Sm-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 86 ± 4A Sm-1002 168 ± 8AAB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 77 ± 5A Control 130 B 47 C 10.23 C 2.77 D 51 C
  19. 19. “Proteomic analysis of rice seedlings infected by Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021” Feng Chi et al., Proteomics 10: 1861-1874 (2010)
  20. 20. Increased water productivity Development of larger, less senescing root systems and having soil that is better structured to absorb and retain water will enhance crop performance under water stress
  21. 21. reported in 29 published studies between 2006 and 2013 Average water use: Standard mgmt. = 15.33 million liters ha-1 SRI management = 12.03 million liters ha-1 With less water, SRI gave 11% more yield: 5.9 tons vs. 5.1 tons ha-1 Note: on-farm SRI yield increases are usually much more than this SRI = 22% reduction in TOTAL water use (irrig + rainfall) per ha SRI = 35% average reduction in IRRIGATION water use per ha Total water use efficiency 52% higher : 0.6 vs. 0.39 g rice per liter Irrigation WUE 78% greater : 1.23 vs. 0.69 grams of rice per “Evaluation of water use, water saving and water use efficiency in irrigated rice production with SRI vs. traditional management,” P. Jagannath, H. Pullabhotla and N. Uphoff, Taiwan Water Conservancy (2013)
  22. 22. Phenotypic (plant-level) evidence on water productivity Comparative analysis of same-variety phenotypes of rice, with all experimental conditions the same except for management practices Trials at ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar SRI rice phenotypes showed greater water-use efficiency within plants as measured by the RATIO between photosynthesis and transpiration For each 1 millimol of water lost by transpiration, SRI plants fixed 3.6 micromols of CO2 while conventionally-grown plants fixed 1.6 micromoles Such efficiency becomes more important with climate change, and as water becomes a scarcer factor of production“An assessment of physiological effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) compared with recommended rice cultivation practices in India,” A.K. Thakur, N. Uphoff and E. Antony, Experimental Agriculture, 46(1), 77-98 (2010)
  23. 23. 2. EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE RESILIENCE which makes SRI ‘climate-smart agriculture’ * Drought resilience * Resistance to lodging caused by wind and rain * Resistance to pests and diseases * Cold temperature tolerance A.K. Thakur and N. Uphoff, “How the System of Rice Intensification can contribute to climate-smart agriculture,” Agronomy Journal, 109: 1163- 1183 (2017).
  24. 24. Visual evidence of drought resilience in Sri Lanka: rice fields planted with same variety and served by the same irrigation system, which had dried up 3 weeks earlier –
  25. 25. On-farm evidence of SRI plants’ drought resilience Team from the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) did evaluation in two districts of Sri Lanka comparing the rice crops of 60 farmers who used SRI methods and 60 matched farmers using conventional methods. The paddy crop in that 2003/04 maha (main) season had been subjected to 75 days of severe drought. • On SRI-grown plants, 80% of the tillers formed panicles, while only 70% of tillers on rice plants grown with usual management did this. • In this drought-stressed season, even though farmer-practice fields had 10 times more rice plants per sq. meter, the number of panicle-bearing tillers per m-1 was 30% higher in the SRI fields. • Also, on SRI plants the number of grains panicle-1 was 115 vs. 87. • Harvested yield was 33% higher: 6.37 tons ha-1 vs. 4.78 tons ha-1 . • Under drought conditions, the SRI-managed rice phenotypes demonstrated greater translocation of photosynthates into the grains.“The practice and effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Sri Lanka,” Namara, Bossio, Weligamage and Herath, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture (2008)
  26. 26. Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total SRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067 941,068 SRI yield (kg/ha) 9,105 9,435 8,805 9,075 9,300 9,495 9,555 9,252 Non-SRI yield (kg/ha) 7,740 7,650 7,005 7,395 7,575 7,710 7,740 7,545 SRI increment (t/ha)* 1,365 1,785 1,800# 1,680 1,725 1,785 1,815# 1,708 SRI yield increase* 17.6% 23.3% 25.7% 22.7% 22.8% 23.2% 23.5% 22.7% Grain increase (tons ) 1,547 12,971 103,320 197,008 352,705 450,653 546,436 1,664,640 Added net income due to SRI (million RMB)* 1.28 11.64 106.51 205.10 450.85 571.69 704.27 2,051 (>$300 m) * These comparisons for SRI paddy yield and profitability are made with the provincial average for Sichuan # In drought years (2006 and 2010), SRI yields were 12% higher than with conventional methods in more normal years (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009) Source: Data from the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture Province-wide evidence of SRI drought-resistance from Sichuan, China -- where 2006 and 2010 were drought years
  27. 27. Two seasons of trials evaluating System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi -- in the rabi seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 -- comparing SWI methods used in Bihar state vs. IARI’s standard recommended practices (SRP) In a normal season, SWI had 30% yield advantage over SRP In a climate-stressed season (high temperatures, then excess rain), SWI’s yield advantage over SRP was 46%. Yield reduction in climate-stressed season was 12.5% with SWI, while SRP reductions ranged from 18% to 31%. Economic net returns with SWI were 35% higher than with SRP.“Comparing System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) with standard recommended practices in the northwest plain zone of India,” S. Dhar, B.C. Barah, A.K. Vyas and N. Uphoff, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science (2015)
  28. 28. Visual evidence of orm resistance in Vietnam: Adjacent paddy fields after being hit by a tropical storm in Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, 2005 SRI field and plant on left; conventionally-managed field and plant on right The same rice variety was grown in both fields. Serious lodging on right, but not on the left.
  29. 29. More visual evidence of storm resistance in Vietnam: Adjacent paddy fields in Trà Vinh province in the Mekong Delta, after a tropical storm had passed over them; SRI plot is on the right.
  30. 30. Phenotypical data on resistance to lodging Lodging-related traits of the third internode from the top of rice plants as affected by N rates (kg ha-1) and by management practices during 2008 late season and 2009 double season, Hubei province, China  N fertilizer application Manage- ment practice# Breaking resistanc e (g cm) Bending moment (g cm) Internod e length (cm) Dry weight/ length (mg cm-1 )   Diamete r (mm) 0 application* SRI 449a 953a 7.4a 40.4a 4.90a   MRMP 385b 809a 7.5a 39.0a 4.80a   RMP 350bc 609b 8.6ab 28.2b 4.27b               180-195 kg/ha** SRI 515a 1287a 8.7a 56.9a 5.77a   MRMP 498ab 1171a 9.2ab 46.8ab 5.45ab   RMP 330bc 1070b 10.8b 37.8b 5.10b # SRI: System of Rice Intensification; RMP: Recommended management practices; MRMP: Modified RMP: same seedling age, water mgmt, nutrient mgmt. and weeding as for SRI; but plant density = 2x SRI (½ of RMP) *Averages for 2 seasons: 2009 early and 2009 late **Averages for 3 seasons: 2008 late, 2009 early and 2009 late Data from “Evaluation of System of Rice Intensification methods applied in the double rice-cropping systems in Central China,” Wu, Huang, Shah and Uphoff, Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 132 (2015)
  31. 31. Field evidence of disease and pest resistance from Vietnam: evaluation by its National IPM Program with data averaged from on-farm trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06 Spring season Summer season SRI plots Farmer plots Differ- ence SRI plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder* 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper* 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% Average 55.5% 70.7% * Insects m-2
  32. 32. Visual evidence of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in E. Java, Indonesia: both fields were hit by brown planthopper (BPH) and then by a tropical storm -- standard practices on left, organic SRI on right Modern improved variety (Ciherang) – no yield Traditional aromatic variety (Sintanur) - 8 t/ha
  33. 33. Data on resistance to cold temperatures from India: Yield and meteorological data from an IPM experiment affected by sudden unexpected cold spell (ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh) PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshinesunshine hourshours 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2 ## 8.68.6# Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days, 16-21 December (9.2-9.9o C ) SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Rabi (winter) 2005-06Rabi (winter) 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 Kharif (monsoon) 2006Kharif (monsoon) 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below)
  34. 34. 3. Reduced net GHG emissions Flooded paddies are major source of CH4 -- stopping continuous flooding reduces CH4 emissions (everyone agrees) Question: what happens to N2O emissions when soil conditions are more aerobic? Evidence shows not enough N2O increase with SRI to offset GWP gains from reducing CH4 Reducing N fertilizer diminishes CH4 substrate CO2 emissions will be reduced by cutting the production and distribution of fertilizer/biocides
  35. 35. Data on reductions in GHG emissions • An evaluation for GIZ in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam found a significant reduction in CH4 of 20%, with a NS 1.4% reduction in N2O – it was significant that there was not an increase in N2O (Dill et al., 2013) • A life-cycle analysis (LCA) in Andhra Pradesh, India found SRI management compared to standard practices reduced global warming potential (GWP) emissions by >25% per ha, and by >60% per kg of rice produced (Gathorne-Hardy et al., 2013, 2016) • Another study by IARI researchers in India found that SRI methods lowered GWP per hectare by 28% (Jain et al., 2013)
  36. 36. Comparison of methane gas emissionComparison of methane gas emission CT SRI kgCH4/ha 0 200 400 600 800 1000 840.1 237.6 72 % Treatment Emission (kg/ha) CO2 ton/ha equivalentCH4 N2O CT 840.1 0 17.6 SRI 237.6 0.074 5.0
  37. 37. SRI ideas and practices have been adapted and extended to the broader System of Crop Intensification (SCI) -- with many reports of increased climate resilience • Wheat (SWI) -- India, Nepal, Ethiopia, Mali • Finger millet (SFMI) -- India, Ethiopia, Nepal, Malawi • Sugarcane (SSI) -- India, Cuba, Kenya, Tanzania • Sorghum and tef – Ethiopia • Maize -- India Also reports on SCI benefits for mustard, soya bean, black gram, green gram, red gram, tomatoes, chillies, eggplant, sesame, green leafy
  38. 38. SWI wheat crop in Bihar state of India, Chandrapura village, Khagarla district – these fields are the same age and same variety
  39. 39. Size and width of finger millet panicles and roots with alternative crop management methods: SFMI plants on left, and farmer practice on right -- Jharkhand state, India
  40. 40. Sustainable Sugarcane Intensification (SSI) plants in Maharashtra, India SSI sugarcane in Cuba @ 10.5 months; eventual yield estimated @ 150 t/ha
  41. 41. System of Tef Intensification in Ethiopia – yields of 3-6 t/ha with TP STI vs. 1 t/ha with broadcasting -- direct-seeded STI used by >2 million farmers in
  42. 42. 4. Data from China on improvements in grain quality Conv. methods SRI methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) DifferenceChalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% From paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Note: Chalkiness is associated with more breakage of grains during milling; also, higher protein (N) content in the grains is associated with less breakage. Reports from Cuba, India and Kenya also show 10-20% more milled rice per bushel of SRI-grown paddy rice, compared to rice grown with usual methods – fewer unfilled grains (less chaff) and fewer broken grains
  43. 43. 5. Crop duration reduced in Nepal by average of 16 days, from seed to seed, for 8 rice varieties -- SRI = 125 days (average 6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional = 141 days (average 3.1 t/ha) Varieties (N = 412) Conv. duration SRI duration (range) Difference (range) Bansdhan/Kanchhi (248) 145 127 (117-144) 18 (11-28) Mansuli (48) 155 136 (126-146) 19 (9-29) Swarna (40) 155 139 (126-150) 16 (5-29) Sugandha (12) 120 106 (98-112) 14 (8-22) Radha 12 (12) 155 138 (125-144) 17 (11-30) Hardinath 1 (39) 120 107 (98-112) 13 (8-22) Barse 2014/3017 (14) 135 126 (116-125) 9 (10-19) Data from Morang District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2006
  44. 44. 6. Field studies show SRI methods improving health and reducing discomfort of women working in rice paddies Vent, Sabarmatee and Uphoff, “The System of Rice Intensification and its impacts on women: Reducing pain, discomfort and labor in rice farming while enhancing household food security,” Women in Agriculture Worldwide, eds. • With rice paddies no longer continuously flooded, women no longer work in standing water and have fewer infections associated with transplanting & weeding • With fewer, smaller and lighter seedlings, women’s work in nurseries and transplanting is less arduous • Controlling weeds, a task usually assigned to women, is quicker and less painful with SRI mechanical weeding • ANGRAU study showed 78% reduction in women’s labor for weeding with less physical stress & discomfort • RACOPA methodology (left) has documented the reductions in women’s pain when using SRI methods • SRI’s reduced labor requirements free up women’s time once the new methods have been learned
  45. 45. 7. Nutritient/nutritional impacts of SRI: Research on nutrient uptake from the soil and the concentrations of nutrients in the grain Research is indicating that larger root systems and greater density of soil microorganisms have an effect on amounts and profiles of nutrient uptake and on nutrient concentrations in the grains and straw. The links between microorganisms and micronutrients warrant much more research.
  46. 46. Micronutrient accumulation (mg kg-1 ) in rice grains under conventional flooded crop management vs. System of Rice Intensification Data from Adak et al., ‘Micronutrient Enrichment Mediated by Plant-Microbe Interactions and Rice Cultivation Practices,’ Journal of Plant Nutrition, 39: 1216-1232 (2016)   Iron Zinc Copper Manganese Treatment Con v. SRI Conv . SRI Conv . SRI Conv. SRI Control – no fertilizer 40.8 7 76.03 12.7 0 38.7 3 3.23 6.50 6.80 11.23 NPK fertili- zation 75.0 0 100.3 7 15.5 6 43.7 3 3.93 7.20 7.73 15.80
  47. 47. Treatme nt S (%) Zn (ppm) Fe (ppm) Mn (ppm) Cu (ppm) Grain Straw Grain Straw Grai n Straw Grai n Straw Grain SRI 0.075a 0.127a 30.4a 48.4a 47.8 a 101.0 a 45.2 a 115.6 a 4.6a CT 0.064b 0.114b 27.0b 39.0b 44.0 b 89.7b 40.1 b 108.0 b 3.3b Differen ce 0.011 0.013 3.4 9.4 3.8 11.3 5.1 7.6 1.3 LSD 0.003 0.012 2.5 3.8 3.6 7.0 2.8 6.4 0.4 Concentration of secondary and micro-nutrients in rice grains and straw using System of Rice Intensification (SRI) vs. conventional transplanting (CT) methods Data from Dass, Chandra, Uphoff, Choudhury, Bhattacharyya and Rana, “Agronomic fortification of rice grains with secondary and micronutrients under differing crop management and soil moisture regimes in the north Indian plains,” Paddy and Water Environment , 15 (2017)
  48. 48. Effects of cultivation practices and nutrient management on the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn (mg kg-1 ) in rice grains, with equal amounts of soil nutrient amendments in all treatmentsTreatments Iron Zinc Copper Manganese Conv. - INM 71.3c 34.1c 3.7d 9.0b Conv. – Organic 81.6bc 33.8c 4.9c 13.5a SRI – INM 97.4b 39.2b 6.0b 13.2a SRI – Organic 117.3a 48.3a 7.1a 16.1a LSD 0.05 18.4 4.7 1.0 4.1 Conv. = conventional flooded rice mgmt SRI = System of Rice Intensification mgmt INM = integrated nutrient mgmt (inorganic NPK + decomposed cow manure) Organic = decomposed cow manure + green manure (Sesbania ) + vermicompost Mean values followed by different letters in a column denote a significant (P≤0.05) difference between the treatments by Duncan’s multiple range test Data from article not yet published on “Rice cultivation methods and nutrient management: Impact on crop growth, physiology, nutrient uptake, and yield,” A.K. Thakur et al., ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, India, Sept. 2017
  49. 49. Effects of cultivation practices and nutrient management on micronutrient uptake (kg ha-1 ) in rice grains Treatments Iron Zinc Copper Manganese Conv. – INM 0.299c 0.143b 0.016b 0.038c Conv. – Organic 0.326b 0.135b 0.020b 0.054b SRI – INM 0.588a 0.237a 0.036a 0.080a SRI - Organic 0.584a 0.241a 0.035a 0.080a LSD 0.05 0.017 0.009 0.004 0.006 Conv. = conventional (flooded) rice mgmt SRI = System of Rice Intensification mgmt INM = integrated nutrient mgmt. (inorganic NPK + decomposed cow manure) Organic = decomposed cow manure + green manure (Sesbania ) + vermicompost Mean values followed by different letters in a column denote a significant (P≤0.05) difference between the treatments by Duncan’s multiple range test Data from article not yet published on “Rice cultivation methods and nutrient management: Impact on crop growth, physiology, nutrient uptake, and yield,” A.K. Thakur et al., ICAR- Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, India, Sept. 2017
  50. 50. 8. Labor-saving: Mechanization of SRI Pioneered in Punjab province of Pakistan by Mr. Asif Sharif, Pedaver Pvt. Ltd. Agricultural labor supply is rather limited in Punjab, so he combined System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with Conservation Agriculture (CA) and organic agriculture  ‘PARADOXICAL AGRICULTURE’ (PA)
  51. 51. Mechanized System of Crop Intensification (MSCI) leading to Conserving/Regenerative Paradoxical Agriculture (PA) Rice crop on raised-beds – saves 70% water and other inputs Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan Webpage: www.pedaver.com E-mail: pedaver@gmail.com
  52. 52. Raised-beds making on laser-leveled land – Giving more control over water and improving the soil -- first ‘test plot’ was 44 acres  12 t/ha average yield
  53. 53. Furrow irrigation – Saving of energy also economizes on water
  54. 54. 10-day-old seedlings are dropped into mechanically- punched holes, which are then filled with water. The field is flooded only once, just after transplanting. Thereafter, furrow irrigation is used to reduce water consumption.
  55. 55. Radio-controlled tractor-weeding of precision- planted raised beds, actively aerating the soil while furrow irrigation economizes on water
  56. 56. PA wheat plantation on raised beds
  57. 57. PA carrots planted on raised beds -- more uniform carrots get higher price
  58. 58. Summary results to date from applications of ‘Paradoxical Agriculture’ (PA) in Punjab province, Pakistan, by crop Yields (t/ha) (% increase) Cost of production (USD/kg) (% reduction) Net income (USD/ha) (% increase) Current PA Current PA Current PA Wheat 3 5 0.35 0.20 $242 $345* ( + 60% ) ( - 43% ) ( + 43% ) Maize 9 11 0.18 0.13 $484 $1184 ( + 22% ) ( - 28% ) ( + 145% ) Sugarcane+ 70 110 1.26 0.99 $75 $400 ( +57% ) ( - 21% ) ( + 433% ) Potatoes 30 42# 0.09 0.06 $2008 $4063 ( + 40% ) ( -32% ) ( + 102% ) Carrots 15 35 0.10 0.03 $475 $3398 ( +133% ) ( -67% ) ( + 615%) * This is 1st year net income for SWI; net income 2nd year is $550, and 3rd year $620. + Figures are an average for February and September plantings. # After PA has been used enough to improve the soil, potato yields of 50 t/ha are obtained. Source: Data collected by Asif Sharif, Pedaver, Lahore, Pakistan
  59. 59. SRI-Rice: ntu1@cornell.edu Website: http://sri.cals.cornell.edu Thank you

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