Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the  System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  from Madagas...
SRI is controversial in some circles <ul><li>But it is not a  ‘niche innovation’   as stated by Dobermann in  Agricultural...
SRI Message: For Centuries, Even Millennia, We Have Been ABUSING and MISTREATING the Rice Plant  <ul><li>We have FLOODED i...
SRI Results are Remarkable, but Have Been Replicated Widely <ul><li>Yield  increases – 50-100% or more, with </li></ul><ul...
SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 – 18 t/ha
Cambodian farmer with rice plant grown from single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety
Madagascar SRI field -- 2003
SRI field in Cuba--  2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9
SRI field in Sri Lanka –  with many panicles having 400+ grains
The System of Rice Intensification  <ul><li>Evolved in Madagascar over 20 years by  Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J.  – working...
Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
Sebastien Rafaralahy and Justin Rabenandrasana, Association Tefy Saina
SRI is a set of principles and methods to get more productive PHENOTYPES   from  any GENOTYPE   SRI  changes the managemen...
Canopy of an individual rice plant grown under SRI conditions; usually this variety (Swarna) is ‘shy-tillering’ Andhra Pra...
Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071)  grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
Different P aradigms  of Production   <ul><li>The GREEN REVOLUTION  paradigm: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Changed the  genetic p...
21st Century Agriculture Should Be <ul><li>More  PRODUCTIVE  AGRONOMICALLY :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND   -- per unit  ar...
 
Changes in Fertilizer Use World Grain Production (mmt) Fertilizer Use (mmt) Marginal Response Ratio Decade  Δ Decade  Δ 19...
‘ Modern agriculture’ is not necessarily the  ultimate  form of agriculture <ul><li>Productivity gains  achieved with heav...
Previous Productivity Gains  Were Made in Large Part with  Use of CHEMICAL INPUTS <ul><li>F ertilizers, pesticides, insect...
How to Reduce Chemical Dependence and Energy Dependence in Agriculture? <ul><li>Capitalize maximally/optimally on  biologi...
Plant Physical Structure and  Light Intensity Distribution  at Heading Stage   (Tao et al., CNRRI, 2002)
Dry Matter Accumulation between SRI and Control (CK) Practices  (kg/ha) at Maturity (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003)
Table 2. Different sizes of the leaf blade (cm) with SRI practices (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003) Prac-tice 3 rd  leaf 2 nd  l...
Figure 1. Change of leaf area index (LAI) during growth cycle (Zheng et al., 2003)
Root Oxygenation Ability with SRI  vs. Conventionally-Grown Rice Research done at Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxiang...
Much Remains to be Known about the Mechanisms <ul><li>Multiple hypotheses  can be formulated from the existing scientific ...
Cuba – 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084
Greatest Benefit Is Not  YIELD <ul><li>This can vary, often widely; for farmers,  profitability  is more important outcome...
What Are the ‘Negatives’? <ul><li>Surprisingly few -- the main constraint is  labor intensity  --  at least initially </li...
Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; his yield in...
4-row weeder designed by Gopal Swaminathan, Thanjavur, TN, India AERATE SOIL at same time weeds are removed/incorporated
Motorized weeder developed by S. Ariyaratna Sri Lanka
Seeder Developed in Cuba Direct seeding will probably replace transplanting in future Essential principle is to  avoid tra...
What Are Other ‘Negatives’? <ul><li>Water control   is necessary for best results; can be obtained through infrastructure ...
Chinese Adaptations <ul><li>Triangular system  of planting –  Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan – got  16 t/ha and award from p...
Normal 3-S
Seedlings are started at the end of winter in plastic greenhouses
Seedling for transplanting -- and resulting plant
Wide Spacing of Plants <ul><li>Average spacing 15 cm (13-17 cm) by 40 cm (37-43 cm), 1-2 per hill  </li></ul>
Vegetative Growth Vigorous tillering
Vigorous roots
3-S roots on right
. 131 3-S Field with Variety 131
3-S gives good grain quality
Effects of Different Treatments within 3-S System Panicles/m 2 Grains/ panicle  Seed set (%) 1000-grain wt (g) Yield (t/ha...
Chinese Results, 2004 <ul><li>Heilongjiong  Province: 10 t/ha in 2004 -- 44,000 ha under 3-S system </li></ul><ul><li>Guiz...
SRI demonstration fields in Tian Tai, Zhejiang, China
Nie Fuqiu, Bu Tou village, Tian Tai, Zhejiang, describing his experiments within SRI system
CAU evaluation of SRI Xinsheng Village, Dongxi Township, Jianyang County, August 2004 <ul><li>2003 – 7 farmers used SRI (S...
Xinsheng Village, Dongxi Township [N = 75] (20% sample of all users)   RICE YIELD (kg/mu) 2002   2003*   2004 Standard  40...
Other Results Reported, 2004 Sichuan Province  – 60+ trials showed 10.5 t/ha average vs. 7.5 t/ha usual (double usual incr...
Liu Zhibin, Meishan Inst. of Science & Technology, in raised-bed, no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
MEASURED DIFFERENCES IN GRAIN QUALITY Characteristic  SRI (3 spacings)  Conventional  Diff. Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan...
LESS  CAN PRODUCE  MORE <ul><li>by  utilizing  biological potentials & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, younger seedli...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page:  http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:  [email_address]   or  [email_address...
Proposed/Possible/Probable EXPLANATIONS for SRI Performance
1 st  Explanation? Above-Ground Environment <ul><li>Create  ‘ the edge effect ’  for the whole field </li></ul><ul><li>Avo...
2nd Explanation? Nitrogen Provision <ul><li>Rice yields increased 40-60% when  same amount  of N  provided equally  in bot...
 
3rd Explanation?  Phosphorus Solubilization <ul><li>This nutrient is often limiting factor, but </li></ul><ul><li>Large am...
4 th  Explanation?  Mycorrhizal Fungi <ul><li>90+% of terrestrial plants derive benefits from and even depend on mycorrhiz...
5 th  Explanation? Phytohormones <ul><li>Aerobic bacteria and fungi produce  auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins , etc. in th...
Single Cambodian rice plant transplanted at 10 days
Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage  (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002...
Table 13: Root Length Density (cm. cm -3 ) under SRI, ‘Modern’ (SRA) and Conventional Practice (from Barison, 2002) Result...
Figure 8: Linear regression relationship between N uptake  and grain yield for SRI and  conventional methods,  using QUEFT...
Figure 9: Estimation of balanced N uptake for given a grain yield for rice plants with  the SRI and conventional systems, ...
Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>1. Resistance to  Abiotic Stresses  –  climate becoming more ‘extreme’ and more unpredic...
Two rice fields in Sri Lanka -- same variety, same irrigation system, and  same drought  : conventional methods (left), SR...
Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>2. Resistance to  Pests and Diseases   –   widely reported by farmers – probably reflect...
Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>4. Higher  Nutritional Value  of Rice? </li></ul><ul><li>SRI can be ‘organic rice’ that ...
Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>5. Conservation of Rice  Biodiversity ? </li></ul><ul><li>Highest SRI yields come with H...
 
SRI STILL RAISES  MORE QUESTIONS  THAN WE HAVE ANSWERS FOR <ul><li>This should  please scientists  –  lot of interesting n...
SRI Experience Could  Help to Us to Improve  21 st  Century Agriculture <ul><li>Nurturing of roots and soil biota   is rel...
 
 
SRI Data from Sri Lanka <ul><li>  SRI   Usual </li></ul><ul><li>Yields  (tons/ha)   8.0     4.2    +88% </li></ul><ul><li>...
IWMI Data from Sri Lanka <ul><li>IWMI Evaluation (Namara, Weligamage, Barker 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>60 SRI and 60 non-SRI...
 
SRI CONCEPTS CAN BE EXTENDED TO  UPLAND PRODUCTION Results of trials (N=20) by Philippine NGO, Broader Initiatives for Neg...
ROOT SYSTEM PROMOTION  <ul><li>SRI is becoming referred to in India (AP) as ‘ the root revolution ’ -- key factor </li></u...
Root Research Reported by  Dr. Ana Primavesi (1980) <ul><li>Shoot and root growth of maize (in g)  grown in hydroponic sol...
Contribution of SOIL MICROBIAL PROCESSES <ul><li>Microbial activity is known to be crucial factor in soil fertility </li><...
Bacteria, funguses, protozoa, amoeba, actinomycetes, etc. <ul><li>Decompose organic matter ,   making nutrients available ...
 
 
Effect of Young Seedlings <ul><li>@ Anjomakely  Clay Soil   Loam Soil </li></ul><ul><li>SS/20/3/NPK   3.00   2.04 </li></u...
Effects of SRI vs. Conventional Practices Comparing Varietal and Soil Differences
Spread of SRI in Asia
Spread of SRI in Africa <ul><li>Madagascar : now 50,000-100,000 farmers,  average about 6-8 t/ha, some double or more </li...
Spread of SRI in Latin America <ul><li>Cuba : average 8-9 t/ha; INCA trial 12 t/ha;  a number of farmers have reached 14 t...
 
 
 
 
 
.
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

0415 Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar

1,395 views

Published on

Presented by: Norman Uphoff

Presented at: CREES Seminar, Washington DC

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

0415 Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar

  1. 1. Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD CREES Seminar, Washington October 30, 2004
  2. 2. SRI is controversial in some circles <ul><li>But it is not a ‘niche innovation’ as stated by Dobermann in Agricultural Systems (2004); nor is it ‘voodoo science’ as suggested by Cassman and Sinclair, ACSSA (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheehy et al. maintain in Field Crops Research (2004) that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [SRI] has no major role in improving rice production generally” -- but this is an untenable conclusion, unsupported by any systematic evidence, and with much evidence that contradicts it, esp. from China </li></ul><ul><li>Sinclair (USDA) wrote: “Discussion of SRI is unfortunate because it implies SRI merits serious consideration. SRI does not deserve such consideration.” Rice Today (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>However, SRI is making large differences in yields and in factor productivity in many countries – spreading rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>We want it to be scientifically evaluated – preferably with farmers [usually better results on-farm than on-station ] </li></ul>
  3. 3. SRI Message: For Centuries, Even Millennia, We Have Been ABUSING and MISTREATING the Rice Plant <ul><li>We have FLOODED it – drowning its roots </li></ul><ul><li>We have CROWDED it – inhibiting the growth potential of its canopy and roots </li></ul><ul><li>Now we apply FERTILIZERS and chemical BIOCIDES that adversely affect soil biota which provide many services to plants: N fixation, P solubilization, protection against diseases and abiotic stresses, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SRI Results are Remarkable, but Have Been Replicated Widely <ul><li>Yield increases – 50-100% or more, with </li></ul><ul><li>No change in varieties – all give increase, and no need for mineral fertilizers – they are beneficial; compost gives better yield </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemicals -- SRI plants more resistant to pests/diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced seed requirement – by 80-90% and less water requirement – by 25-50% </li></ul><ul><li>More labor is required initially, but SRI can even become labor-saving over time </li></ul>
  5. 5. SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 – 18 t/ha
  6. 6. Cambodian farmer with rice plant grown from single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety
  7. 7. Madagascar SRI field -- 2003
  8. 8. SRI field in Cuba-- 2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9
  9. 9. SRI field in Sri Lanka – with many panicles having 400+ grains
  10. 10. The System of Rice Intensification <ul><li>Evolved in Madagascar over 20 years by Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J. – working with farmers, observing, doing experiments, also having some luck in 1983-84 season </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is now spreading around the world: positive results now seen in 21 countries </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is a set of principles and insights that when translated into certain practices can change the growing environment of rice to get healthier, more productive plants  representing different phenotypes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
  12. 12. Sebastien Rafaralahy and Justin Rabenandrasana, Association Tefy Saina
  13. 13. SRI is a set of principles and methods to get more productive PHENOTYPES from any GENOTYPE SRI changes the management of plants, soil, water, and nutrients to: (a) induce greater ROOT growth and (b) nurture more abundant and diverse populations of SOIL BIOTA Capitalize on existing rice potentials
  14. 14. Canopy of an individual rice plant grown under SRI conditions; usually this variety (Swarna) is ‘shy-tillering’ Andhra Pradesh, India, rabi season, 2003-04
  15. 15. Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071) grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003
  16. 16. Different P aradigms of Production <ul><li>The GREEN REVOLUTION paradigm: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Changed the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increased the use of external inputs -- more water, fertilizer, insecticides, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI changes certain management practices for plants, soil, water and nutrients, so as to: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Promote the growth of root systems , and </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Increase the abundance and diversity of </li></ul><ul><li>soil organisms , and also </li></ul><ul><li>(C) Reduce water use and costs of production </li></ul>
  17. 17. 21st Century Agriculture Should Be <ul><li>More PRODUCTIVE AGRONOMICALLY : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAND -- per unit area -- per ha or per acre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LABOR -- per hour or per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER -- per cubic meter or per acre/ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAPITAL -- more profitable for $ invested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More robust in face of CLIMATE CHANGE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More SOCIALLY BENEFICIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCESSIBLE to the poor, reducing poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing greater FOOD SECURITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing more to HUMAN HEALTH </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Changes in Fertilizer Use World Grain Production (mmt) Fertilizer Use (mmt) Marginal Response Ratio Decade Δ Decade Δ 1950 631 14 -- 1961 805 (+174) 31 (+17) 10.2:1 1969-71 1116(+311) 68(+37) 8.4:1 1979-81 1442(+326) 116(+48) 6.8:1 1989-91 1732(+290) 140(+24) 12.1:1 1999-01 1885(+153) 138(-2)  ?
  19. 20. ‘ Modern agriculture’ is not necessarily the ultimate form of agriculture <ul><li>Productivity gains achieved with heavy use of external inputs are slowing down </li></ul><ul><li>Negative side-effects are becoming more evident -- environmental, social costs </li></ul><ul><li>Can we make further progress in the 21st century by doing ‘ more of the same ’? </li></ul><ul><li>Doubtful because of diminishing returns -- in case of rice (K. Cassman et al., 1998) -- a further 60% increase in rice production we will require 300% increase in N fertilizer </li></ul>
  20. 21. Previous Productivity Gains Were Made in Large Part with Use of CHEMICAL INPUTS <ul><li>F ertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, etc. are now </li></ul><ul><li>-- giving diminishing returns while -- creating environmental hazards and health risks , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with rising costs of production and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-- continuing problems of efficacy </li></ul>
  21. 22. How to Reduce Chemical Dependence and Energy Dependence in Agriculture? <ul><li>Capitalize maximally/optimally on biological processes and potentials </li></ul><ul><li>Pay more attention to phenotypes – they are what we eat, not genotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotypes are product of G x E interaction – SRI changes the E </li></ul><ul><li>May be relevant for other crops also </li></ul>
  22. 23. Plant Physical Structure and Light Intensity Distribution at Heading Stage (Tao et al., CNRRI, 2002)
  23. 24. Dry Matter Accumulation between SRI and Control (CK) Practices (kg/ha) at Maturity (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003)
  24. 25. Table 2. Different sizes of the leaf blade (cm) with SRI practices (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003) Prac-tice 3 rd leaf 2 nd leaf Flag leaf Average Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width SRI 64.25 1.57 71.32 1.87 57.67 2.17 64.41 1.87 CK 56.07 1.43 62.03 1.57 48.67 2.01 55.56 1.67 +/- 8.18 0.14 9.29 0.30 9.00 0.16 8.86 0.20 % Δ 14.59 9.79 14.97 19.11 18.49 7.96 15.95 11.98
  25. 26. Figure 1. Change of leaf area index (LAI) during growth cycle (Zheng et al., 2003)
  26. 27. Root Oxygenation Ability with SRI vs. Conventionally-Grown Rice Research done at Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxianggeng 9 variety (Wang et al. 2002)
  27. 28. Much Remains to be Known about the Mechanisms <ul><li>Multiple hypotheses can be formulated from the existing scientific literature </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively little soil research has focused on soil biology </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively little plant research has focused on plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>One example is the apparent effect of phytohormones produced by aerobic bacteria and fungi (e.g., auxins, cytokinins) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Cuba – 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084
  29. 30. Greatest Benefit Is Not YIELD <ul><li>This can vary, often widely; for farmers, profitability is more important outcome </li></ul><ul><li>From society’s perspective, what is most important is factor productivity – kg of rice per land, labor, capital, and water ! </li></ul><ul><li>No question any longer of whether SRI methods give higher yields/productivity but rather how to explain these changes </li></ul><ul><li>SRI can surely be further improved since it has been developed inductively so far </li></ul>
  30. 31. What Are the ‘Negatives’? <ul><li>Surprisingly few -- the main constraint is labor intensity -- at least initially </li></ul><ul><li>This is receding as a constraint , mostly a problem for first few weeks or seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodian evaluation showed no increase (305 vs. 302 hrs/ha) -- and better timing; in China and India, it is becoming labor saving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IWMI study showed labor productivity higher by 50-62%, with partial use of SRI methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer innovation is helping to reduce labor requirements -- more innovations will come </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; his yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
  32. 33. 4-row weeder designed by Gopal Swaminathan, Thanjavur, TN, India AERATE SOIL at same time weeds are removed/incorporated
  33. 34. Motorized weeder developed by S. Ariyaratna Sri Lanka
  34. 35. Seeder Developed in Cuba Direct seeding will probably replace transplanting in future Essential principle is to avoid trauma to the young roots
  35. 36. What Are Other ‘Negatives’? <ul><li>Water control is necessary for best results; can be obtained through infrastructure or organization – SRI makes this economic </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer learning and skill are required -- but this is a benefit , not just a cost </li></ul><ul><li>Disadoption has been reported as problem but only in Madagascar (not in Cambodia, India) </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes can be a problem (e.g., Thailand); </li></ul><ul><li>need to develop water management strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Golden snail – can be controlled (e.g., Philippines) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Chinese Adaptations <ul><li>Triangular system of planting – Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan – got 16 t/ha and award from prov. DOA </li></ul><ul><li>3-S system – uses 45 d seedlings because of cold temperatures, with single seedlings planted sparsely (10,000 plants/mou), and less water, more organic matter; but no active soil aeration yet -- using herbicides </li></ul>
  37. 38. Normal 3-S
  38. 39. Seedlings are started at the end of winter in plastic greenhouses
  39. 40. Seedling for transplanting -- and resulting plant
  40. 41. Wide Spacing of Plants <ul><li>Average spacing 15 cm (13-17 cm) by 40 cm (37-43 cm), 1-2 per hill </li></ul>
  41. 42. Vegetative Growth Vigorous tillering
  42. 43. Vigorous roots
  43. 44. 3-S roots on right
  44. 45. . 131 3-S Field with Variety 131
  45. 46. 3-S gives good grain quality
  46. 47. Effects of Different Treatments within 3-S System Panicles/m 2 Grains/ panicle Seed set (%) 1000-grain wt (g) Yield (t/ha) Change Control (CK) 540.5 70.1 83.1 24.8 7,808.5 -- 3-S METHOD 438.6 106.8 83.0 25.8 10,030.5 + 28.5% VARIETIES Dongnong 423 371 136.0 85.0 29.0 12,471.0 +28.6% Xixuyan 1 375 131.0 90.0 27.3 12,020.5 +24.0% Dongnong 9914 480 108.0 78.0 25.6 10,351.5 +6.8% Kongyu 131 450 92.0 90.0 26.0 9,691.5 --
  47. 48. Chinese Results, 2004 <ul><li>Heilongjiong Province: 10 t/ha in 2004 -- 44,000 ha under 3-S system </li></ul><ul><li>Guizhou Province: high-altitude record set with SRI – 12.9 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Zhejiang Province, Tian Tai County: 10.8 t/ha in 2003; 11-12.5 t/ha in 2004 set provincial records for yield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer experimentation is occurring </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. SRI demonstration fields in Tian Tai, Zhejiang, China
  49. 50. Nie Fuqiu, Bu Tou village, Tian Tai, Zhejiang, describing his experiments within SRI system
  50. 51. CAU evaluation of SRI Xinsheng Village, Dongxi Township, Jianyang County, August 2004 <ul><li>2003 – 7 farmers used SRI (SAAS) </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – 398 farmers used SRI (65%) </li></ul><ul><li>2003 – SRI plot size average 0.07 mu </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – SRI plot size average 0.99 mu </li></ul><ul><li>86.6% of SRI farmers (65/75) said they would expand their SRI area next year or keep their whole rice area under SRI </li></ul>
  51. 52. Xinsheng Village, Dongxi Township [N = 75] (20% sample of all users) RICE YIELD (kg/mu) 2002 2003* 2004 Standard 403.73 297.88 375.77 Methods SRI -- 439.87 507.16 ----------------------------------------------------------- SRI Increase (%) +46.6% +34.8% * Drought year [Water saving/mu = 43.2%]
  52. 53. Other Results Reported, 2004 Sichuan Province – 60+ trials showed 10.5 t/ha average vs. 7.5 t/ha usual (double usual increase with hybrid rice) SAU – 11.75 t/ha; Leshan – 12.1 t/ha (10  300 mu); Meishan – 13.4 t/ha; SAAS field demonstration (observed) – 11.64 t/ha Hunan Province – 13.5 t/ha in field demonstration of CNHRRDC (‘SRI’) Yunnan Province – 18 t/ha CNRRI trial 20.4 t/ha certified by Dept of S&T/SAU
  53. 54. Liu Zhibin, Meishan Inst. of Science & Technology, in raised-bed, no-till SRI field with certified yield of 13.4 t/ha
  54. 55. MEASURED DIFFERENCES IN GRAIN QUALITY Characteristic SRI (3 spacings) Conventional Diff. Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China, Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 23.62 - 32.47 39.89 - 41.07 - 30.7 General chalkiness (%) 1.02 - 4.04 6.74 - 7.17 - 65.7 Milled rice outturn (%) 53.58 - 54.41 41.54 - 51.46 + 16.1 Head milled rice (%) 41.81 - 50.84 38.87 - 39.99 + 17.5
  55. 56. LESS CAN PRODUCE MORE <ul><li>by utilizing biological potentials & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, younger seedlings become larger, more productive mature plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per hill and per m 2 will give higher yield if used with other SRI practices </li></ul><ul><li>Half as much water produces more rice because aerobic soil conditions are better </li></ul><ul><li>Greater output is possible with use of </li></ul><ul><li>fewer or even no external/chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in management practices give different phenotypes from rice genomes (cf. Kumar et al., PNAS, 2004) </li></ul>
  56. 57. THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] or [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>In China: [email_address] </li></ul>
  57. 58. Proposed/Possible/Probable EXPLANATIONS for SRI Performance
  58. 59. 1 st Explanation? Above-Ground Environment <ul><li>Create ‘ the edge effect ’ for the whole field </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid edge effect only for measurement; promote it agronomically (triangle spacing) </li></ul><ul><li>Too-close spacing affects photosynthesis within canopy: measurements at AARD (Sukamandi, Indonesia) found that with normal spacing, lower leaves were being ‘subsidized’ by the upper leaves; wider spacing enables whole plant to contribute </li></ul>
  59. 60. 2nd Explanation? Nitrogen Provision <ul><li>Rice yields increased 40-60% when same amount of N provided equally in both NO 3 and NH 4 forms vs. when all N is provided as NH 4 (Kronzucker et al., 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>BNF increases greatly with alternated aerobic/anaerobic conditions (Magdoff and Bouldin, Plant and Soil , 1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions of protozoa to N supply </li></ul><ul><li>Also contributions from endophytes </li></ul>
  60. 62. 3rd Explanation? Phosphorus Solubilization <ul><li>This nutrient is often limiting factor, but </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of P in soil (90-95%) are present in ‘unavailable’ form </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating wetting and drying of soil increased P in soil solution by 85-1900% compared with soils just wet or just dry (Turner and Haygarth, Nature , May 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic bacteria acquire P from ‘unavailable’ sources during dry phase; during wet phase they lyse and release P into the soil solution </li></ul>
  61. 63. 4 th Explanation? Mycorrhizal Fungi <ul><li>90+% of terrestrial plants derive benefits from and even depend on mycorrhizal associations (infections) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizal hyphae extend into soil and expand volume accessible to the plant by 10-100x , acquiring water, P and other nutrients ; they also provide protective/other services to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Flooded rice forgoes these benefits </li></ul>
  62. 64. 5 th Explanation? Phytohormones <ul><li>Aerobic bacteria and fungi produce auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins , etc. in the rhizosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Huge literature has documented effects of microbially-produced phytohormones (e.g., Frankenberger and Arshad, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Root growth in SRI plants probably is not due just to physiological processes within the plants --stimulated by aerobic microorganisms? Roots are key to SRI </li></ul>
  63. 65. Single Cambodian rice plant transplanted at 10 days
  64. 66. Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002) Root dry weight (g)
  65. 67. Table 13: Root Length Density (cm. cm -3 ) under SRI, ‘Modern’ (SRA) and Conventional Practice (from Barison, 2002) Results from replicated on-station trials Treatments Soil layers (cm) 0-5 5-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 SRI -- with compost 3.65 0.75 0.61 0.33 0.30 0.23 SRI -- without compost 3.33 0.71 0.57 0.32 0.25 0.20 SRA with NPK and urea 3.73 0.99 0.65 0.34 0.18 0.09 SRA without fertilization 3.24 0.85 0.55 0.31 0.15 0.07 Conventional practice 4.11 1.28 1.19 0.36 0.13 0.06
  66. 68. Figure 8: Linear regression relationship between N uptake and grain yield for SRI and conventional methods, using QUEFTS modeling (from Barison, 2002) Results are from on-farm comparisons (N = 108)
  67. 69. Figure 9: Estimation of balanced N uptake for given a grain yield for rice plants with the SRI and conventional systems, using QUEFTS modeling (same for P and K) (Barison, 2002) Results are from on-farm comparisons (N = 108)
  68. 70. Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>1. Resistance to Abiotic Stresses – climate becoming more ‘extreme’ and more unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>Observed resistance to drought (Sri Lanka, several years) , hurricane (Sichuan – Sept. 2002) , typhoon (AP, India – Dec. 2003) , cold spell (AP, India – February 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to lodging due to roots? </li></ul>
  69. 71. Two rice fields in Sri Lanka -- same variety, same irrigation system, and same drought : conventional methods (left), SRI (right)
  70. 72. Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>2. Resistance to Pests and Diseases – widely reported by farmers – probably reflecting the protective services of soil microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Higher Milling Outturn ~ 15%: SRI paddy raises outturn in India from 66 to 75%; in Cuba, from 60 to 68-71%; adds to paddy yield </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer unfilled grains (less chaff) </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer broken grains (less shattering) </li></ul>
  71. 73. Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>4. Higher Nutritional Value of Rice? </li></ul><ul><li>SRI can be ‘organic rice’ that is free from agrochemical residues </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly SRI has higher nutritional quality in terms of micronutrients – needs to be evaluated scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>Larger root system gives higher grain weight and greater grain density  also greater nutrient density? </li></ul>
  72. 74. Emerging Benefits of SRI? <ul><li>5. Conservation of Rice Biodiversity ? </li></ul><ul><li>Highest SRI yields come with HYVs and hybrids (all SRI yields >15 t/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>But traditional/local varieties respond very well to SRI practice, can produce yields of 6-10 t/ha, and even more </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional rices receive higher price </li></ul><ul><li>Higher SRI yields make them popular </li></ul><ul><li>Get an organic premium for export? </li></ul>
  73. 76. SRI STILL RAISES MORE QUESTIONS THAN WE HAVE ANSWERS FOR <ul><li>This should please scientists – lot of interesting new work ahead </li></ul><ul><li>We are linking with researchers and practitioners around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Two-pronged strategy: research and practice proceed in tandem -- ‘walking on both legs’ as Mao advised </li></ul>
  74. 77. SRI Experience Could Help to Us to Improve 21 st Century Agriculture <ul><li>Nurturing of roots and soil biota is relevant for much of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>We need an agriculture that is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less ‘thirsty’ -- better roots will help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less dependent on fossil-fuel energy sources -- fertilizer, mechanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less dependent on agrochemicals -- for sake of soil & water quality, for health </li></ul></ul>
  75. 80. SRI Data from Sri Lanka <ul><li> SRI Usual </li></ul><ul><li>Yields (tons/ha) 8.0 4.2 +88% </li></ul><ul><li>Market price (Rs/ton) 1,500 1,300 +15% </li></ul><ul><li>Total cash cost (Rs/ha) 18,000 22,000 -18% </li></ul><ul><li>Gross returns (Rs/ha) 120,000 58,500 +105% </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit (Rs/ha) 102,000 36,500 +180% </li></ul><ul><li>Family labor earnings Increased with SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Water savings ~ 40-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Data from Dr. Aldas Janaiah, IRRI agric. economist, 1999-2002; now at Indira Gandhi Development Research Institute in Mumbai; based on interviews conducted with 30 SRI farmers in Sri Lanka, October, 2002 </li></ul>
  76. 81. IWMI Data from Sri Lanka <ul><li>IWMI Evaluation (Namara, Weligamage, Barker 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>60 SRI and 60 non-SRI farmers randomly selected: </li></ul><ul><li>YIELD -- increased by 50% on average (not doing full SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>WATER PRODUCTIVITY -- increased by 90% </li></ul><ul><li>COST OF PRODUCTION (Rs./kg) -- lower by 111-209% with family labor, 17-27%at standard wage rate </li></ul><ul><li>LABOR PRODUCTIVITY (kg/hr) -- up 50% in yala (dry) season, up 62% in maha (wet) season </li></ul><ul><li>PROFITABILITY -- increased by 83-206%, depending on the wage assumed (family labor vs. paid labor) </li></ul><ul><li>RISK REDUCTION -- conventional farmers had net losses in 28% of seasons, SRI farmers in only 4% </li></ul>
  77. 83. SRI CONCEPTS CAN BE EXTENDED TO UPLAND PRODUCTION Results of trials (N=20) by Philippine NGO, Broader Initiatives for Negros Development, with Azucena local variety (4,000 m 2 area) -- using mulch as main innovation, not young plants
  78. 84. ROOT SYSTEM PROMOTION <ul><li>SRI is becoming referred to in India (AP) as ‘ the root revolution ’ -- key factor </li></ul><ul><li>Roots benefit from wider plant spacing, aerated soil, more soil organic matter --from both compost and root exudation </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are supported by more abundant and diversified populations of soil biota -- bacteria and viruses produce PGRs </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are two-way streets , coevolved w/ microorganisms, dependent on them </li></ul>
  79. 85. Root Research Reported by Dr. Ana Primavesi (1980) <ul><li>Shoot and root growth of maize (in g) grown in hydroponic solutions (14 days), with varying nutrient concentrations </li></ul><ul><li> Shoot Root </li></ul><ul><li>100% concentration 44 7 </li></ul><ul><li>200% concentration 34 7 </li></ul><ul><li>2% concentration 33 23 </li></ul><ul><li>2% concentration when 43 56 changed every other day </li></ul>
  80. 86. Contribution of SOIL MICROBIAL PROCESSES <ul><li>Microbial activity is known to be crucial factor in soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>“ The microbial flora causes a large number of biochemical changes in the soil that largely determine the fertility of the soil.” (DeDatta,1981, p. 60, emphasis added) </li></ul>
  81. 87. Bacteria, funguses, protozoa, amoeba, actinomycetes, etc. <ul><li>Decompose organic matter , making nutrients available </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire nutrients otherwise unavailable to plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>Improve soil structure and health -- water retention, soil aggregation, aeration, pathogen control, etc. </li></ul>
  82. 90. Effect of Young Seedlings <ul><li>@ Anjomakely Clay Soil Loam Soil </li></ul><ul><li>SS/20/3/NPK 3.00 2.04 </li></ul><ul><li>SS/ 8 /3/NPK 7.16 3.89 </li></ul><ul><li>SS/ 8 / 1 /NPK 8.13 4.36 </li></ul><ul><li>AS / 8 /3/NPK 8.15 4.44 </li></ul><ul><li>AS / 8 /3/ Comp 6.86 3.61 </li></ul><ul><li>SS/ 8 / 1 / Comp 7.70 4.07 </li></ul><ul><li>AS / 8 / 1 /NPK 8.77 5.00 </li></ul><ul><li>AS / 8 / 1 / Comp 10.35 6.39 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: All of these averages are for 6 replicated trials </li></ul>
  83. 91. Effects of SRI vs. Conventional Practices Comparing Varietal and Soil Differences
  84. 92. Spread of SRI in Asia
  85. 93. Spread of SRI in Africa <ul><li>Madagascar : now 50,000-100,000 farmers, average about 6-8 t/ha, some double or more </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone : 2.5  5.3 t/ha for 160 farmers </li></ul><ul><li>The Gambia : 2.5  7.4 t/ha for 10 farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Benin : 1.6  7.5 t/ha in controlled trial </li></ul><ul><li>Guinea : 2.5  9.4 t/ha (hybrid + SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Mozambique: good soils 3  saline soils 3-8 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Senegal: 4-5  9-11 t/ha (FAO trials) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in, but no results yet from: Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda </li></ul>
  86. 94. Spread of SRI in Latin America <ul><li>Cuba : average 8-9 t/ha; INCA trial 12 t/ha; a number of farmers have reached 14 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Peru : initial problems with drought, frost; 2003 results 9-11 t/ha vs. current average of 6 t/ha ( not profitable given costs of production) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in, but no results yet from: Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, and Venezuela </li></ul>
  87. 100. .

×