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The Emerging Shape of  a Post-Modern Agriculture: Indications from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Prof. Norman U...
Challenge for 21 st  Century: H ow to Produce  MORE  with  LESS ? <ul><li>This may sound impossible, but it will be needed...
21 st  Century Agriculture Cannot Just Do ‘ More of the Same ’ <ul><li>Arable land area per capita  is reducing </li></ul>...
21 st  Century Agriculture Cannot Just Do ‘ More of the Same ’ <ul><li>Energy prices  will surely be higher in  the 21 st ...
 
SRI indicates a path toward  Post-Modern Agriculture <ul><li>Comparative advantage  is  declining  for large-scale, mechan...
System of Rice Intensification <ul><li>Developed in Madagascar after 20 yrs  of observation and experimentation by  Henri ...
Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
SRI is  not yet finished ! <ul><li>SRI is  not a technology ; rather it is insights & ideas, concepts & methods </li></ul>...
Status of SRI:   As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Before 1999:   Madagascar 1999-2000:   China, Indonesia 2000-01:  Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, ...
SRI practices contribute to achieving:  <ul><li>Higher   yields   by 50-100% -- or more </li></ul><ul><li>Water reduction ...
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:  <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION   strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the  genetic pote...
CUBA: farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084)  and same age (52 DAP)
IRAN:   SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in  color  as well as  size
VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province,  after  typhoon
INDIA: Meteorological and yield data from  ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, 2006 * Low yield was due to cold injury ...
NEPAL: Crop duration (from seed to seed)  of different rice varieties with SRI (6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional methods (3.1 t/...
VIETNAM: Reduction in Diseases & Pests National IPM Program conducted evaluation based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06 *...
47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research I...
China National Rice Research Institute: Factorial trials over two years, 2004/2005 using two super-hybrid varieties with t...
Average super-rice  yields  with standard rice management (SRM) vs. new rice management (NRM~SRI)  at different  plant den...
AN ASSESSMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) COMPARED WITH RECOMMENDED RICE CULTIVAT...
We see many versions of SRI: <ul><li>In China, many different innovations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangular  spacing,  rai...
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in  raised-bed, zero-till  SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; his...
<ul><li>Science and Technology Daily , Chengdu - 26 June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>“ A New Technology Saves Millions in Paddy...
Rainfed/upland SRI <ul><li>Utilizing monsoon or other rainfall: </li></ul><ul><li>Change WATER management -  no hoarding  ...
INDIA: Cultivation costs & net profits Subject SRI  (Rs) Conv  (Rs) Land preparation 2,800 2,800 Seed 45 450 Labour (8) 40...
IWMI/India study:  -  67% more income  per ha -- one field yielded 15 t/ha
Direct-seeding for SRI <ul><li>Sow  pre-germinated seed  in square  pattern – Cuba, India, Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Broa...
Seeder Developed in Cuba
INDIA: Southern Andhra Pradesh Direct-seeder  at KVK
THAILAND: Farmers making  direct-seeder for SRI
Mechanization  of SRI <ul><li>Need to reduce labor requirements in many places </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting developments ...
Mechanical transplanter in Costa Rica
8 t/ha yield vs. 4.2 t/ha before
Costa Rica – mechanized SRI crop  8 t/ha yield without fertilizer
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
Mechanical transplanting with SRI spacing in Iraq
Pakistan, Punjab Province: Raised beds (dry) formed  on  laser-leveled  fields
Multi-function transplanting machine: laborers drop 10-day seedlings into holes; machine sprays water into holes and bands...
Transplanting machine straddling raised beds as laborers drop seedlings in holes
Weeder/soil aerator: removes weeds and breaks soil crust for 9 inch (22.5cm) spacing
Growing crop – reached 90 tillers at 72 days
 
SRI Methods in Different Agroecosystems <ul><li>Tropical environment – Indonesia/Aceh </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme mountain e...
‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Austra...
2009 Report from  Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got  SRI yields of  10.1 t/ha  vs. 5...
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
AKF technician making field visit in Baghlan Province
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
BHUTAN:  Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm  9.5 ...
MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region –  8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
MALI:  Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants --  2007: SRI yield  was 8.98 t/ha
<ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots and farmer-practi...
Importance of  Soil Aeration <ul><li>Stimulate aerobic soil organisms as they are critical for  soil fertility </li></ul><...
Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
Madagascar: Impact of SRI Weeding on Yield,  Ambatovaky, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings  Farmers  (N) Area  (ha) Harvest (kg)...
Why Is ‘Weeding’ So Important? <ul><li>Not just to  control weeds ; also benefit from green-manure effect of weeds </li></...
Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere Tamil Nadu Agricultural University research T. M. Thiyagarajan, WRRC presentatio...
Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations  in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management  at ac...
Total microbes and numbers of beneficial microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari...
 
Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,  from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice ...
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid ...
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings.  On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant ...
PERFORMANCE OF SCI CROPS  DURING DROUGHT SEASON 2009 Experiences from Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INST...
Up-scaling of SRI in Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand, 2006-08 Average SRI increase in grain yield has been about 70 per cen...
SRI Comparative Crop-Cut Results, 2009 ** In this drought year, grain yields of conventional crop  decreased by 31% , as c...
Experiments on System of Crop Intensification (SCI), 2009 Crops Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Maize 183 10.34 Kidney bean ( R...
Results of SCI with Finger Millet & Maize, Kharif 2009 Finger Millet Maize Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Ave. ears/plant  (cobs/plan...
 
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF   Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:  </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water...
Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah,  Crawuk village,   Ngawi, E. Java
Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
<ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a  paradigm shift     toward  ‘post-modern agriculture’? </li></ul><ul><li>Less  g...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website:   http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:   [email_address]   </l...
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1018 The Emerging Shape of a Post-Modern Agriculture: Indications from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

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1018 The Emerging Shape of a Post-Modern Agriculture: Indications from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

  1. 1. The Emerging Shape of a Post-Modern Agriculture: Indications from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Prof. Norman Uphoff CIIFAD/CIPA, Cornell University February 12, 2010
  2. 2. Challenge for 21 st Century: H ow to Produce MORE with LESS ? <ul><li>This may sound impossible, but it will be needed to achieve sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>It will also be important for promoting equitable development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We want to reduce poverty while we protect environmental integrity at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can this be accomplished? Isn’t this like the mythical perpetual motion machine ? No </li></ul><ul><li>Can be achieved within realm of BIOLOGY </li></ul>
  3. 3. 21 st Century Agriculture Cannot Just Do ‘ More of the Same ’ <ul><li>Arable land area per capita is reducing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population continues to grow, while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land area is being lost to urban spread and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land degradation increases year by year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water supply for agriculture is declining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing demands for domestic use and industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change is reducing amount and reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pests and diseases are likely to increase </li></ul>
  4. 4. 21 st Century Agriculture Cannot Just Do ‘ More of the Same ’ <ul><li>Energy prices will surely be higher in the 21 st than in 20 th century, affecting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production costs : fuel, fertilizer, agrochemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport cost : long-distance trade more costly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts are larger concern </li></ul><ul><li>Access to technology will be an issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of world’s poor are by-passed by GR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food quality is becoming more important </li></ul>
  5. 6. SRI indicates a path toward Post-Modern Agriculture <ul><li>Comparative advantage is declining for large-scale, mechanized, monocropped production, with long-distance trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to reduce energy-intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer and environmental demands are growing for ‘healthier’ production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must reduce chemical-dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Post-modern agriculture’ must be the most modern agriculture = science-based </li></ul>
  6. 7. System of Rice Intensification <ul><li>Developed in Madagascar after 20 yrs of observation and experimentation by Henri de Laulanié , SJ -- synthesized in 1983-84 by changing the management of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants -- use of very young seedlings , careful transplanting, and wider spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil -- active soil aeration during weeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water -- no continuous flooding of fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients – relying on compost > fertilizer </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
  8. 9. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  9. 10. SRI is not yet finished ! <ul><li>SRI is not a technology ; rather it is insights & ideas, concepts & methods </li></ul><ul><li>SRI derives from the work of Fr. Henri de Laulanié, SJ, who spent 34 yrs working with farmers in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>SRI methods were synthesized in 1984-85, but they continue to evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for small, poor farmers, but are being adapted more widely </li></ul>
  10. 11. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  11. 12. Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Peru, Moz 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Vietnam, Pakistan 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia 2010: Kenya, Sabah? DPRK? Solomon Islands? Panama? 2010: SRI benefits have now been validated in 38 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  12. 13. SRI practices contribute to achieving: <ul><li>Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more </li></ul><ul><li>Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced capital need (accessible to poor) </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for climatic stresses (drought, storm damage, extreme temperatures) </li></ul><ul><li>Induced pest and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality -- less chalkiness </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production by 10-20% -- leading to higher income for farmers </li></ul>
  13. 14. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>SRI ( AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Promotes the growth of root systems , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Increases the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI produces better PHENOTYPES naturally </li></ul>
  14. 15. CUBA: farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  15. 16. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  16. 17. VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
  17. 18. INDIA: Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, 2006 * Low yield was due to cold injury for plants (see above) *Sudden drop in min. temp. during 16–21 Dec. (9.2-9.8 o C for 5 days) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 * 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47 Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16
  18. 19. NEPAL: Crop duration (from seed to seed) of different rice varieties with SRI (6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional methods (3.1 t/ha) - 125 vs. 141 days Varieties Conventional duration SRI duration Difference Bansdhan/Kanchhi 145 127 (117-144) 18 (28-11) Mansuli 155 136 (126-146) 19 (29- 9) Swarna 155 139 (126-150) 16 (29- 5) Sugandha 120 106 (98-112) 14 (22- 8) Radha 12 155 138 (125-144) 17 (30-11) Barse 3017 135 118 17 Hardinath 1 120 107 (98-112) 13 (22- 8) Barse 2014 135 127 (116-125) 8 (19-10)
  19. 20. VIETNAM: Reduction in Diseases & Pests National IPM Program conducted evaluation based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06 * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
  20. 21. 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  21. 22. China National Rice Research Institute: Factorial trials over two years, 2004/2005 using two super-hybrid varieties with the aim of breaking the ‘plateau’ limiting yields <ul><li>Standard Rice Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>30-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>20x20 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Rice Mgmt (~SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>20-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>30x30 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% chemical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% organic </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Average super-rice yields with standard rice management (SRM) vs. new rice management (NRM~SRI) at different plant densities ha -1 Plant density (plants per hectare) Yield (kg per hectare)
  23. 24. AN ASSESSMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) COMPARED WITH RECOMMENDED RICE CULTIVATION PRACTICES IN INDIA A.K. Thakur, N. Uphoff, E. Antony Experimental Agriculture , 46(1), 77-98 (2010) Water-use efficiency is reflected in the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration For the loss of 1 millimol of water by transpiration, In SRI plants, 3.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed In RMP plants, 1.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed
  24. 25. We see many versions of SRI: <ul><li>In China, many different innovations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangular spacing, raised beds/no-till ; now also plastic mulch on raised beds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Myanmar, Cambodia, Philippines, India: rainfed/upland SRI - not irrigated </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Thailand, Sri Lanka: getting direct-seeded SRI - no transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>In Pakistan, Costa Rica, India: have mechanized SRI - reducing labor-intensity </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Mali, Ethiopia: other crops - wheat, sugar cane, millet, maize, etc. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; his SRI yield in 2001 (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record
  26. 27. <ul><li>Science and Technology Daily , Chengdu - 26 June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>“ A New Technology Saves Millions in Paddy Fields in Drought Season in Sichuan Province” – Sheng Li </li></ul><ul><li>Yield per mu in this drought-prone area is normally 300 kg ( 4.5 t/ha ); with new methods it can exceed 500-600 kg/mu ( 7.7-9.0 t/ha ), and can even reach 800 kg/mu ( 12 t/ha ). </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of mulching with new methods is 40 ¥/mu; but costs of weeding, land preparation, fertilizer and irrigation are decreased by 230 ¥/mu </li></ul><ul><li>Net income can increase with higher yield by 460 ¥/mu ($1,015/hectare) – while using less water </li></ul>
  27. 28. Rainfed/upland SRI <ul><li>Utilizing monsoon or other rainfall: </li></ul><ul><li>Change WATER management - no hoarding of rain water </li></ul><ul><li>Change NURSERY management – plant several nurseries , expect to sacrifice all but one of them </li></ul><ul><li>Increase soil organic matter for soil structure & water retention </li></ul>
  28. 29. INDIA: Cultivation costs & net profits Subject SRI (Rs) Conv (Rs) Land preparation 2,800 2,800 Seed 45 450 Labour (8) 400 750 DAP-75kg 750 750 Urea -50Kg 310 310 Weeding 600 1,000 Harvesting 420 420 Tractor hiring charges 450 450 Threshing 1,200 1,200 TOTAL COST 6,975 8,130 Irrigation - alternate (hrs) 3 7 Yield (bags) 39 32 Tons/ha 2.73 2.24 GROSS PROFIT 25,389 20,832 NET PROFIT 18,414 12,702
  29. 30. IWMI/India study: -  67% more income per ha -- one field yielded 15 t/ha
  30. 31. Direct-seeding for SRI <ul><li>Sow pre-germinated seed in square pattern – Cuba, India, Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast of pregerminated seed and thin out plants by weeding – Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Parachute method – Iran, elsewhere? (spacing is not regular) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Seeder Developed in Cuba
  32. 33. INDIA: Southern Andhra Pradesh Direct-seeder at KVK
  33. 34. THAILAND: Farmers making direct-seeder for SRI
  34. 35. Mechanization of SRI <ul><li>Need to reduce labor requirements in many places </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting developments in Costa Rica, Pakistan and other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical transplanting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical land preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Mechanical transplanter in Costa Rica
  36. 37. 8 t/ha yield vs. 4.2 t/ha before
  37. 38. Costa Rica – mechanized SRI crop 8 t/ha yield without fertilizer
  38. 39. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  39. 40. Mechanical transplanting with SRI spacing in Iraq
  40. 41. Pakistan, Punjab Province: Raised beds (dry) formed on laser-leveled fields
  41. 42. Multi-function transplanting machine: laborers drop 10-day seedlings into holes; machine sprays water into holes and bands compost and fertilizer
  42. 43. Transplanting machine straddling raised beds as laborers drop seedlings in holes
  43. 44. Weeder/soil aerator: removes weeds and breaks soil crust for 9 inch (22.5cm) spacing
  44. 45. Growing crop – reached 90 tillers at 72 days
  45. 47. SRI Methods in Different Agroecosystems <ul><li>Tropical environment – Indonesia/Aceh </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme mountain environment – Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Benign mountain environment – Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li>Desert environment - Mali </li></ul>
  46. 48. ‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Australia after tsunami had devastated the area – new methods raised local rice yields from 2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha: “Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.”
  47. 49. 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
  48. 50. AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  49. 51. AKF technician making field visit in Baghlan Province
  50. 52. SRI field at 30 days
  51. 53. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  52. 54. BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
  53. 55. MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
  54. 56. SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
  55. 57. MALI: Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- 2007: SRI yield was 8.98 t/ha
  56. 58. <ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, Mali, 2008   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
  57. 59. Importance of Soil Aeration <ul><li>Stimulate aerobic soil organisms as they are critical for soil fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus solubilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycorrhyzal fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling – protozoa, nematodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induced systemic resistance (ISR) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
  59. 61. Madagascar: Impact of SRI Weeding on Yield, Ambatovaky, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
  60. 62. Why Is ‘Weeding’ So Important? <ul><li>Not just to control weeds ; also benefit from green-manure effect of weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of beneficial soil organisms , both bacteria and fungi (mycorrhizae) </li></ul><ul><li>These organisms are functioning not only in the soil -- but also in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>As symbiotic endophytes in ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>Also as endophytes in the LEAVES </li></ul><ul><li>Even as endophytes in the seed coat ! </li></ul>
  61. 63. Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere Tamil Nadu Agricultural University research T. M. Thiyagarajan, WRRC presentation, Tsukuba, Japan, 2004 Microorganisms Conventional SRI Total bacteria 88 x 10 6 105 x 10 6 Azospirillum 8 x 10 5 31 x 10 5 Azotobacter 39 x 10 3 66 x 10 3 Phosphobacteria 33 x 10 3 59 x 10 3
  62. 64. Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
  63. 65. Total microbes and numbers of beneficial microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Cultivation method and fertilization Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azoto-bacter (x10 3 ) Azospi- rillum (x10 3 ) P-solubilizing bacteria (x10 4 ) Conventional crop mgmt with NPK 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (NPK fertilizer) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (compost) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Inorganic SRI + biofertilizer 4.8c 4.4b 3.3c 6.4b
  64. 67. Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  65. 68. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants -- symbiotic plant seeds were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  66. 69. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  67. 70. PERFORMANCE OF SCI CROPS DURING DROUGHT SEASON 2009 Experiences from Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN
  68. 71. Up-scaling of SRI in Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand, 2006-08 Average SRI increase in grain yield has been about 70 per cent -- SRI concepts and methods now being applied to OTHER CROPS Particulars 2006 2007 2008 Conv. SRI Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of farmers (villages) 40 (25) 591 (133) 12,214 (496) Area (ha) - 0.95 - 15.00 252.98 Average grain yield (Q/ha) 31.5 52.5 28.5 54.0 39.5 60.5 % increase in grain yield - 67 - 89 - 53 Average straw yield (Q/ha) 58 72.5 55 73.5 110.5 145 % increase in straw yield - 25 - 34 - 31
  69. 72. SRI Comparative Crop-Cut Results, 2009 ** In this drought year, grain yields of conventional crop decreased by 31% , as compared to a reduction of only 13% in the SRI crop ** Conventional yields stood close to 2.5 tons per ha while SRI yields were 4.8 tons per ha -- 92% higher Normal (2006-2008) Drought (2009) Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of effective tillers/ plant 7 21 5 18 Average plant height (cm) 99 122 88 102 Average panicle length (cm) 18 24 19 25 Average no. of grains/panicle 93 177 90 174 Grain yield (t/ha) 3.6 5.5 2.5 4.8 Straw yield (t/ha) 11.1 14.5 5.1 8.5
  70. 73. Experiments on System of Crop Intensification (SCI), 2009 Crops Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Maize 183 10.34 Kidney bean ( Rajma ) 679 14.01 Sesame ( Til ) 22 0.41 Finger millet ( Mandwa ) 340 8.04 Black gram ( Urad ) 314 2.00 Soyabean 77 2.47 Tomato 45 4.36 French bean 44 0.35 1,704 41.98
  71. 74. Results of SCI with Finger Millet & Maize, Kharif 2009 Finger Millet Maize Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Ave. ears/plant (cobs/plant) 3 5 2 3 Average plant height (cm) 69.5 88.5 149.4 173.7 Ave. no. of grains /ear (kernels/cob) 290 428 225 248 Grain yield (T/ha) 1.2 1.8 17.1 22.9 % increase in grain yield - 50% - 34%
  72. 76. <ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
  73. 77. Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah, Crawuk village, Ngawi, E. Java
  74. 78. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  75. 79. <ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a paradigm shift  toward ‘post-modern agriculture’? </li></ul><ul><li>Less genocentric and more fundamentally biocentric </li></ul><ul><li>More interest in epigenetics </li></ul><ul><li>Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on benefits of biodiversity and ecological dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>More oriented to health of humans and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of production </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on greater factor productivity and sustainability </li></ul>
  76. 80. THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>or [email_address] </li></ul>

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