Lesson plans CBI


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Lesson plans are more than "what and when students do in the classroom." Instead we must consider who does what, when, how, and why, and with what. This means conceptualizing the learning experience before filling out that form that many schools require. This plan incorporates CBI as the materials for instruction, though that's not required.

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  • “ weaker” and “stronger” may have positive/negative connotations… other ideas? Is Swimming or other major fields of study inappropriate?
  • Lesson plans CBI

    1. 1. Lesson Planning and Content Based Instruction Robert J. Dickey Keimyung, Korea past president, Korea TESOL
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ Prescriptive ” vs. “ Descriptive ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Theory-driven ” vs. “ Reality-based ” </li></ul><ul><li>For classrooms “where a commitment has been made to content learning as well as language learning.” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Terms of Art <ul><ul><li>Language Teaching Investigators are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semanticists </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. www.content-english.org <ul><ul><li>Content-based Instruction (CBI) Content-based Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of Content and Language (content & language, ICL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-enriched / Content-focused / Content-centered / Content-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-sensitive / Content-oriented / Content-infused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme-based / Topic-based / Discipline-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching Dual-focused Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching (Content) Through English / Teaching Through Foreign Languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion / Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Across the Curriculum / Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Second Language Learning / Extended Language Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning with Languages / Learning through an additional language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Curriculum Bridge Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Curricular Teaching Interdisciplinary Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-handed foreign language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning skills based ELT / ESP Applied Languages </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Aims <ul><li>“ Killing two birds with one stone” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning by Doing” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Language in Context” </li></ul><ul><li>“ not talking about language, but using </li></ul><ul><li>language to learn language and content” </li></ul>
    6. 6. “ Text” (Content) <ul><li>I : Jack’s dog is sick. </li></ul>
    7. 7. I : Jack ’ s dog is sick . 1 2 3 4 5
    8. 9. <ul><li>Assumption of learner motivation through interest in content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that valid? “can’t please everyone” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing from other approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not “HOW” to teach, but with what (“text”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not dictate teacher & learner roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used with any other approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently matched with task-based learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. “ latitude” in the (lack of) definition <ul><li>“ CBI” label an “umbrella” </li></ul><ul><li>justify going outside established course materials </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>No Agreement whether CBI early </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Distinguish between Cummins’ (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>BICS / CALP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BICS -- B asic I nterpersonal C ommunication S kills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALP -- C ognitive A cademic L anguage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P roficiency </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. Design Questions <ul><li>Cohesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science / Biology / “The Environment” / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Pond” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate to learners’ educational development / other courses of study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One class session (or less) – topical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One to three weeks – thematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six weeks or more – sustained content </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Using content to teach language, or </li></ul><ul><li>Using language to teach content? </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>Substitutions for content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ academic skills” as (aim for?) content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ vocational skills” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-media/technology as “content” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(TV commercials, movies, the internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ language skills” as content (applied languages) - Translation, Journalism, Debate. Public Speaking… “the four skills” (especially Listening & Reading, topical areas) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Issues <ul><li>Authenticity / Genuineness ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with subject matter courses? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everything is content” (including the Grammar-translation textbook drill sentences”) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Teacher qualification in Subject area? </li></ul>
    16. 18. Content / Language Mix <ul><li>Cognitive Load </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><ul><li>A topical matrix </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>Mix Options </li></ul><ul><li>(Here “language as content” (e.g., Literature) or “language as skill” (e.g., Reading, Translation) belongs under “Subject Matter.” </li></ul><ul><li>Language science here refers merely to the “science” aspects, e.g., grammar, vocabulary, phonetics…) </li></ul>
    19. 22. Lesson Planning Content + Language <ul><li>Lesson Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Plan Development </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the Students, not the Plan </li></ul>
    20. 23. Planning Content + Language <ul><li>Identifying learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>L1 Use </li></ul><ul><li>Methods (Teaching Tools) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Class </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul>
    21. 24. 1. Identifying learning objectives <ul><li>Orientations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners’ orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration, parents, others </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><li>Course objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other learning objectives, e.g., “academic skills”, test preparation… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVERY lesson should have both/3 types </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>EFL vs. ESL approaches (generally) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N. American “CBI” is bifurcated: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immersion/partial immersion (even French as a foreign language in Canada) has content focus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ mainstreaming” in USA has more language skills focus – use of “sheltered,” “pullout” and “adjunct” programs (or, it did “pre-GW”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European “CLIL” more oriented to “balance” (though not necessarily 50/50) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. <ul><li>Instructor’s knowledge-base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued by both content specialists and language specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent reason for distinction between “content-focus” and “language-focus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reason for topical vs. sustained content decisions </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. 2. L1 Use <ul><li>No assumption of L2-only </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’ familiarity with content may affect L1 use </li></ul><ul><li>Content focus (test aim?) along with time factors may dictate L1 use </li></ul>
    26. 29. <ul><li>CBI does not dictate teaching techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>works well with Task-based, as well as with the more teacher-centered systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably all “methods” can and have used a content-based syllabus at one time or another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>does not dictate medium of instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distance learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALL/video/audio/other </li></ul></ul>3. Teaching Methods
    27. 30. 4. Sample Class <ul><li>Language Objective – subjunctive ‘wish’ </li></ul><ul><li>Content Objective - Indian English Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Class general aims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ appreciation of literature” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation for writing assignment - social commentary through poetry </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. A Sample Class .2 <ul><li>The “text”: Tagore’s Crescent Moon – “Vocation” </li></ul><ul><li>Language objectives: “I wish I were…” and descriptive writing </li></ul><ul><li>Content objective: roles in society and creative thinking </li></ul>
    29. 32. <ul><li>Teaching English through content, Teaching content through English ??? </li></ul><ul><li>A Framework for constructing a content-enriched (content-enhanced) lesson plan </li></ul><ul><li>from the paper at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.content-english.org/data/dickey-ei.pdf </li></ul>5. Framework
    30. 33. A Lesson from N. Luzon
    31. 34. <ul><li>Identify the specific course and group of students to teach. </li></ul>
    32. 35. <ul><li>Identify the content to be utilized. </li></ul>
    33. 36. <ul><li>Identify why the students should care. </li></ul>
    34. 37. <ul><li>Identify the specific “teaching point(s).” </li></ul>
    35. 38. <ul><li>Develop/locate an exemplar text. </li></ul>
    36. 39. <ul><li>Design student responses to the text. </li></ul>
    37. 40. <ul><li>Students check their own work, and that of their peers. </li></ul>
    38. 41. <ul><li>Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates. </li></ul>
    39. 42. <ul><li>Groupwork. </li></ul>
    40. 43. <ul><li>Testing (Assessment). </li></ul>
    41. 44. <ul><li>Identify the specific course and group of students to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the content to be utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify why the students should care. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the specific “teaching point(s).” </li></ul><ul><li>Develop/locate an exemplar text. </li></ul><ul><li>Design student responses to the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Students check their own work, and that of their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Students create new stories, new endings, and tell the stories to groupmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Groupwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing (Assessment). </li></ul>
    42. 45. <ul><li>Robert J. Dickey </li></ul><ul><li>Keimyung University </li></ul><ul><li>Daegu </li></ul><ul><li>S. Korea 704-701 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.content-english.org </li></ul>