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Supporting thinking skills in CLIL courses
上智大学言語教育研究センター
准教授
逸見シャンタール(EdD TEFL)
chantalhemmi@gmail.com
Outline
1
• What is CLIL?
2
• Practical application of a CLIL approach
3
• Supporting thinking skills through integration ...
The most popular
definition
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
is a dual-focused educational approach in whic...
The 4 Cs of CLIL
CLIL
Cognition
Communication
Content
Community
Uncovering CLIL
Mehisto. Marsh, Frigols (2008)
Macmillan B...
CLIL in Europe
PROVISION IN ALMOST ALL COUNTRIES
In nearly all European countries, certain schools offer a form of educati...
Hard CLIL and Soft CLIL?
O Hard CLIL is a form of subject teaching in
L2 which highlights academic
achievement within the ...
CLIL is wrongly used to refer to
local forms of L2 subject
teaching.
O There are long-established forms of L2
medium educa...
Different types of education in
diverse educational settings
Education in a
second language
Immersion
education
Minority e...
How is CLIL different?
O CLIL tends to be taught in a particular
school in one or a limited number of
subjects; it rarely ...
How is CLIL different?
O CLIL is normally offered in secondary
schools, though many primary schools do
offer effective CLI...
Literacy and cognitive skills
O It is widely accepted and well supported by
research (Cummins, 2000) that learners
with go...
http://eslrw.ucalgary.ca/files/eslrw/Learner_
profiles.pdf
Cognition
HOTS
(Higher Order
Thinking Skills)
LOTS
(Lower Order
Thinking Skills)
Community (Culture)
World
Region
Country
Town/city
School
Classroom
http://www.slideshare.net/engnet/abcs-of-clil
http://www.slideshare.net/engnet/abcs-of-clil
Discussion
Graffiti can sometimes add an interesting
touch to the scenery in cities but some
people
are against it because...
Sharing your stories
O Think of a childhood memory and share your
story about how it has shaped who you are.
O Make a note...
What I found interesting about my
partner’s story was that…
O She remembered the experience so well
O There is a vivid ima...
What is identity? Definitions
 Identity answers the
question, ‘Who am I?’
(Sarbin and Scheibe,
1983; Weigart et al,
1986)...
Part 1.3
Who cares? Memories of a Childhood in Care
Fred Fever
16 pages
1. How old was the writer when he was
adopted?
2. What were the first parents like?
3. What was Patrick like?
4. What did ...
Let’s check the homework.
1. How old was the writer when he was
adopted? Three months old
2. What were the first parents l...
What happened in the rest of the story?
(True or false?)
1. In 1974, Fred was fostered by Betty and
Bernard Simmonds.
2. F...
The nature of autobiographies
In your view, what is the nature of
autobiographies?
O It is a true story.
O There are real ...
Personal reflections: What I did in the CLIL classes (Not necessarily what
should be done in a CLIL class in a prescribed ...
Personal reflections
CLIL classes Language-focussed classes
6. Approach Task-based with an end-
product
Completely integra...
What is critical thinking?
What is critical thinking?
An active, persistent and careful
consideration of a belief
Supposed form of knowledge in the l...
Reflection
OAccording to Schön (1987) a
reflective practitioner thinks a
he/she does things (reflection
in action) and ref...
Critical thinking skills-
a disposition?
OEnnis (1987) focused on the
ability to reflect skeptically and
to think in a rea...
Critical thinking: a set of skills
OCottrell (2011:1) supports the
view that critical thinking can be
taught as a set of s...
What are the benefits of focussing on
critical thinking?
OWe can help students to be able to
think and present their opini...
What are the benefits of
focussing on critical thinking?
OWe can guide them to take
control of their learning and
become m...
Research questions
O What kind of reflection is shown in the students’
reflective papers?
O How did student thinking devel...
Data collection
O First six weeks of term before the students launched
on a project related to identity and diversity
O Re...
Sample paper
Data analysis
O I used a grounded theory approach to analyse
the data (Glaser & Strauss, 1968), so that the
findings remai...
What kind of reflection is shown in the
students’ reflective papers?
O Personalising concepts
O Exploring definitions
(per...
Thinking about content and
language
The data from the reflective papers showed that the
students had thought about both th...
Personalising concepts
It is illuminating that students had personalised
concepts by referring back to their own past
expe...
Analysing content
(Making comparisons)
When Eriko read an auto-biography of a British person who
had lived in orphanages, ...
Exploring definitions
O When I was a junior high school student I always changed
my attitude with whom I talk and I felt d...
Making personal theories
Students wrote out their own definitions in order to make personal
theories about identity. For e...
Making personal theories
O I think identity is made up with how person
spend his or her life so the biographies tell
the r...
Thinking about language
O Content is more important than pronunciation. I think
many people in British Council thought Sad...
Learning through
collaboration
O Before I took this class, I had thought that
my words were reliable and I could talk
my e...
Thinking about culture
O What I found interesting was that just
speaking English makes me feel I am
touching foreign cultu...
Thinking about emotions
O Autobiography is interesting. It was the first
time for me to read autobiography; therefore
Fred...
Forming a hypothesis
and making a suggestion
O I wondered if the voters are included other
English native speakers who is ...
How did the students’
thinking develop through the
course?O They started to apply their own thinking initially to
personal...
Development of student
thinking
Analysing
content Making
comparisons
Thinking
about content
Thinking
about
language
Learni...
Conclusions and Implications
1. In the light CLIL course, students needed a lot of
support in ‘the language for learning’ ...
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses
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Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses

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Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses

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Supporting Thinking Skills in CLIL Courses

  1. 1. Supporting thinking skills in CLIL courses 上智大学言語教育研究センター 准教授 逸見シャンタール(EdD TEFL) chantalhemmi@gmail.com
  2. 2. Outline 1 • What is CLIL? 2 • Practical application of a CLIL approach 3 • Supporting thinking skills through integration of content and language 4 • Demo lesson 5 • Student research project 6 • Heavy CLIL • Students’ reflections 7 • Conclusions and implications
  3. 3. The most popular definition Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a dual-focused educational approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both content and language. (Coyle, Hood and Marsh 2010:1)
  4. 4. The 4 Cs of CLIL CLIL Cognition Communication Content Community Uncovering CLIL Mehisto. Marsh, Frigols (2008) Macmillan Books for Teachers
  5. 5. CLIL in Europe PROVISION IN ALMOST ALL COUNTRIES In nearly all European countries, certain schools offer a form of education provision according to which non-language subjects are taught either through two different languages, or through a single language which is 'foreign' according to the curriculum. This is known as content and language integrated learning (CLIL – see the Glossary, Statistical Databases and Bibliography section). Only Denmark, Greece, Iceland and Turkey do not make this kind of provision. Figure B9: Existence of CLIL provision in primary and/or general secondary education, 2010/11 Source: Eurydice. Explanatory note CLIL provision in some schools: The practice is not necessarily widespread. For detailed information on CLIL provision in each country, see Annex 2. CLIL provision in all schools CLIL provision in some schools CLIL provision within pilot projects only No CLIL provision
  6. 6. Hard CLIL and Soft CLIL? O Hard CLIL is a form of subject teaching in L2 which highlights academic achievement within the subject and treats language development as important, but as a bonus. O Soft CLIL may be offered for a short period-perhaps half a year- and it will only occupy a portion of the hours available to the subject: perhaps one in three. Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Oxford: OUP.
  7. 7. CLIL is wrongly used to refer to local forms of L2 subject teaching. O There are long-established forms of L2 medium education and new introductions for example, English Medium science and maths adapted to the local context. Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Oxford: OUP Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015:10)
  8. 8. Different types of education in diverse educational settings Education in a second language Immersion education Minority education Bilingual education English-medium education in developing countries Recent English medium science and maths programmes Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Oxford: OUP Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015:6-10)
  9. 9. How is CLIL different? O CLIL tends to be taught in a particular school in one or a limited number of subjects; it rarely involves large proportions of the curriculum. O CLIL learners have a basic minimum level of L2 ability when they enter a programme, which is considered adequate for them to flourish in it. O CLIL is dependent on good levels of CALP on the part of learners. Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015:10)
  10. 10. How is CLIL different? O CLIL is normally offered in secondary schools, though many primary schools do offer effective CLIL courses. O In European CLIL, learning a subject in L2 can have high social value for parents and can achieve high levels of language and subject knowledge. Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Oxford: OUP Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015:10)
  11. 11. Literacy and cognitive skills O It is widely accepted and well supported by research (Cummins, 2000) that learners with good L1 literacy skills and academic language proficiency are better equipped to learn in L2. O A ‘common underlying proficiency’ consisting of CALP skills-once learnt in one language , can transfer to a second. Ball, Kelly and Clegg (2015:13) Ball,B. Kelly, K. and Clegg, J. (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Oxford: OUP. Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  12. 12. http://eslrw.ucalgary.ca/files/eslrw/Learner_ profiles.pdf
  13. 13. Cognition HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) LOTS (Lower Order Thinking Skills)
  14. 14. Community (Culture) World Region Country Town/city School Classroom
  15. 15. http://www.slideshare.net/engnet/abcs-of-clil
  16. 16. http://www.slideshare.net/engnet/abcs-of-clil
  17. 17. Discussion Graffiti can sometimes add an interesting touch to the scenery in cities but some people are against it because they think that the loud colours and images spoil the environment. Discuss whether you agree or disagree with the statement below, giving reasons for your opinion. ‘Graffiti should be banned in all public places.’
  18. 18. Sharing your stories O Think of a childhood memory and share your story about how it has shaped who you are. O Make a note of your partner’s story and report it to another partner after you have finished sharing your stories.
  19. 19. What I found interesting about my partner’s story was that… O She remembered the experience so well O There is a vivid image of … O She remembered how…
  20. 20. What is identity? Definitions  Identity answers the question, ‘Who am I?’ (Sarbin and Scheibe, 1983; Weigart et al, 1986).  ‘Identities are defined with respect to the interaction of multiple convergent trajectories’ (Wenger, 1998:154).  ‘A community of selves’ (Mair, 1997)  ‘Identities and beliefs are co-constructed, negotiated and transformed on an ongoing basis by means of language.’ (Duff &Uchida, 1997:452)
  21. 21. Part 1.3 Who cares? Memories of a Childhood in Care Fred Fever 16 pages
  22. 22. 1. How old was the writer when he was adopted? 2. What were the first parents like? 3. What was Patrick like? 4. What did David do?
  23. 23. Let’s check the homework. 1. How old was the writer when he was adopted? Three months old 2. What were the first parents like? Jenny was warm and friendly and loving. 3. What was Patrick like? Patrick was humiliating, punishing and violent. 4. What did David do? He sexually abused him; He threatened him with castration.
  24. 24. What happened in the rest of the story? (True or false?) 1. In 1974, Fred was fostered by Betty and Bernard Simmonds. 2. Fred made many friends in Barrow Grove. 3. Fred was not interested in his school work at all. 4. Fred got bad grades from school. 5. Fred was happy to go to a children’s home.
  25. 25. The nature of autobiographies In your view, what is the nature of autobiographies? O It is a true story. O There are real descriptions. O However, is it alright to trust the stories? O Is it a good tool for research?
  26. 26. Personal reflections: What I did in the CLIL classes (Not necessarily what should be done in a CLIL class in a prescribed way) CLIL classes Language-focussed classes 1. Starting the lesson Sharing session Teacher just listens to find a ‘tag’ from which to scaffold new information Warmer An activity focussing on the topic, often with an aim to study linguistic difficulties/student learning needs. (Often diagnostic) 2. Shape of the lesson Less-controlled-controlled- less controlled (TB) Often the background reading was set for homework so students came with prior knowledge to the classroom PPP: Controlled-Less controlled- Less controlled TTT: Little control-Control-Little control-Control TB: Controlled-Less controlled- Controlled 3. Correction on the language Done in the following session to avoid distraction from the content and to avoid embarrassment Often done on the spot because of requests from students to do so. Sometimes group correction/peer correction using codes 4. Materials Very visual Authentic materials Visual Textbook and authentic materials 5. Vocabulary Taught in context Pre-taught before the main activity
  27. 27. Personal reflections CLIL classes Language-focussed classes 6. Approach Task-based with an end- product Completely integrated Content : language (50:50) Communicative approach Information gap Sometimes task-based Process approach Skills-focussed and achievement orientated 7. Role of teacher Facilitator Manager Suggestion maker for informed choices Manager Giver of advice on accuracy and fluency Time-management controller Advocator of efficacy Counselor (0ne-on-one) 8. Thinking skills Core factor Always an important factor but the main factor was about the achievement of language accuracy and fluency 9. Study skills Very important factor Very important especially in the EAP courses I taught 10. Assessment Portfolios, exam, essay, presentation Continuous assessment
  28. 28. What is critical thinking?
  29. 29. What is critical thinking? An active, persistent and careful consideration of a belief Supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds which support it (Dewey, 1909) Dewey, J. (1998) How We Think. Dover Publications.
  30. 30. Reflection OAccording to Schön (1987) a reflective practitioner thinks a he/she does things (reflection in action) and reflects on the actions taken (reflection on action). Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. Jossey-Bass Publishers: London.
  31. 31. Critical thinking skills- a disposition? OEnnis (1987) focused on the ability to reflect skeptically and to think in a reasoned way as one’s capability or disposition. Ennis, R. (1987) A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J.Baron and R. Sternberg (eds.). Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and practice. New York: W.H.Freeman.
  32. 32. Critical thinking: a set of skills OCottrell (2011:1) supports the view that critical thinking can be taught as a set of skills. OShe advocates that it is a cognitive activity that uses processes such as focussing attention, categorisation, selection and judgment. Cottrell, S.(2011) Critical Thinking Skills, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  33. 33. What are the benefits of focussing on critical thinking? OWe can help students to be able to think and present their opinions with reasons. OWe can help students to listen critically to others and agree/disagree with reasons. OWe can help students in the selection of materials they read.
  34. 34. What are the benefits of focussing on critical thinking? OWe can guide them to take control of their learning and become more autonomous in what and how they learn.
  35. 35. Research questions O What kind of reflection is shown in the students’ reflective papers? O How did student thinking develop through the course? 5. The study
  36. 36. Data collection O First six weeks of term before the students launched on a project related to identity and diversity O Reflective papers were sent to me by e-mail
  37. 37. Sample paper
  38. 38. Data analysis O I used a grounded theory approach to analyse the data (Glaser & Strauss, 1968), so that the findings remain close to the actual data and as far as possible retain the ‘voices’ of the participants. I aimed to identify the commonalities in the kinds of thinking that took place, but at the same time, I wished to understand the stories that individuals told about their learning and thinking. O I analysed the data in this way so as to identify commonalities amongst what the students’ had expressed in their papers.
  39. 39. What kind of reflection is shown in the students’ reflective papers? O Personalising concepts O Exploring definitions (personalising the definitions) O Making comparisons O Analysing content O Thinking about language O Learning through collaboration O Thinking about culture O Thinking about emotions O Forming a hypothesis O Theorising personally O Thinking about suggestions
  40. 40. Thinking about content and language The data from the reflective papers showed that the students had thought about both the new content learnt on the course, as well as the English language itself. Thinking about content Three categories emerged from the data; analysing content, personalising concepts, and making personal theories.
  41. 41. Personalising concepts It is illuminating that students had personalised concepts by referring back to their own past experiences. O Eriko said,‘ I have read some biographies before, but I didn’t think about what is the power of that what is the difference between biographies and other writings.’ She is comparing biographies and other kinds of writing to understand what kind of impact they have on the readers. She compares the autobiography we read, which had real data on how Fred was abused in an orphanage. This text was used in class to analyse how Fred’s identity was formed. It is interesting that Eriko is trying to personalise a new concept about the power of autobiographies by comparing them to other books she has read.
  42. 42. Analysing content (Making comparisons) When Eriko read an auto-biography of a British person who had lived in orphanages, ’Who cares? Memories of a Childhood in Care’ (Fever, 1995), there was a reference to his grades from school. Eriko wrote: O ‘I do not know whether it is a big difference or not but on the left side one which is written on 19th February in 1976, the teacher refers Fred as ‘Alfred’ though on the right side, the teacher write ‘Fred’. I know those two words refer to the same person but I wondered what has happened during five month.’ The above text shows that Eriko is comparing the way the teacher referred to the author differently and Eriko guesses that something must have happened in the relationship between the teacher and Alfred. She is questioning herself by saying, ‘ I wondered what has happening during five month’. She does not make explicit what her guesses are but she formed a question to analyse the differences in which Alfred was addressed.
  43. 43. Exploring definitions O When I was a junior high school student I always changed my attitude with whom I talk and I felt difficulty in defining myself because I didn’t have my consistent character and didn’t know who I was. It was hard for me to live school life not knowing what my character was. However, one day I noticed that to try to define my character is just my ‘identity’. That is, to think about ‘identity’ is exactly identity. (Saki 1-2) O I was very interested in the matter of identity, and I rediscovered the importance of the events in each personal lives, by listening the lectures of professor and also the opinions of the classmates. They reminded me of a traumatic episode, which changed my life. I am fascinated by the fact that our identity stands on the layers of tiny fatal occurance. (Naho 1-5)
  44. 44. Making personal theories Students wrote out their own definitions in order to make personal theories about identity. For example, Saki said: O ‘Identity was a difficult thing to explain and I have not found the definition of identity yet…In the last class, having listened to other’s opinion that identity is what makes our core, I have a definition of identity, that is, a consistent tendency that one always have.’ I was intrigued by the concept of ‘a consistent tendency that one always [has]’, as I think that Saki is thinking about the fact that one’s identity can change, depending on the people one is interacting with, and that identity is socially constructed. However, she is thinking there must be a ‘core’ person who determines who they are. She uses the word, ‘tendency’ to explain that although there is a ‘core person’ within a person, they may change. ‘Tendency’ is translated as ‘keikou’ in Japanese, and what she means here is that one may tend to behave differently depending on the circumstances of the social situation and who one’s interlocutor is. By making such a personal theory about identity, Saki is internalising the content she learnt in the lesson.
  45. 45. Making personal theories O I think identity is made up with how person spend his or her life so the biographies tell the readers about the writer’s identity more deeply and efficiently than the novels they wrote. However, actually the writer might try to be a hero or heroine of tragedy throughout their writings so I agree with the opinions that ‘feelings may not be reliable’ and subjectivity would change the truth. (Eriko1-2)
  46. 46. Thinking about language O Content is more important than pronunciation. I think many people in British Council thought Sadako Ogata’s speech is professional, gentle, and easy to hear, and right speed. The more I hear her speech I like Sadako Ogata’s speech more. In Japanese there are many people (including me) who think that their pronunciation is not so good. But now, I change my mind. Even I can become a good English speaker if I care about the contents and have the will to share my opinion to everyone. (Aya 2-1)
  47. 47. Learning through collaboration O Before I took this class, I had thought that my words were reliable and I could talk my experiences truthfully because they were what I actually experienced and believed that both what I experienced to a thing and what others experienced were the same. However, I found that there was a difference of the way of understanding to a same thing between others and I. (Saki 1-5)
  48. 48. Thinking about culture O What I found interesting was that just speaking English makes me feel I am touching foreign culture. Of course English is not Japanese culture, so it is quite natural for me, Japanese, to feel so. But through using English to communicate with other students, this might be my over-reacting but, what I think is not the same when I speak Japanese, I guess that is because speaking English is not common to me. So my brain is working more than speaking Japanese, I like this feelings. (Keisuke)
  49. 49. Thinking about emotions O Autobiography is interesting. It was the first time for me to read autobiography; therefore Fred Fever’s sad childhood day’s records really touched me. I heave read a biography of my favourite author J.R.R.Tolkien and it was entirely different. The reason why Fred Fever’s autobiography touched me is its word had a ‘power’; alternatively, it included his emotion. O As I read this article, I could experience his happiness, fear, anger and all sorts of feelings which he experienced. (Natsumi 1-1)
  50. 50. Forming a hypothesis and making a suggestion O I wondered if the voters are included other English native speakers who is like from USA, Australia or Canada, the results may different from this one. O I think if this type of research would be done, the results might be more influenced by the preferences of the selectors. (Eriko 2-2)
  51. 51. How did the students’ thinking develop through the course?O They started to apply their own thinking initially to personalise new concepts that were presented in class. O They did this by comparing things they knew, referring back to their own experiences. O They made their own definitions and understood that they were allowed to make mistakes. O They learnt to make a hypothesis and made some assumptions with reasons. O They started to theorise and make suggestions about problems that needed to be sorted. O The developed their confidence in making critical comments about what the teacher had said.
  52. 52. Development of student thinking Analysing content Making comparisons Thinking about content Thinking about language Learning through collaboration Thinking about cultureThinking about emotions Forming a hypothesis Making personal theories Thinking about suggestions
  53. 53. Conclusions and Implications 1. In the light CLIL course, students needed a lot of support in ‘the language for learning’ (Coyle, Hood and Marsh,2010:60’) 2. In the heavy CLIL course, students used their reflective papers to monitor their own understanding of content and concepts related to identity. 3. In future, I need to devise a more triangulated way in which to analyse students’ development of thinking skills.

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