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    teamwork n group.. teamwork n group.. Presentation Transcript

    • Teamwork And Group By: Kishan Ravji Chintan Pooja
      • Group : Meaning, Importance, Formation, Types.
      • Models of Group Development
      • Factors affecting effectiveness of Group.
      • Advantages and Disadvantages of Group.
      • Team : Meaning, Importance.
      • Difference between Team and Group
      • Team : Types, Team Role, measures of improving effectiveness of team.
      • Process and team based design of Organization.
      Contents :
      • Group :
        • Two or more individual interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
      • Work Group :
        • A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
      • Formal Groups : Officially formed groups
        • Accomplish complex, independent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals
        • Create new ideas
        • Co-ordinate interdepartmental efforts
        • Solve complex problems requiring varied information and perceptives.
        • Implement action plans.
        • Socialize and train newcomers.
      Importance of Group
      • Informal Groups : Unofficially formed
        • Filling in gaps in manager’s abilities
        • Solving work problems
        • Better co-ordination
        • Channel of communication
        • Restraint on managers
        • Better relations
        • Norms of behavior
        • Satisfied workforce
        • Developing future executives
      • Task Accomplishment
      • Problem Solving
      • Proximity
      • Socio-Psychological Factors
      Formation of Group :
      • Formal groups:
        • A designed work group defined by an organization's structure
      Types of Group :
      • Informal group:
        • A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact.
      • Command group :
        • A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.
      • Task group :
        • People working together to complete a job task.
      • Interest group :
        • People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
      • Five stage Group Development Model :
        • Developed by Tuckman and Jenson
      Models of Group Development :
      • Forming :
        • Characterized by great deal of uncertainty about the group’s Purpose , Structure and leadership.
        • Members “test the waters” to determine what type of behaviors are acceptable.
      • Storming :
        • One of intragroup conflict.
        • Members have accepted the existence of the group, but there is resistance to constraints that a group imposes on individuality.
      • Norming :
        • Close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness.
        • There is now a strong sense of group identity and comparison.
      • Performing :
        • The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted.
        • Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.
      • Adjouring :
        • the group prepares for its disbandment.
        • High task performance is no longer the group’s top priority.
      • Temporary groups with deadlines does not follow 5 stage model instead they have their own unique Sequencing of actions:
      An Alternative Model for Groups with Deadlines:
      • First Meeting – to set group’s direction.
      • Period of Inertia – become locked into fixed course of action.
      • End of 1 st Phrase – Transition takes place, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its time allotted time.
      • Transition – initiates major changes.
      • 2 nd phrase of inertia – follows the transition.
      • Group’s last meeting–final burst of activity to finish its work
    • The Punctual Equilibrium Model: Completion Transition First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 (High) (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time B Performance
    • Factors affecting effectiveness of group : External Factors Performance and Satisfaction Group task Group processes Group structure Group member resources
      • External Factors
      • Group Members’ Resources :
        • Abilities of members
        • Personality characteristics
      • Group structure :
        • Formal leadership
        • Roles
        • Norms
        • Status
        • Size
        • Social loafing
        • Composition
      • Group Processes
      • Group Tasks
      • Performance and Satisfaction
      • Pooling of knowledge and information
      • Satisfaction and commitment
      • Personnel development
      • More risk taking
      Advantages of Working in Group :
      • Time consuming and costly
      • Individual domination
      • Problem of responsibility
      • Group think
      Disadvantages of working in group :
      • Team :
        • “ A team is the small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”
        • -Katzenbach and Douglas Smith
      • Work Team :
        • A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
      Definitions :
      • Improved employee motivation
      • Positive synergy
      • Satisfaction of social needs
      • Commitment to team goal
      • Improved organizational communication
      • Benefit of expanded job training
      • Organizational flexibility
      Importance of Team
      • Think about 10 people riding a bus…
      Difference between Group and Team
      • All in one place
      • Heading in the same direction
      • At the same time
      • At the same speed
      • Under the direction of one leader
      Are they a Team???
      • In Reality…the 10 people riding a bus…
      • All in one place
      • Heading in the same direction
      • At the same time
      • At the same speed
      • Under the direction of one leader
      No, they are a Group.
      • A Group is not a Team
      Dynamics Of Group Suspicion Rush to accomplish Floundering Reluctance Dominance
      • Think about a Football Team riding a bus…
      • All players get on and off the bus at the same time
      • Clear mission
      • Interrelated goals
      • Clear goals and responsibilities
      • Strategies with contingency plans
      • Motivating and pumping each other up along the ride
      Are they a Team???
      • After the game…a football team riding a bus…
      • Celebrating their success
      • Lessons learned
      They a Team
    • Dynamics Of a Team
      • But a Team is a Group
      Work for common goal Accountability Mutual Respect Commitment Interdependency Trust Communication
    • Work Groups Work Teams Goal Synergy Accountability Skills
    • Types of teams :
      • Problem solving Teams:
          • They are typically composed of 5 to 12 employees of the same department who meet for few hours each week to discuss the ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.
      • Self-managed work teams :
        • A formal group of employees that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or internal customer.
      • Cross Functional Teams:
          • A team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but form different work areas in an organization who are brought together to accomplish a particular task.
      • Virtual Teams:
          • Team that uses computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
    • Key Roles of Team :
      • Action Oriented:
        • Shapers (SH)
        • Implementer (IPM) :
        • Completer – Finishers (CF) :
      • People oriented :
        • Coordinator (CO)
        • Team Worker (TW)
        • Resource investigator (RI)
      Team Roles (by Belbin):
      • Thought Oriented :
        • Plant (PL)
        • Monitor- Evaluator (ME)
        • Specialist (SP)
    • Action oriented role 1 Shaper Challenges the team to improve 2 Implementer Puts idea into action 3 Completer finisher Ensures thorough, timelt completion People oriented roles 4 coordinator Acts as a chairperson 5 Team work Encourages cooperation 6 Resource investigator Explores outside opportunities Thought oriented roles 7 Plant Presents new ideas and approaches 8 Monitor- Evaluator Analyzes the options 9 Specialist Provides specialized knowledge
    • Measures for improving effectiveness of team :
      • The organization form which is mostly addressing he alignment between structure and processes is commonly referred to as Process based Organization.
      • It varies from traditional organization in following ways:
        • They design end to end business processes rather than tasks.
        • They measure and manager process level results instead of departmental efficiency.
        • They think in terms of customer goals instead of localized functional goals.
      Process Based design of Organization :
      • Features :
        • Processes drive structure
        • Work adds value
        • Teams are fundamental
        • Customers define performance
        • Teams are rewarded for performance
        • Teams are tightly linked to suppliers and customers
        • Team members are well informed and trained
      • Advantages :
        • Focuses resources on customer satisfaction.
        • Improves speed and efficiency, often dramatically.
        • Adapts to environmental change rapidly.
        • Reduce boundaries between departments.
        • Increase ability to see total work flow.
        • Enhances employee involvement.
        • Lowers cost because of less overhead structure.
      • Disadvantages :
        • Can threaten middle manager and staff specialist
        • Requires changes in command and control mindsets.
        • Duplicates scarce resources
        • Require new skills and knowledge to manage literal relationships and teams.
        • May take longer to make decisions in teams
        • Can be ineffective if wrong processes are identified
      • In the team based structure the entire organization is made of work groups or team that perform the organization’s work
      • Employee’s empowerment is crucial because there is no line of managerial authority from top to bottom.
      • In big organizations the team complement a functional or divisional organization.
      Team Based design of Organization:
      • Easy integration
      • Better management, more control
      • Greater productivity
      Advantages : Disadvantage :
      • Significant overheads
      • Arising conflicts
      • Group and team in details
      • Difference between Team and Group
      • Models of Group
      • Factors affecting Group
      • Effectiveness of Team
      • Team Role
      • Process and Tam Based Organizational design.
      Wrap Up :
      • Organizational Behavior – Person edition.
      • MBA handbook – Thakur publication
      • Google
      Sources :
    • Queries
    •