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teamwork n group.. teamwork n group.. Presentation Transcript

  • Teamwork And Group By: Kishan Ravji Chintan Pooja
    • Group : Meaning, Importance, Formation, Types.
    • Models of Group Development
    • Factors affecting effectiveness of Group.
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Group.
    • Team : Meaning, Importance.
    • Difference between Team and Group
    • Team : Types, Team Role, measures of improving effectiveness of team.
    • Process and team based design of Organization.
    Contents :
    • Group :
      • Two or more individual interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
    • Work Group :
      • A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
    • Formal Groups : Officially formed groups
      • Accomplish complex, independent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals
      • Create new ideas
      • Co-ordinate interdepartmental efforts
      • Solve complex problems requiring varied information and perceptives.
      • Implement action plans.
      • Socialize and train newcomers.
    Importance of Group
    • Informal Groups : Unofficially formed
      • Filling in gaps in manager’s abilities
      • Solving work problems
      • Better co-ordination
      • Channel of communication
      • Restraint on managers
      • Better relations
      • Norms of behavior
      • Satisfied workforce
      • Developing future executives
    • Task Accomplishment
    • Problem Solving
    • Proximity
    • Socio-Psychological Factors
    Formation of Group :
    • Formal groups:
      • A designed work group defined by an organization's structure
    Types of Group :
    • Informal group:
      • A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact.
    • Command group :
      • A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.
    • Task group :
      • People working together to complete a job task.
    • Interest group :
      • People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
    • Five stage Group Development Model :
      • Developed by Tuckman and Jenson
    Models of Group Development :
    • Forming :
      • Characterized by great deal of uncertainty about the group’s Purpose , Structure and leadership.
      • Members “test the waters” to determine what type of behaviors are acceptable.
    • Storming :
      • One of intragroup conflict.
      • Members have accepted the existence of the group, but there is resistance to constraints that a group imposes on individuality.
    • Norming :
      • Close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness.
      • There is now a strong sense of group identity and comparison.
    • Performing :
      • The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted.
      • Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.
    • Adjouring :
      • the group prepares for its disbandment.
      • High task performance is no longer the group’s top priority.
    • Temporary groups with deadlines does not follow 5 stage model instead they have their own unique Sequencing of actions:
    An Alternative Model for Groups with Deadlines:
    • First Meeting – to set group’s direction.
    • Period of Inertia – become locked into fixed course of action.
    • End of 1 st Phrase – Transition takes place, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its time allotted time.
    • Transition – initiates major changes.
    • 2 nd phrase of inertia – follows the transition.
    • Group’s last meeting–final burst of activity to finish its work
  • The Punctual Equilibrium Model: Completion Transition First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 (High) (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time B Performance
  • Factors affecting effectiveness of group : External Factors Performance and Satisfaction Group task Group processes Group structure Group member resources
    • External Factors
    • Group Members’ Resources :
      • Abilities of members
      • Personality characteristics
    • Group structure :
      • Formal leadership
      • Roles
      • Norms
      • Status
      • Size
      • Social loafing
      • Composition
    • Group Processes
    • Group Tasks
    • Performance and Satisfaction
    • Pooling of knowledge and information
    • Satisfaction and commitment
    • Personnel development
    • More risk taking
    Advantages of Working in Group :
    • Time consuming and costly
    • Individual domination
    • Problem of responsibility
    • Group think
    Disadvantages of working in group :
    • Team :
      • “ A team is the small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”
      • -Katzenbach and Douglas Smith
    • Work Team :
      • A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
    Definitions :
    • Improved employee motivation
    • Positive synergy
    • Satisfaction of social needs
    • Commitment to team goal
    • Improved organizational communication
    • Benefit of expanded job training
    • Organizational flexibility
    Importance of Team
    • Think about 10 people riding a bus…
    Difference between Group and Team
    • All in one place
    • Heading in the same direction
    • At the same time
    • At the same speed
    • Under the direction of one leader
    Are they a Team???
    • In Reality…the 10 people riding a bus…
    • All in one place
    • Heading in the same direction
    • At the same time
    • At the same speed
    • Under the direction of one leader
    No, they are a Group.
    • A Group is not a Team
    Dynamics Of Group Suspicion Rush to accomplish Floundering Reluctance Dominance
    • Think about a Football Team riding a bus…
    • All players get on and off the bus at the same time
    • Clear mission
    • Interrelated goals
    • Clear goals and responsibilities
    • Strategies with contingency plans
    • Motivating and pumping each other up along the ride
    Are they a Team???
    • After the game…a football team riding a bus…
    • Celebrating their success
    • Lessons learned
    They a Team
  • Dynamics Of a Team
    • But a Team is a Group
    Work for common goal Accountability Mutual Respect Commitment Interdependency Trust Communication
  • Work Groups Work Teams Goal Synergy Accountability Skills
  • Types of teams :
    • Problem solving Teams:
        • They are typically composed of 5 to 12 employees of the same department who meet for few hours each week to discuss the ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.
    • Self-managed work teams :
      • A formal group of employees that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or internal customer.
    • Cross Functional Teams:
        • A team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but form different work areas in an organization who are brought together to accomplish a particular task.
    • Virtual Teams:
        • Team that uses computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  • Key Roles of Team :
    • Action Oriented:
      • Shapers (SH)
      • Implementer (IPM) :
      • Completer – Finishers (CF) :
    • People oriented :
      • Coordinator (CO)
      • Team Worker (TW)
      • Resource investigator (RI)
    Team Roles (by Belbin):
    • Thought Oriented :
      • Plant (PL)
      • Monitor- Evaluator (ME)
      • Specialist (SP)
  • Action oriented role 1 Shaper Challenges the team to improve 2 Implementer Puts idea into action 3 Completer finisher Ensures thorough, timelt completion People oriented roles 4 coordinator Acts as a chairperson 5 Team work Encourages cooperation 6 Resource investigator Explores outside opportunities Thought oriented roles 7 Plant Presents new ideas and approaches 8 Monitor- Evaluator Analyzes the options 9 Specialist Provides specialized knowledge
  • Measures for improving effectiveness of team :
    • The organization form which is mostly addressing he alignment between structure and processes is commonly referred to as Process based Organization.
    • It varies from traditional organization in following ways:
      • They design end to end business processes rather than tasks.
      • They measure and manager process level results instead of departmental efficiency.
      • They think in terms of customer goals instead of localized functional goals.
    Process Based design of Organization :
    • Features :
      • Processes drive structure
      • Work adds value
      • Teams are fundamental
      • Customers define performance
      • Teams are rewarded for performance
      • Teams are tightly linked to suppliers and customers
      • Team members are well informed and trained
    • Advantages :
      • Focuses resources on customer satisfaction.
      • Improves speed and efficiency, often dramatically.
      • Adapts to environmental change rapidly.
      • Reduce boundaries between departments.
      • Increase ability to see total work flow.
      • Enhances employee involvement.
      • Lowers cost because of less overhead structure.
    • Disadvantages :
      • Can threaten middle manager and staff specialist
      • Requires changes in command and control mindsets.
      • Duplicates scarce resources
      • Require new skills and knowledge to manage literal relationships and teams.
      • May take longer to make decisions in teams
      • Can be ineffective if wrong processes are identified
    • In the team based structure the entire organization is made of work groups or team that perform the organization’s work
    • Employee’s empowerment is crucial because there is no line of managerial authority from top to bottom.
    • In big organizations the team complement a functional or divisional organization.
    Team Based design of Organization:
    • Easy integration
    • Better management, more control
    • Greater productivity
    Advantages : Disadvantage :
    • Significant overheads
    • Arising conflicts
    • Group and team in details
    • Difference between Team and Group
    • Models of Group
    • Factors affecting Group
    • Effectiveness of Team
    • Team Role
    • Process and Tam Based Organizational design.
    Wrap Up :
    • Organizational Behavior – Person edition.
    • MBA handbook – Thakur publication
    • Google
    Sources :
  • Queries
  •