Understanding Work Teams rev1


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Understanding Work Teams rev1

  1. 1. Part 3: The Group <ul><li>Understanding Work Teams and Its Dynamics </li></ul>Chapter 10 Presented by: Engr. Dindo R. Macatiag Professor: Dr. Jo Bitonio
  2. 2. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r 13 th Edition Stephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge
  3. 3. Why Teams Become So Popular <ul><li>Teams typically outperform individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams use employee talents better. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams facilitate employee involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  5. 5. Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams
  6. 6. Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  7. 7. 9– Self-Managing Teams Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-Managing Teams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves (Krietner & Kinicki, 2001). Schedule work assignments 67% Work with outside customers 67 Conduct training 59 Set production goals/quotas 56 Work with suppliers/vendors 44 Purchase equipment/services 43 Develop budgets 39 Do performance appraisals 36 Hire co-workers 33 Fire co-workers 14
  8. 8. Types of Teams <ul><li>Task forces </li></ul><ul><li>Committees </li></ul>Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
  9. 9. Types of Teams <ul><li>Team Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of verbal and nonverbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>A limited social context </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to overcome time and space constraints </li></ul>Virtual Teams Teams that use computer/information technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  10. 10. Creating Effective Teams <ul><li>Context: Factors that determine whether teams are successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Adequate resources - timely information, proper equipment, adequate staffing, encouragement, and administrative assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Leadership and structure - empower team by delegating responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Climate of trust – members trust each other and their leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Performance evaluation and rewards system – group-based appraisal, profit sharing, gain sharing, small group incentive, etc. that reinforce team effort and commitment </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Creating Effective Teams <ul><li>Team Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation of roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member preferences </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Creating Effective Teams <ul><li>Work Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These work design characteristics motivate because they increase member’s sense of responsibility and ownership of the work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom and autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Creating Effective Teams <ul><li>Team Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Leadership – a key factor for team success <ul><li>Group dynamics are partly a product of leader style </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment is a key issue in leadership (eg. self-managed teams) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ people skills” – versatility, pyramid learning, feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ character skills” – charisma, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrity, altruism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ action skills” – decision-making, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiating activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ thinking skills” – problem-solving, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fostering linkages, assisting in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evolution and change </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Turning Individuals Into Team Players <ul><li>The Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaping Team Players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training employees to become team players. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Teams and Quality Management <ul><li>Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are small enough to be efficient and effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are properly trained in required skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated enough time to work on problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer <ul><li>Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dysfunctional Teams (Parker, 2006) <ul><li>You cannot easily describe the team’s mission </li></ul><ul><li>The meetings are formal, stuffy, or tense </li></ul><ul><li>There is much participation but little accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>There is talk but not much communication </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreements are aired in private after the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are made by the formal leader with little meaningful involvement by others </li></ul>
  19. 19. Dysfunctional Teams (Parker, 2006) <ul><li>Members are not open with each other because trust is low </li></ul><ul><li>There is confusion or disagreement about roles or work assignments </li></ul><ul><li>People in other parts of the organization who are critical to the team’s success are uncooperative </li></ul><ul><li>The team is overloaded with people who have the same team-player style </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Sometimes individuals are preferable to teams, but teams are preferable when the combined expertise and skill of a team is greater than that of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonetheless, teams are subject to problems such as social loafing, process losses, and do not work well where systems and culture are not aligned with the team environment. </li></ul>
  21. 21. T ogether E mployees A ccomplish M ore
  22. 22. Organizational Behavior, 13 th Edition Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge References:
  23. 23. Thank You