Why Have Teams Become So PopularWhy Have Teams Become So Popular Teams typically outperform individuals. Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Teams facilitate employee involvement. Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.
TeamTeamA team comprises a group of people linked in a commonpurpose.Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that arehigh in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks
Types of TeamsTypes of TeamsGenerally fall into one of two primary groups: permanent teams and temporaryteams. Here are some of the common typesTask forceA temporary team assembled to investigate a specific issue or problem.Problem solving teamA temporary team assembled to solve a specific problem.Product design teamA temporary team assembled to design a new product or service.CommitteeA temporary or permanent group of people assembled to act upon somematter.Quality circle (today also under various other names)A group of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly touncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvementopportunities.
Types of Teams (cont’d)Types of Teams (cont’d)Work GroupA group that interacts primarily to share informationand to make decisions to help each group memberperform within his or her area of responsibility.Work TeamA group whose individual efforts result in aperformance that is greater than the sum of theindividual inputs.
Types of Teams (cont’d) Types of Teams (cont’d)Problem-Solving TeamsGroups of 5 to 12 employees from the samedepartment who meet for a few hours eachweek to discuss ways of improving quality,efficiency, and the work environment.Self-Managed Work TeamsGroups of 10 to 15 people who take on theresponsibilities of their former supervisors.planning and scheduling of work,. assigningtasks to members, making operatingdecisions,
Types of Teams (cont’d)Types of Teams (cont’d)Cross-Functional TeamsEmployees from about the same hierarchical level,but from different work areas, who come together toaccomplish a task.
Types of Teams (cont’d)Types of Teams (cont’d) Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.The three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from face-to-face teams are:(1) The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues(2) Limited social context(3) The ability to overcome time and space constraints
Stages of Team DevelopmentStages of Team Development
Stages of Team Development Stages of Team DevelopmentOrientation (Forming) –This is simply the bringing together of a group of individuals. At this stage, members are:• Moderately eager• Have generally positive expectations• Have some anxiety about why they are there and what it all means• Have some anxiety about other members such as who they are and what they are like During orientation,How to approach Goals, and what skills are needed.The length of this stage will depend on how clearly the task is defined.This is an important stage because it serves to clarify the teams mission and bond team members.Teams that pay attention to building the relationships as well as focusing on the task successfuloutcome.
Stages of Team Development Stages of Team DevelopmentDissatisfaction (Storming)This stage is characterized by:• argument• conflict• a dip in morale It results from differences between initial expectations and the reality of the situation asperceived by the members. Members may have varying opinions of what the group was to doand how to accomplish it. Members are also beginning to confront the differences in theirpersonalities and values, a condition that is present anytime strangers meet. Members mayfeel anger or frustration with the task or with other members or may even resent thepresence of formal leadership.Generally, the dissatisfaction stage is relatively short. Some groups, however, may becomestuck in this stage and continue to be both demoralized and relatively unproductive. In theworst cases, some groups never emerge from this stage and, if possible, disband infrustration.
Stages of Team Development Stages of Team DevelopmentResolution (Norming)This stage in the groups development involves the:• Resolving of issues• Setting up group processes• Setting of group policies, procedures, and values• Increasing productionMembers are now resolving differences and clarifying the mission and roles.Members are less dissatisfied as in the previous stage because they are now learning moreabout each other and how they will work together.They are making progress toward their goals. They are developing tools to help them workbetter together such as a problem solving process, a code of conduct, a set of team values,and measurement indicators.Member attitudes are characterized by decreasing animosities toward other members; feelingsof cohesion, mutual respect, harmony, and trust; and a feeling of pleasure in accomplishingtasks. The work is characterized by slowly increasing production as skills develop. The groupis developing into a team.
Stages of Team DevelopmentStages of Team DevelopmentProduction (Performing)The team is accomplishing work effectively.Production is high and the climate is positive.Member attitudes are characterized by positive feelings and eagerness to be part ofthe team.Members are confident about the outcome, enjoy open communication, exhibit highenergy, and disagreement is welcome and handled without emotional conflict.Although work is being accomplished through all the stages, this stage reflects thework being accomplished most effectively.
Stages of Team Development Stages of Team DevelopmentTerminationIn the case of temporary teams such as task forces, design teams, and problemsolving teams, a fifth stage reflects the ending of the process.Depending on the teams success in accomplishing its task and how strongly themembers have bonded, this stage may reflect either a sense of loss or relief. Whena team ends, time should be spent addressing how it should be done to properlyrecognize the teams accomplishments.
Team BuildingTeam BuildingTeam building is any activity that builds and strengthens the team asa team.SpiritEnthusiasmCohesivenessCamaraderie are vitally important.
Task Accomplishment Task Accomplishmenta. Team Mission and VisionThe driving force and common understanding behind every team is a clear mission and vision.b. Team Operating ProcessesTo accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently, good teams develop operating processes such as sequential steps
Task AccomplishmentTask Accomplishmentc. Team Task Roles1. Initiator - suggests new ideas to the group 2. Information Seeker - seeks clarification of issues in terms of their factual adequacy 3. Opinion Seeker - seeks clarification of the values pertinent to the issue, rather than facts 4. Information Giver - offers facts or other "authoritative" information 5. Opinion Giver - offers beliefs or other value-based ideas 6. Elaborator - spells out suggestions in terms of examples or developed meanings 7. Summarizer - pulls together ideas, concepts, and group decisions to help the group identify where it is in its thinking 8. Coordinator-Integrator - clarifies and integrates relationships between various ideas, suggestions, and people 9. Orienter - defines the position of the group with respect to its goals 10. Disagreer - takes a different point of view, argues against, and implies error in fact or reasoning 11. Evaluator-Critic - subjects the accomplishment of the group to some set of standards. Questions the "practicality," the "logic," the "facts," or the "procedure" 12. Energizer - prods the group to action 13. Procedural Technician - performs routine tasks related to group
Team Building Team Buildinga. Team Values• Understand that each team member brings a unique value system to the table.• Their differences are frequently the source of conflict.• Understanding how values affect team member relationships is a critical piece ofthe team building. b. Team operating principles Team members discuss how they will behave with each other, then formalize their results in a set of standards or a code of conduct . Example, one teams code of conduct included the following: • Respect the opinions of others • Allow equal participation in discussions • Take responsibility for what is going on in the team, and take action when needed.
Team Building Team Buildingc. The Six Team Building Roles1.Encourager - praises other members contributions to the team2.Harmonizer - mediates differences between other members3. Compromiser - offers a compromise during disagreement or conflict by yieldingposition or admitting error4. Gatekeeper -regulates the flow of communication, particularly in meetings, byencouraging the participation of those less inclined to participate and quieting thosewho are overly talkative5. Standard Setter - expresses standards for the team regarding its operation6. Group Observer - observes and reports back to the team on its group dynamics
Twelve Tips for Team BuildingTwelve Tips for Team BuildingI. Clear Expectations – Vision/MissionII. Context – Background – Why participation in Teams?III. Commitment – dedication – Service as valuable to Organization & OwnIV. Competence – Capability – KnowledgeV. Charter – agreement – Assigned area of responsibilityVI. Control – Freedom & LimitationsVII. Collaboration – Team workVIII.CommunicationIX. Creative InnovationX. Consequences – Accountable for rewardsXI. CoordinationXII. Cultural Change
Team MemberTeam Member Communicate Dont Blame Others Support Group Members Ideas No Bragging – No Full of yourself Listen Actively Get Involved Coach, Dont Demonstrate Provide Constructive Criticism Try To Be Positive Value Your Groups Ideas
Leader ship Leader shipA simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivatinga group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.Three basic functions that a leader performs:1. Organizational2. Interpersonal3. DecisionalKeys to Leader ship A leader plans - Planning A leader has a Vision – Goal setting A leader shares her vision - Communication A leader takes charge – Implementation & Controlling A leader inspires through example Team Learning Systems Thinking -shape the behavior of systems.
Characteristics Of Leadership Characteristics Of Leadership1. Authenticity - Leadership begins and ends with genuineness/faithfullness.2. Desire to Serve Others3. Empowering People4. Guided by Heart, passion and compassion – Enthusiasiun, Eagerness, Kindness5. Recognize their shortcomings6. Lead with Purpose "They lead with purpose, meaning and values."7. Build Enduring Relationships "They build enduring relationships with people."8. Clear Where They Stand "Others follow them because they know where they stand."9. Refuse to Compromise "When principles are tested, they refuse to compromise."10. Develop Themselves11. Leaders pull rather than push.12. Leaders have a clear vision and communicate that vision.13. Leaders work through teams and not through hierarchies.14. Leaders possess a strong doss of self-esteem and positive attitude.15. Leaders have a good grasp of self
Creating Effective TeamsCreating Effective Teams Main problems: 1. Process losses 2. Social loafing 3. Groupthink Performance d te ec p Ex l ua Act Group Size
Group Decision MakingGroup Decision Making Symptoms • Illusion of invulnerability • Assumption of morality • Rationalization • Stereotyping of outgroups • Self-censorship • Illusion of unanimity • Mindguarding • Pressuring of dissenters