O.b. c 9 foundations of group behaviour

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR, foundations of group behaviour, ROBBINS

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O.b. c 9 foundations of group behaviour

  1. 1. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR Dr. Rajesh kamath Assistant Professor, Department of Public health Manipal University
  2. 2. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR • Group : Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. FORMAL GROUP INFORMAL GROUP A designated work group defined by an organisation’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks. Neither formally structured nor organisationally determined Behaviours team members should engage in, are stipulated by and directed towards organisational goals. Natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. Eg : The 6 members of an airline flight crew are a formal group. Eg : Three employees from different departments who regularly have lunch or coffee together are an informal group.
  3. 3. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – INFORMAL GROUPS • Informal groups promote friendships as well cooperation at work. • These interactions, though informal, can affect their behaviour deeply.
  4. 4. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – TYPES OF GROUPS • Formal groups • 1. Command group • 2. Task group • Informal group • 1. Interest group • 2. Friendship group
  5. 5. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – COMMAND GROUP • Command group: A group composed of individuals who report directly to a given manager. • Eg: A school principal and her 18 teachers.
  6. 6. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – TASK GROUP • Task group : A group of people working together to complete a job task. • A task group can cross hierarchical command relationships. • Eg.: If a college student is accused of a campus crime, dealing with the problem might require coordination among the dean of academic affairs, the dean of students, the registrar, the director of security and the student’s advisor. Such a formation constitutes a task group. • All command groups are task groups. • But all task groups are not command groups.
  7. 7. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – INTEREST GROUP • Interest group : People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. • Eg. Employees who band together to have their vacation schedules altered.
  8. 8. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – FRIENDSHIP GROUP • Friendship group : People brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. • Eg: Support for regional cricket teams during IPL matches.
  9. 9. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – WHY DO PEOPLE FORM GROUPS • Why do people form Groups and feel so strongly about them? • Consider the celebrations that follow a cricket win. • Fans have staked their own self-image on the performance of someone else. • Fans of the losing team feel dejected , even embarassed. • The human tendency to take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group is explained by the Social identity theory.
  10. 10. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY • Social identity theory: The perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups. • It proposes that people have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self esteem gets tied into the performance of the group. • Social identity helps people reduce uncertainty about who they are and what they should do. • People develop a lot of identities through their lives. • Downside of social identity : Ingroup favouritism : This means we see members of our ingroup better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same. Leads to stereotyping.
  11. 11. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY • Why do people develop a social identity ? • 1. Similarity • 2. Distinctiveness • 3. Status • 4. Uncertainty reduction
  12. 12. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY • 1. Similarity : in Values, characteristics, demography. • 2. Distinctiveness : People are more likely to notice identities that show how they are different from other groups. • Eg.:1. 2 women in an otherwise all male work group. • 2. Veterinarians who worked in veterinary medicine (where everyone is a veterinarian) identified with their organisation… • …Whereas vets in non-vet medicine fields such as animal research (where the percentage of vets is much lower) identified more with their profession.
  13. 13. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY • 3. Status : Eg. : MPH Graduates of prestigious institutes like Manipal !! • 4. Uncertainty reduction : Who they are and how they fit into the world. • Eg.: If a big company is starting a smaller company, then employees might have a hard time understanding which company to identify with.
  14. 14. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 5 STAGE MODEL : • 1. Forming • 2. Storming • 3. Norming • 4. Performing • 5. Adjourning
  15. 15. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 1. Forming stage : The first stage in group development, characterised by much uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure and leadership. • Complete when the members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group.
  16. 16. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 2. Storming : • Intragroup conflict. • Members accept the existence of the group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. • There is conflict over who will control the group. • Hierarchy of leadership becomes clear.
  17. 17. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 3. Norming : • Close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. • Strong sense of group identity and camaraderie. • Group structure solidifies. • Common set of expectations of what defines correct member behaviour.
  18. 18. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 4. Performing : • Structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. • This is the last stage for permanent work groups.
  19. 19. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • 5. Adjourning : • For temporary groups, this is a preparation for disbanding. • Wrapping up activities is the focus rather than high task performance. Some group members are upbeat, others may be depressed.
  20. 20. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • Generally, a group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first 4 stages. • Under some conditions, high levels of conflict may be conducive to high group performance. So stage 2 might outperform stage 3 and 4. • Some stages can go on simultaneously – like storming and performing. • Groups can regress to previous stages. • It ignores organisational context: Eg. Cockpit crew ready in 10 minutes.
  21. 21. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT • Alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines: • Temporary groups with deadlines do not seem to follow the usual 5 stage model. • 1. The first meeting sets the group’s direction. • 2. The first phase is one of inertia. • 3. A transition takes place at the end of this phase, when the group has used up exactly half of its allotted time. • 4. There are major changes. • 5. A second phase of inertia follows. • 6. The last meeting has markedly accelerated activity. • This pattern is called the Punctuated equilibrium model.
  22. 22. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL
  23. 23. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – GROUP PROPERTIES • Group Properties: • 1. Roles • 2. Norms • 3. Status • 4. Size • 5. Cohesiveness
  24. 24. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • 1. Roles : A set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. • We are expected to play diverse roles. • Role perception • Role expectations • Psychological contract • Role conflict
  25. 25. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Role perception : An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. • Friends, books, movies, t.v. • Role expectations : The way others believe you should act in a given context. • Eg. A supreme court judge vs a football team manager. • Psychological contract : An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa. • What happens when role expectations implied in the psychological contract are not met? • Role conflict : When compliance with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another, the result is role conflict. Eg.: Work vs Family
  26. 26. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • 2. Norms : Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. • 1. Performance norms : How hard members should work, what the level of output should be, how to get the job done, what level of tardiness is appropriate. • 2. Appearance norms : Dress codes, when to look busy. • 3. Social arrangement norms : Whom to have lunch with, whether to form friendships with co workers. • 4. Resource allocation norms : Assignment of difficult jobs, distribution of resources like pay or equipment. • HOMEWORK : HAWTHORNE STUDIES.
  27. 27. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Conformity : The adjustment of one’s behaviour to align with the norms of the group. • People conform to the important groups to which they belong or hope to belong. These impotant groups are called Reference groups. • The Solomon Asch studies: • Groups of 7 to 8 people were asked to compare 2 cards held by the experimenter. • Under ordinary conditions, fewer than 1% errors were made. • But in the groups, the USS(UnSuspecting Subject) gave atleast 1 answer that conformed – that they knew was wrong but was consistent with the replies of other group members – and the average conformer gave wrong answers 37% of the time. • As managers, we should be aware of group norms, which press us or our subordinates or our superiors towards conformity.
  28. 28. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – THE SOLOMON ASCH STUDIES
  29. 29. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Deviant Workplace Behaviour : Voluntary behaviour that violates significant organisational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well being of the organisation or its members. Also called antisocial behaviour or workplace incivility. • Employees report increased rudeness and disregard by bosses and co- workers in recent years. • Half of employees who have suffered incivility ave thought of changing jobs and 12% have actually quit. • Psychological stress and illness. • Reduction in employee cooperation, commitment, motivation, productivity, job satisfaction. • Increased Turnover. • Evidence proves it is more likely in a group. • Groups provide a shield of anonymity.
  30. 30. Typology of Deviant workplace behaviour CATEGORY EXAMPLES PERFORMANCE 1. Coming late or leaving early. 2. Working slowly. 3. Being careless and making mistakes that lead to losses. MATERIAL 1. Arson 2. Sabotage 3. Stealing INTERPERSONAL 1. Being biased. 2. Verbal abuse. 3. Being cynical and negative. 4. Blaming others. 5. Sexual harassment.
  31. 31. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • 3. Status : A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. • Status characteristics theory : • 3 sources • 1. The power a person wields over others. • Eg. control over a group’s resources. • 2. A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals. • Eg. Star sportspersons, crack lawyers in law firms, top notch hospital administrators. • 3. An individual’s personal characteristics. • Eg. Money, intelligence, friendly personality.
  32. 32. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Status and Norms : • High status individuals (HSI) – more freedom to deviate from norms. • High status individuals (Doctors, lawyers, top executives) resent social pressure from low status individuals. Eg. Insurance company employees. • HSIs resist conformity pressures more than others. Eg. Outstanding academics, star athletes.
  33. 33. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Status and group interaction : • HSIs – more assertive – speak out more, criticise more. • Status differences actually inhibit diversity of ideas, because lower status members tend to participate less actively, and if they possess expertise and insights, then it is a loss to the group. • Status inequity : • It is important for group members to believe the status hierarchy is equitable. • People expect rewards to be proportionate to costs incurred. • Eg. Reena and Priya for the position of head nurse.
  34. 34. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • 4. Size • Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than larger ones. • Individuals perform better in smaller groups than in larger ones. • In problem solving, larger groups consistently get better marks than their smaller counterparts. • If the goal is fact finding – larger groups more effective. • Smaller groups –doing something productive with that input.
  35. 35. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Social loafing : The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. • Eg: German psychologist Max Ringelmann’s rope-pulling experiment. Late 1920s. • 1 person – 63 kgs of force. • Group of 3 – per person force dropped to 53 kgs. • Group of 8 – fell further to 31 kgs!!! • Replications of this experiment have given similar results. • Cause : • Belief that others in the group are not carrying their fare share. • Since no clear relationship between an individual’s input and the group’s output, individuals may be tempted to become free riders. • As managers, we must be able to identify and quantify individual efforts.
  36. 36. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • Prevent Social Loafing : • Set group goals. • Increase intergroup competition. • Engage in peer evaluation. • Select highly motivated people who prefer working in groups. • Base group rewards on each member’s unique contribution.
  37. 37. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • 5. Cohesiveness : The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. • Affected by: • 1. Time spent together by the group members. • 2. Size – the smaller, the more cohesive. • 3. External threats. • Relationship between cohesiveness and productivity depends on the group’s performance related norms. (Refer Diagram)
  38. 38. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROUP COHESIVENESS, PERFORMANCE NORMS AND PRODUCTIVITY
  39. 39. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR - GROUP PROPERTIES • How to increase group cohesiveness? • 1. Make the group smaller. • 2. Encourage agreement with group’s goals. • 3. Increase the time members spend together. • 4. Increase the group’s status and the perceived difficulty for attaining mambership. • 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. • 6. Reward the group rather than individual members. • 7. Physically isolate the group.
  40. 40. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • Groupthink : A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. • Symptoms: • 1. Group members rationalise any resistance to the assumptions they have made, no matter how strong the evidence. • 2. Members apply direct pressure on those who express doubts about the option favoured by the majority. • 3. Members who differ keep silent, even minimising to themselves the importance of their doubts. • 4. Illusion of unanimity. Abstention becomes a yes vote. • Groupthink occurs most often when there is a clear group identity. • When members have a positive image of the group that they want to protect. • When they perceive a threat to this image.
  41. 41. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • How can managers minimise groupthink? • 1. Monitor group size. More than 10 members is when groupthink starts to take stronger effect. • 2. Group leaders must play an impartial role. • 3. Groupleaders must actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions. • 4. 1 group member must play the “Devil’s Advocate”. • 5. The group can first talk about that dangers or risks inherent in a decision rather than the possible gains.
  42. 42. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • Groupshift : A change in decision risk between a group’s decision and an individual’s decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk. • Group discussions tend to exaggerate the initial position of the group. WHY? • 1. The discussion makes the members more comfortable with each other, thus more bold and daring. • 2. The group diffuses responsibility. • 3. To demonstrate how different they are from the rest of the group. • 4. To prove they are committed.
  43. 43. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • Group decision making techniques : • 1. Interacting groups • 2. Brainstorming • 3. Nominal group technique • 4. Electronic meeting.
  44. 44. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • 1. Interacting groups : Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face. • Groupthink. • Conformity.
  45. 45. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • 2. Brainstorming : An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. • 6 to 12 people. • Group leader states the problem in a clear manner so that all participants understand. • Members then give as many altenatives as they can in a given length of time. • No criticism is allowed. • All alternatives are recorded for later discussion and analysis. • Evidence says not very efficient. WHY? • Production blocking : Many are talking at once, which blocks the thought process.
  46. 46. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • 3. Nominal group technique : • Restricts discussion, hence the term “nominal”. • Group members are all physically present, but operate independently. HOW? • 1. Members meet as a group, but before any discussion takes place, each independently writes down ideas on the problem. • 2. After this silent period, each member presents 1 idea to the group. No discussion takes place until all ideas have been presented and recorded. • 3. The group discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them. • 4. Each group member silently and independently rank orders the ideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines the final decision. • What does the research say? • Outperforms Brainstorming.
  47. 47. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR –GROUP DECISION MAKING • 4. Electronic meeting : A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes. • Most recent. • Upto 50 people sit around a horse shoe shaped table on networked laptops. • Issues are presented, to which they type anonymous responses. • These individual comments as well as the aggregate votes are displayed on a projection screen. • Allows people to be brutally honest without penalty. • Fast. • The evidence? • So far, decreased group effectiveness, more time to complete tasks, reduced member satisfaction. • Early days yet, likely to stay and grow popular.
  48. 48. FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR HOMEWORK • Homework: • Strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. • Global implications. • Summary and implications for managers.
  49. 49. • References : • ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - STEPHEN ROBBINS – 14TH EDITION
  50. 50. THANK YOU

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