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teamwork n group..


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teamwork n group..

  1. 1. Teamwork And Group By: Kishan Ravji Chintan Pooja
  2. 2. <ul><li>Group : Meaning, Importance, Formation, Types. </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Group Development </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting effectiveness of Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Team : Meaning, Importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between Team and Group </li></ul><ul><li>Team : Types, Team Role, measures of improving effectiveness of team. </li></ul><ul><li>Process and team based design of Organization. </li></ul>Contents :
  3. 3. <ul><li>Group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more individual interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Formal Groups : Officially formed groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplish complex, independent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate interdepartmental efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve complex problems requiring varied information and perceptives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement action plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialize and train newcomers. </li></ul></ul>Importance of Group
  5. 5. <ul><li>Informal Groups : Unofficially formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling in gaps in manager’s abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving work problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better co-ordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraint on managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing future executives </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Task Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-Psychological Factors </li></ul>Formation of Group :
  7. 7. <ul><li>Formal groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A designed work group defined by an organization's structure </li></ul></ul>Types of Group : <ul><li>Informal group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Command group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People working together to complete a job task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest group : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Five stage Group Development Model : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Tuckman and Jenson </li></ul></ul>Models of Group Development :
  10. 10. <ul><li>Forming : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by great deal of uncertainty about the group’s Purpose , Structure and leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members “test the waters” to determine what type of behaviors are acceptable. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Storming : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of intragroup conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members have accepted the existence of the group, but there is resistance to constraints that a group imposes on individuality. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Norming : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is now a strong sense of group identity and comparison. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Performing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Adjouring : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the group prepares for its disbandment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High task performance is no longer the group’s top priority. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Temporary groups with deadlines does not follow 5 stage model instead they have their own unique Sequencing of actions: </li></ul>An Alternative Model for Groups with Deadlines: <ul><li>First Meeting – to set group’s direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Inertia – become locked into fixed course of action. </li></ul><ul><li>End of 1 st Phrase – Transition takes place, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its time allotted time. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition – initiates major changes. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd phrase of inertia – follows the transition. </li></ul><ul><li>Group’s last meeting–final burst of activity to finish its work </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Punctual Equilibrium Model: Completion Transition First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 (High) (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time B Performance
  17. 17. Factors affecting effectiveness of group : External Factors Performance and Satisfaction Group task Group processes Group structure Group member resources
  18. 18. <ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Group Members’ Resources : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group structure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Group Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Group Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Performance and Satisfaction </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Pooling of knowledge and information </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel development </li></ul><ul><li>More risk taking </li></ul>Advantages of Working in Group :
  21. 21. <ul><li>Time consuming and costly </li></ul><ul><li>Individual domination </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Group think </li></ul>Disadvantages of working in group :
  22. 22. <ul><li>Team : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A team is the small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Katzenbach and Douglas Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work Team : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. </li></ul></ul>Definitions :
  23. 23. <ul><li>Improved employee motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction of social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to team goal </li></ul><ul><li>Improved organizational communication </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit of expanded job training </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational flexibility </li></ul>Importance of Team
  24. 24. <ul><li>Think about 10 people riding a bus… </li></ul>Difference between Group and Team <ul><li>All in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Heading in the same direction </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time </li></ul><ul><li>At the same speed </li></ul><ul><li>Under the direction of one leader </li></ul>Are they a Team???
  25. 25. <ul><li>In Reality…the 10 people riding a bus… </li></ul><ul><li>All in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Heading in the same direction </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time </li></ul><ul><li>At the same speed </li></ul><ul><li>Under the direction of one leader </li></ul>No, they are a Group.
  26. 26. <ul><li>A Group is not a Team </li></ul>Dynamics Of Group Suspicion Rush to accomplish Floundering Reluctance Dominance
  27. 27. <ul><li>Think about a Football Team riding a bus… </li></ul><ul><li>All players get on and off the bus at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Clear mission </li></ul><ul><li>Interrelated goals </li></ul><ul><li>Clear goals and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies with contingency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating and pumping each other up along the ride </li></ul>Are they a Team???
  28. 28. <ul><li>After the game…a football team riding a bus… </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrating their success </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul>They a Team
  29. 29. Dynamics Of a Team <ul><li>But a Team is a Group </li></ul>Work for common goal Accountability Mutual Respect Commitment Interdependency Trust Communication
  30. 30. Work Groups Work Teams Goal Synergy Accountability Skills
  31. 31. Types of teams :
  32. 32. <ul><li>Problem solving Teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are typically composed of 5 to 12 employees of the same department who meet for few hours each week to discuss the ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Self-managed work teams : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A formal group of employees that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or internal customer. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Cross Functional Teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but form different work areas in an organization who are brought together to accomplish a particular task. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Virtual Teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team that uses computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Key Roles of Team :
  37. 37. <ul><li>Action Oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapers (SH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementer (IPM) : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completer – Finishers (CF) : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People oriented : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinator (CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Worker (TW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource investigator (RI) </li></ul></ul>Team Roles (by Belbin):
  38. 38. <ul><li>Thought Oriented : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant (PL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor- Evaluator (ME) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist (SP) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Action oriented role 1 Shaper Challenges the team to improve 2 Implementer Puts idea into action 3 Completer finisher Ensures thorough, timelt completion People oriented roles 4 coordinator Acts as a chairperson 5 Team work Encourages cooperation 6 Resource investigator Explores outside opportunities Thought oriented roles 7 Plant Presents new ideas and approaches 8 Monitor- Evaluator Analyzes the options 9 Specialist Provides specialized knowledge
  40. 40. Measures for improving effectiveness of team :
  41. 41. <ul><li>The organization form which is mostly addressing he alignment between structure and processes is commonly referred to as Process based Organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It varies from traditional organization in following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They design end to end business processes rather than tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They measure and manager process level results instead of departmental efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They think in terms of customer goals instead of localized functional goals. </li></ul></ul>Process Based design of Organization :
  42. 42. <ul><li>Features : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes drive structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work adds value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams are fundamental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers define performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams are rewarded for performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams are tightly linked to suppliers and customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members are well informed and trained </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses resources on customer satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves speed and efficiency, often dramatically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapts to environmental change rapidly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce boundaries between departments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ability to see total work flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances employee involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers cost because of less overhead structure. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can threaten middle manager and staff specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires changes in command and control mindsets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicates scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require new skills and knowledge to manage literal relationships and teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May take longer to make decisions in teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be ineffective if wrong processes are identified </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>In the team based structure the entire organization is made of work groups or team that perform the organization’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Employee’s empowerment is crucial because there is no line of managerial authority from top to bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>In big organizations the team complement a functional or divisional organization. </li></ul>Team Based design of Organization:
  46. 46. <ul><li>Easy integration </li></ul><ul><li>Better management, more control </li></ul><ul><li>Greater productivity </li></ul>Advantages : Disadvantage : <ul><li>Significant overheads </li></ul><ul><li>Arising conflicts </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Group and team in details </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between Team and Group </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Group </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting Group </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of Team </li></ul><ul><li>Team Role </li></ul><ul><li>Process and Tam Based Organizational design. </li></ul>Wrap Up :
  48. 48. <ul><li>Organizational Behavior – Person edition. </li></ul><ul><li>MBA handbook – Thakur publication </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul>Sources :
  49. 49. Queries