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Language and the brain camila contreras

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  • 1. Language and the Brain Universidad de Santiago de Chile Lic. En Educación en Inglés Paradigmas Linguísticos Profesor: Miguel Farías Camila Contreras
  • 2. How is language actually stored in and process by the brain?
    • Neurolinguistics  the study of the neural and electrochemical bases of language development and use
    • Psycholinguistics  the study of the acquisition, storage, comprehension and production of language
  • 3. Physical Features of the Brain
    • It is divided into two nearly symmetrical halves
  • 4.
    • Each part of the brain is responsible for processing certain kind of information
    • They are connected by a bundle of nerves
    • Corpus callosum
    • They communicate with each other
  • 5. Cortex
    • A one-quarter-inch thick membrane that covers the brain
    • It makes human beings capable of higher cognitive functions
    • It contains most of language centers
    • It is covered with bumps and depression
  • 6.
    • Even minor damage to the surface of the brain can result in language disorder
  • 7. Auditory Cortex
    • Responsible for receiving and identifying auditory signals and converting them into a form that can be interpreted by other areas of the brain
  • 8. Visual Cortex
    • It receives and interprets visual stimuli
    • It is the storage site for pictoral images
  • 9. Motor cortex
    • It is located in the upper middle of each hemisphere
    • It is responsible for sending signals to your muscles
  • 10. Language Centers
    • Production and comprehension of language
    • They mainly only in the left hemisphere
  • 11. Broca’s area
    • Located at the base of motor cortex
    • Responsible for organizing the articulatory patterns of language and directing the motor cortex when we want to talk
    • Control the use of inflectional morphemes and function morphemes
  • 12. Wernicke’s area
    • Located near the back section of the auditory cortex
    • It is involved in the comprehension of words and the selection of words when producing sentences
  • 13. Arcuate Fasciculus
    • A bundle of nerve fibers that connect Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area
    • So that they share information
    • Mental lexicon  looks up words via wernicke’s area then say them via broca’s area
  • 14. Angular Gyrus
    • Located between Wernicke’s area and the visual cortex
    • It converts visual stimuli into auditory stimuli (and viceversa)
    • Thus, we are allowed to match the spoken form of a word with the object it describes
  • 15. The flow of Linguistic Information
    • How all the areas of the brain work together to process language
    • It depends on
            • Type of stimulus
            • Type of linguistic result
  • 16. Speaking
    • Wernicke’s area  arcuate fasciculus  broca’s area  motor cortex
    • Reading
    • Visual cortex  angular gyrus  wernicke’s area
    • Understanding
    • Auditory cortex  angular gyrus  visual cortex  wernicke’s area  broca’s area  motor cortex
  • 17.  
  • 18. Lateralization
    • Each brain’s hemisphere is responsible for different cognitive functions
    • Left hemisphere  analytic reasoning, temporal ordering, arithmetic and language
    • Right Hemisphere  processing music, perceiving non-linguistic sounds, performing task (visual and spatial skills or pattern recognition
  • 19.
    • It happens in early childhood
    • It can be recovered in initial stage if damaged
  • 20. Contralateralization
    • The connections between the brain and the body are almost completely contralateral
    • The right side of the body  controlled by the left hemisphere
    • The left side of the body  controlled by the right hemisphere
  • 21. Evidence
    • Dichotic Listening Test
    • Split Brains Patients
    • Hemispherictomies
  • 22. Language Disorders
    • Damage in the left hemisphere  aphasia
    • Aphasia  inability to perceive, process or produce language because of physical damage to the brain
    • Linguistic skills affected depend on where the brain damage is
  • 23. Broca’s Aphasia
    • Haltingly speaking
    • Speech without inflections and function words
    • Problems in producing
    • Articulatory problems
    • Difficulty matching the correct semantic interpretation to the syntactic order of the sentence
  • 24. Example
    • Examiner: Tell me, what did you do before you retired?
    • Aphasic: Uh, uh, uh, uh, pub, par, partender, no.
    • Examiner: Carpenter?
    • Aphasic: (shaking head yes) Carpenter, tuh, tuh, tenty year.
  • 25. Wernicke’s Aphasia
    • Receptive disorders
    • Misinterpreting what others say and responding in unexpected way
    • Tendency to produce semantically incoherent speech
    • Fluent but meaningless speech
  • 26. Example
    • Examiner: Do you like it here in Kansas City?
    • Aphasic: Yes, I am.
    • Examiner: I’d like to have you tell me something about your problem
    • Aphasic: Yes, I, ugh, can’t hill all of my way. I can’t tal all of the things I do, and part of the part I can go alright………
  • 27. Conduction Aphasia
    • Damage to the arcuate fasciculus
    • Sth like wernicke’s aphasia but showing signs of being able to comprehend the speech of others
    • Problems in transmission
  • 28. Alexia and Agraphia
    • Both caused by angular gyrus damage
    • Alexia  Inability to read and comprehend written words
    • Agraphia  Inability to write words
  • 29.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WK29RAKDzf8