Language and the brain camila contreras


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Language and the brain camila contreras

  1. 1. Language and the Brain Universidad de Santiago de Chile Lic. En Educación en Inglés Paradigmas Linguísticos Profesor: Miguel Farías Camila Contreras
  2. 2. How is language actually stored in and process by the brain? <ul><li>Neurolinguistics  the study of the neural and electrochemical bases of language development and use </li></ul><ul><li>Psycholinguistics  the study of the acquisition, storage, comprehension and production of language </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Features of the Brain <ul><li>It is divided into two nearly symmetrical halves </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Each part of the brain is responsible for processing certain kind of information </li></ul><ul><li>They are connected by a bundle of nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><li>They communicate with each other </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cortex <ul><li>A one-quarter-inch thick membrane that covers the brain </li></ul><ul><li>It makes human beings capable of higher cognitive functions </li></ul><ul><li>It contains most of language centers </li></ul><ul><li>It is covered with bumps and depression </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Even minor damage to the surface of the brain can result in language disorder </li></ul>
  7. 7. Auditory Cortex <ul><li>Responsible for receiving and identifying auditory signals and converting them into a form that can be interpreted by other areas of the brain </li></ul>
  8. 8. Visual Cortex <ul><li>It receives and interprets visual stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>It is the storage site for pictoral images </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motor cortex <ul><li>It is located in the upper middle of each hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsible for sending signals to your muscles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Language Centers <ul><li>Production and comprehension of language </li></ul><ul><li>They mainly only in the left hemisphere </li></ul>
  11. 11. Broca’s area <ul><li>Located at the base of motor cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for organizing the articulatory patterns of language and directing the motor cortex when we want to talk </li></ul><ul><li>Control the use of inflectional morphemes and function morphemes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wernicke’s area <ul><li>Located near the back section of the auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>It is involved in the comprehension of words and the selection of words when producing sentences </li></ul>
  13. 13. Arcuate Fasciculus <ul><li>A bundle of nerve fibers that connect Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>So that they share information </li></ul><ul><li>Mental lexicon  looks up words via wernicke’s area then say them via broca’s area </li></ul>
  14. 14. Angular Gyrus <ul><li>Located between Wernicke’s area and the visual cortex </li></ul><ul><li>It converts visual stimuli into auditory stimuli (and viceversa) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, we are allowed to match the spoken form of a word with the object it describes </li></ul>
  15. 15. The flow of Linguistic Information <ul><li>How all the areas of the brain work together to process language </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of linguistic result </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Speaking <ul><li>Wernicke’s area  arcuate fasciculus  broca’s area  motor cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Visual cortex  angular gyrus  wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory cortex  angular gyrus  visual cortex  wernicke’s area  broca’s area  motor cortex </li></ul>
  17. 18. Lateralization <ul><li>Each brain’s hemisphere is responsible for different cognitive functions </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere  analytic reasoning, temporal ordering, arithmetic and language </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere  processing music, perceiving non-linguistic sounds, performing task (visual and spatial skills or pattern recognition </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>It happens in early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>It can be recovered in initial stage if damaged </li></ul>
  19. 20. Contralateralization <ul><li>The connections between the brain and the body are almost completely contralateral </li></ul><ul><li>The right side of the body  controlled by the left hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The left side of the body  controlled by the right hemisphere </li></ul>
  20. 21. Evidence <ul><li>Dichotic Listening Test </li></ul><ul><li>Split Brains Patients </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispherictomies </li></ul>
  21. 22. Language Disorders <ul><li>Damage in the left hemisphere  aphasia </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasia  inability to perceive, process or produce language because of physical damage to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic skills affected depend on where the brain damage is </li></ul>
  22. 23. Broca’s Aphasia <ul><li>Haltingly speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Speech without inflections and function words </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in producing </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty matching the correct semantic interpretation to the syntactic order of the sentence </li></ul>
  23. 24. Example <ul><li>Examiner: Tell me, what did you do before you retired? </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasic: Uh, uh, uh, uh, pub, par, partender, no. </li></ul><ul><li>Examiner: Carpenter? </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasic: (shaking head yes) Carpenter, tuh, tuh, tenty year. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Wernicke’s Aphasia <ul><li>Receptive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Misinterpreting what others say and responding in unexpected way </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to produce semantically incoherent speech </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent but meaningless speech </li></ul>
  25. 26. Example <ul><li>Examiner: Do you like it here in Kansas City? </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasic: Yes, I am. </li></ul><ul><li>Examiner: I’d like to have you tell me something about your problem </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasic: Yes, I, ugh, can’t hill all of my way. I can’t tal all of the things I do, and part of the part I can go alright……… </li></ul>
  26. 27. Conduction Aphasia <ul><li>Damage to the arcuate fasciculus </li></ul><ul><li>Sth like wernicke’s aphasia but showing signs of being able to comprehend the speech of others </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in transmission </li></ul>
  27. 28. Alexia and Agraphia <ul><li>Both caused by angular gyrus damage </li></ul><ul><li>Alexia  Inability to read and comprehend written words </li></ul><ul><li>Agraphia  Inability to write words </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li> </li></ul>