Cerebral cortex


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  • Mention angular gyrus - dyslexia
  • * Berne p209-210
  • Cerebral cortex

    1. 1. Cerebral Cortex
    2. 2. Layers <ul><li>Most incoming sensory signals: IV </li></ul><ul><li>Most output signals leave cortex: V & VI </li></ul><ul><li>To brain stem and SC: V </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers to thalamus: VI </li></ul><ul><li>Intracortical association functions: I,II,III </li></ul>
    3. 3. Functional Areas Stuttering & Laughter !
    4. 4. Association Areas <ul><li>PRT Association area: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continous info about body spatial coordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial processing of visual language (reading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are for naming objects </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Specific Functional Areas
    6. 6. Face Recognition
    7. 7. Wernicke ’ s Area <ul><li>Plays the greatest single role of any part of the cerebral cortex for the higher comprehension levels of brain function that we call intelligence </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cerebral Dominance? <ul><li>Dominant & nondominant hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential-analytic processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Representational hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visuospatial relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of objects by their form </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of faces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of musical themes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Lesions of Representational & Categorical Hemispheres   <ul><li>Lesions of categorical hemisphere: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbed about their disability and often depressed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesions of representational hemisphere: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No language disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes unconcerned and even euphoric! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Astereognosis —the inability to identify objects by feeling them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lesions of inferior parietal lobule cause unilateral inattention and neglect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to tell a story or make a joke </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Language <ul><li>Language is one of the fundamental bases of human intelligence and a key part of human culture </li></ul><ul><li>Areas concerned: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wernicke's area connected via Arcuate fasciculus to Broca's area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd language </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broca’s area concerned is different from that associated with native language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children learning 2 languages simultaneously have the same Broca’s area dealing with both languages </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Two aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory input </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual input </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Language Disorders <ul><li>Aphasias </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormalities of language functions that are not due to defects of vision or hearing or to motor paralysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by lesions in categorical hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common cause is embolism or thrombosis of a cerebral blood vessel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Aphasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global Aphasia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Aphasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dysarthria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Receptive and expressive aphasia* </li></ul>
    13. 13. Language – Chair! &quot;I know what it is . . . I have a lot of them.&quot; Anomic (angular gyrus) &quot;Flair . . . no, swair . . . tair.&quot; Fluent (areas 40, 41, and 42; conduction aphasia) &quot;Stool&quot; or &quot;choss&quot; (neologism) Fluent (Wernicke’s area) &quot;Tssair&quot; Nonfluent (Broca’s area) Characteristic Naming Errors Type of Aphasia and Site of Lesion
    14. 14. Thoughts <ul><li>A “pattern” of stimulation of many parts of the nervous system at the same time, probably involving most importantly the cerebral cortex, thalamus, limbic system, and upper reticular formation of the brain stem. ( Holistic theory ) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Memory <ul><li>Stored in brain by changing basic sensitivity of synaptic transmission b/w neurons as a result of previous neural activity </li></ul><ul><li>New (facilitated) pathways - memory traces </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once traces are established - they can be selectively activated by the thinking mind to reproduce the memories </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Classification <ul><li>Time-wise </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presynaptic ++ or -- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible chemical/structural changes (pre- or postsynaptic) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actual structural changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skill </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Classification <ul><li>Explicit or declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with consciousness/awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit or nondeclarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not involve awareness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Hippocampus <ul><li>Storage of memories </li></ul><ul><li>Lesion causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterograde & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde amnesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot establish new declarative memories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can establish skill (reflexive) memories </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Strangeness & Familiarity <ul><li>Some parts of temporal lobes causes a change in interpretation of one's surroundings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>déjà vu phenomenon! </li></ul></ul></ul>