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Brain and Language


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Brain and Language introduction

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Brain and Language

  1. 1. Blasco, Joy Marie D. Beed-English III BRAIN AND LANGUAGE
  2. 2. What is the nature of the brain? What is the nature of the human language? What is the relationship between the two?
  3. 3. THE HUMAN BRAIN - The study of the biological and neural foundations of language. - Data based from atypical or impaired language. Neurolinguistic The Human Brain -100 billion nerve cells (neurons)
  4. 4. THE HUMAN BRAIN Cortex - surface of the brain - “gray matter” - decision-making organ of the body - receives messages from all the sensory organs - initiates all voluntary and involuntary actions - storehouse of memories - where our ‘grammar’ resides
  5. 5. THE HUMAN BRAIN Corpus callosum - joins the two hemispheres - allows the two hemispheres to communicate with each other Contralateral Brain Function
  6. 6. The Localization of Language in the Brain Franz Joseph Gall proposed the theory of localization. He proposed that language is located in the frontal lobes. (Protuding eyes) Localization - different human cognitive abilities and behaviors are localized in specific parts of the brain.
  7. 7. The Localization of Language in the Brain Phrenology - Formerly known as organology - practice of determining personality traits, intellectual capacities, and other matters by examining the “bumps” on the skull. - discarded as a scientific theory Johann Spurzheim -introduced phrenology in America -constructed elaborate maps and skull models
  8. 8. Phrenology Skull Model
  9. 9. Aphasia - Neurological term for any language disorder that results from the brain damage caused by disease or trauma Paul Broca Proposed that language is localized in the left hemisphere of the brain. More specifically front part of the left hemisphere (Broca’s area). We speak with the left hemisphere.
  10. 10. Carl Wernicke Wernicke’s area - left hemisphere temporal lobe Lateralization - term used to refer to the localization of function to one hemisphere of the brain.
  11. 11. Historical Description of Aphasia Greek Hippocratic physicians reported that loss of speech often occurred simultaneously with paralysis of the right side of the body. Psalm 137 states: “If I forget thee, Oh Jerusalem, may my right hand lose its cunning and my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth.” Physicians of the day described other kinds of linguistic breakdown in detail, such as a priest who, following brain damage, retained his ability to read Latin but lost the ability to read German
  12. 12. The Linguistic Characterization of Aphasic Syndromes Most aphasics do not show total language loss Broca’s aphasia (Agrammatic aphasia) • Labored speech • Word-finding difficulties • Difficulty forming sentences with the rules of syntax. • Aggramatic: lacks articles, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, and other grammatical elements. • Omit inflections (suffix –ed and the third person verb –s) • Difficulty understanding complex sentences on which comprehension depends on syntactic
  13. 13. Wernicke’s aphasia • Fluent speech with good intonation • Adhere to the rules of syntax • Semantically incoherent • Difficulty naming objects presented to them • Difficulty choosing words in spontaneous speech • Lexical errors (word substitutions) • Produces jargon and nonsense words
  14. 14. “I felt worse because I can no longer keep in mind from the mind of the minds to keep me from mind and up to the ear which can be to find among ourselves.” “The only thing that I can say is mader or modder fish sudden fishing sewed into the accident to miss in the purdies.” “Me? Yes sir. I’m a male demaploze on my own. I still know my tubaboys what for I have that’s gone hell and some of them go up.”
  15. 15. Severe Wernicke’s aphasia (Jargon aphasia) Modular organization of language in the brain. Sometimes the substituted words are similar to the intended words in their sounds. These errors resemble the speech errors that anyone might make, but they occur far more frequently in people with aphasia.
  16. 16. Dyslexic • Acquired dyslexic- normal readers before brain lesions • Developmental dyslexic- difficulty learning to read Stimulus Response 1 Response 2 Act Play Play Applaud Laugh Cheers Example Answer Sum Heal Pain Medicine South West East
  17. 17. Stimulus Response Stimulus Response Witch Witch Which No! Hour Time Our No! Eye Eyes I No! Hymn Bible him No! Wood Wood Would No!
  18. 18. Kana- sound system -each symbol corresponds to a syllable Kanji- ideographic Each symbol corresponds to a word Not based on the sound Japanese people with left- hemisphere damage are impaired in their ability to read kana, whereas people with the right hemisphere damage are impaired in their ability to read kanji. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT) -Severe anomia -inability to find the words you wish to speak.
  19. 19. It is important to note that the language difficulties suffered by aphasics are not caused by any general cognitive or intellectual impairment or loss or motor or sensory controls of the nerves or muscles of the speech organs or hearing apparatus… Whatever loss they suffer has to do only with the language faculty ( or specific parts of it).