LEQ: How did Western nations come todominate much of the world in the late1800s?
• imperialism – the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region In the late 1800s, Western imperialism expanded aggressively.• Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.• Although Europeans had established colonies earlier, they had previously had little direct influence over people in China, Africa, or India.
The strong, Encouraged by theircentrally governed new strength, thesenation-states of nations embarkedEurope were on a path ofgreatly enriched expansion—the newby the Industrial imperialism.Revolution.
Causes of the “New Imperialism” • New sources of raw materials Economic • New markets to sell goods needs • New ventures and enterprises • Naval refueling bases Political • Stopping the expansion of rivalsand military needs • Promoting national security and prestige
• Missionaries, doctors,Imperialism and colonial officials sawwas also driven it as their duty to spreadby genuine the blessings of Westernhumanitarian civilization.and religiousgoals. • These included medicine, law, and religion.
Behind the • Social Darwinists applied West’s civilizing Darwin’s theory of natural mission was selection to societies. also a sense • They saw imperialism as of racial nature’s way of improving superiority. the human race.A result was that many people lost their cultural heritage.
National pride and aggressive foreign policy came to be known as jingoism.A driving force behind imperialism was the desirefor new markets. This British propaganda posterboasts that Africa would become a gold mine for British-made products.
Between 1870 and 1914, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world.• Leading the way were explorers, missionaries, soldiers, merchants, and settlers.• Imperialists found support among all classes of society, including bankers, manufacturers, and workers.
Western expansion succeeded for a number of reasons.Disadvantages • The Ottoman and Chinese of the civilizations were in decline. non-Western • The slave trade had damaged nations African nations. • They had strong economies and Advantages well-organized governments.of the Western • They had superior technology nations in weapons, communication, medicine, and transportation.
Asians and Some tried EducatedAfricans to strengthen Africans andresisted, but their societies Asians triedwere over- by reforming to formpowered by their Hindu, nationalistweapons such Muslim, or movementsas the Maxim Confucian to expel themachine gun. traditions. imperialists.
In the West, a small group opposed imperialistactions.• Some saw imperialism as a tool of the rich.• Some felt it was immoral.• Others saw it as undemocratic. Westerners were moving toward greater democracy at home, they noted, but were imposing undemocratic rule on others.
France and Britain ruled with different approaches. French administrators were sent. • France generally • The goal was to impose French ruled directly. culture. Local rulers were left in charge. • • The children of the ruling class Britain generally were educated in England. ruled indirectly. • The goal was to groom or “Westernize” future leaders.
• protectorate – a region in which a local ruler was left in place but expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity• sphere of influence – an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges Colonial powers used additional methods to rule. • Local leaders were kept in office. They often used • Colonial advisors told them protectorates. what to do. • This method was less costly. • Colonial powers claimed Spheres of exclusive right to trade or invest influence were in a particular area. carved out. • The goal was to prevent conflict with other colonial powers.
LEQ: How did Western nations come todominate much of the world in the late 1800s? Western scientific, technological, and economic progress during the Industrial Revolution strengthened Western armed forces and allowed Western nations to dominate much of the world.