Imperialism and Africa• Imperialism is the extension of political, economic, or social control by industrialized nations on other weaker nations, regions, and territories. (A stronger nation tries to dominate a weaker nation through economic, political and social means).
Imperialism and AfricaAfrica Before Imperialism • 100s of ethnic groups • Christianity and Muslim • 1000s of languages • Europe is kept out • African armies kept Europe out for 400 years • Travel nearly impossible - rivers • IR and natural resources are the sparks needed for domination
Motives Driving ImperialismWe are Better Than You • Racism • One race is superior to another • Social Darwinism • The “fittest” and strong survive to enjoy the wealth, success, and superiority • This “gives” Europe the right to bring progress • Social Darwinism is what it sounds like. The Euros thought that since they were the most technologically and administratively advanced people they encountered anywhere on the globe and that they were capable of conquering others, they were necessarily fitter than all others and were superior to them
Motives Driving ImperialismNeed Our Goods • Raw Materials for fancy new factories • To force European goods onto Africa • To expand European power • To “civilize” the savage
Forces Allowing ImperialismEuropean Motives • Nationalism – “we are here, not you” • Econ competition – profit • European racism • Missionaries • Military and Naval – more controlExternal Forces • Maxim gun – 1st auto machine gun • Railroads, steamships, cable (communication)Internal Forces Different cultures/language – no unity Europe learned to play each culture against each other
Berlin Conference Preventing War • Competition was fierce for Africa • Berlin Conference Berlin Conference 1884 • No one wanted war so …. • Gave “rules” on how to divide Africa LOL No African nation was rep in meeting
Colonial Control Forms Forms of Imperialism Explanation Colony A country is governed by a foreign power Protectorate A country has its own government but is controlled by an outside power An country where outside powers claim Sphere of Influence exclusive rights to trade and economics (no one else can trade with.) A country that is independent but Economic Imperialism undeveloped and controlled by business not another govt.
How to Manage Those Colonies Indirect Control Direct Control Local rulers used to Foreign rulers used to govern help govern Some self rule No self rule Goal is to develop Goal is to assimilate entire culture future “loyal” local rulers European style with Based solely on European styles local rules Example: US Pacific Example: French Islands Vietnam
Impact of Colonial Rule of AfricaThe Negative • Lost land and independence • War • Famine • Loss of culture
Impact of Colonial Rule of Africa The Positive • Reduced local tribal wars • Humanitarian efforts • Hospitals • Schools • Economy/Industry • Railroads • Dams • Communication
• By 1914, Africa had been split up :• Note that Ethopia and Liberia remained uncolonized.• Liberia was a settlement by freed American slaves.• Ethiopia successfully fought off Italian colonizers.
• See if you can identify part of the problem with colonization.