What Is Abnormality?What Is Abnormality?
Abnormal Psych: Intro ($h!t’s about to get weird)
• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
1: ...
Fact of Falsehood
• 1. In some cultures, depression and schizophrenia are nonexistent.
• 2. The more contact people have w...
The
study
of
abnormal
thoughts,
feelings
and
behaviors
P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y
Early Theories
• Abnormal behavior was evil
spirits trying to get out.
• Trephining was often used.
• Another theory was t...
Early Explanations of Mental Illness
• Hippocrates – mental
illness from imbalance
of body’s four
humors
• Middle Ages –
m...
Some people still think mental illness is
demonology
What Is Abnormal?
Inability to
Function
Statistically
Rare
Social Norm
Deviance
Danger to
Self/Others
Subjective
Discomfort
Perspectives and Disorders
Psychological School/Perspective Cause of the Disorder
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Internal, u...
What is a psychological disorder?
• Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause
serious personal suffering or interfe...
Case Study: The Three D‟s: ADHD
• ADHD
• A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by
age 7 of one or more of thre...
ADHD Setting the Record Straight
Biopsychosocial Approach to Explaining Disorders
13
Section 1: Test Your Knowledge
Is this a psychological disorder? Why or Why Not?
During most of her life, Mary has been in...
1: How should we draw the line between normality and disorder?
2: What perspectives can help us understand psychological d...
Abnormal Psych: Classification and
Labeling• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
3: How and...
How do psychologists explain disorders?
• The Medical Model (Pinel):
– Mental illness is a sickness
(psychopathology)
• No...
How do Psychologists classify disorders?
• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)-1994,
Revised...
Two Major Disorder
Classifications in the DSM
Neurotic Disorders
• Distressing but one can
still function in society
and a...
Group-think Share…. Neurotic or Psychotic and why?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. 6.
Layout of DSM Disorder Profiles
I. Disorder Name
II. Diagnostic features (this is complete description
of the disorder)
II...
DSM-IV-TR Psychological Profile Overview
Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing
issues) also presen...
DSM & Reliability
• If two different
psychologists interview the
same patient, will they come
up with the same diagnosis
a...
Is There Danger in Labeling People?
What would you diagnose
these people with?
24
Is There Danger in Labeling People?
• The Rosenhan Study (1973)
– Faked a disorder to get into a mental institution
– Afte...
Is There Danger in Labeling People?
26
Is There Danger in Labeling People?
• Pros of Labeling
– Communicate disorders
– Discern Treatment
– Comprehend underlying...
Section 2: Test Your Knowledge
• A man is feeling depressed about his inability to support his family after
losing his job...
3: How and why do clinicians classify psychological disorders?
4: Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnosti...
Section 2: Product Assessment
• In groups of 3 to 4 people, you are to create a
poster for a new disorder using the “Layou...
Abnormal Psych: Anxiety Disorders
• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
5: What are anxiety...
Anxiety Disorders
• Anxiety: General State of dread or
uneasiness that occurs in response
to a vague or imagined danger.
•...
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
• Excessive or unrealistic
worry about life
circumstances lasting for
at least six mont...
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
• Panic Attack: a short period of intense fear or discomfort with
most of the physical sym...
Phobias- “Fear Disorder”
• Social Phobia
– Fear of social situations in which one might be exposed to the
close scrutiny o...
Phobias- “Pickles”
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
• Obsessions: Unwanted thoughts, ideas
or mental images that occur over and
over again
• Com...
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
39
The Hoarding Debate…
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
• Intense, persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by a
traumatic experience
• Added...
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
42
What Causes Anxiety Disorders?
• Psychoanalytic Perspective: Repressed
unconscious urges from childhood
• Biological Persp...
5: What are anxiety disorders, and how do they differ from ordinary worries and
fears?
6: What produces the thoughts and f...
Check Your Understanding: Anxiety Disorders
• Which of the following is NOT considered an
anxiety disorder?
A) Ben, who go...
Anxiety Disorder Review
• Create a visual graphic organizer to help remember the different types of anxiety
disorders
46
A...
Abnormal Psych: Somatoform and
Dissociative Disorders• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
...
Somatoform Disorders
• Occur when a
person manifests a
psychological
problem
(depression) through
a physiological
symptom
...
Somatoform Disorders
• Type I: Conversion Disorder
– People experience a loss or change of physical
functioning
– No medic...
Somatoform Disorders
50
Somatoform Disorders
51
Dissociative Disorders
• Disruptions in conscious awareness
and sense of identity (memory issues)
• Explained by having un...
Psychogenic Amnesia
• Also called
“Dissociative Amnesia”
• A person cannot
remember things with
no physiological basis
for...
Psychogenic Amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
• People with
psychogenic amnesia
that find
themselves in an
unfamiliar
environment.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
• Used to be known as
Multiple Personality
Disorder.
• A person has several
rather than one...
DID
– Considered extremely rare
– The personalities alternate, with the
original personality typically denying
awareness o...
DID- The faces of Eve
58
DID Kim Noble
59
DID Paula‟s Struggle
60
7: What are somatoform disorders?
8: What are dissociative disorders, and why are they controversial?
61
Rating Student Ev...
Abnormal Psych: Mood Disorders
• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
9: What are mood disor...
Mood Disorders
• Experience extreme or inappropriate
emotion.
Major Depression
• A.K.A. unipolar
depression
• Unhappy for at
least two weeks
with no apparent
cause.
• Depression is the...
Major Depressive Episode
65
Major Depressive Episode
• Neurotransmitters involved: Serotonin and Norepinephrine
• Five of the following symptoms must ...
Dysthymic Disorder
• Suffering from
mild depression
every day for
at least two
years.
Dysthymic Disorder
• Dysthymic disorder lies between a blue
mood and major depressive disorder. It
is a disorder character...
Dysthymic Disorder Case Study: Eeyore
Bipolar Disorder
• Involves periods of
depression and manic
episodes.
• Manic episodes involve
feelings of high energy
(bu...
Bipolar Disorder
• May hear voices and experience
hallucinations, Delusions of superior abilities
– Example Behaviors: Spe...
72
Mania can resemble schizophrenia or a crack high
73
Creativity and Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder: Subtypes
• Bipolar I (most extreme) disorder is
characterized by the presence of one or more
manic or mi...
Bipolar Disorder an in-depth explanation
75
Famous People with Bipolar
77
Explaining Mood Disorders
Since depression is so prevalent worldwide,
investigators want to develop a theory of
depress...
78
Theory of Depression
Gender differences
79
Theory of Depression
• Depressive episodes self-terminate.
• Depression is increasing, especially in
teens.
Post-partum...
Suicide Statistics
• 1 million people worldwide/year
• White Americans are twice as likely than
Black Americans to kill th...
81
Biological Perspective
Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in
families. The rate of depression is higher in
identica...
82
The Depressed Brain
PET scans show that brain energy consumption
rises and falls with manic and depressive
episodes.
Co...
83
Social-Cognitive Perspective
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that
depression arises partly from self-defeatin...
84
Depression Cycle
Negative stressful events.
Pessimistic explanatory style.
Hopeless depressed state.
These hamper the w...
85
Example
Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming depressed.
9: What are mood disorders, and what forms do they take?
10: What causes mood disorders, and what might explain the Wester...
Section 5: Test Your Knowledge
Which of the following is NOT true regarding depression?
A. Depression is more common in fe...
Schizophrenia• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the following:
11: What patterns of thinking, perceivin...
Schizophrenia Overview
• 1 in 100 people develop schizophrenia "split
mind”
• One of the most serious disorders of
psychol...
Schizophrenia Experience
90
Schizophrenia Overview
• Disorganized Thinking
– Fragmented speech (word salad)
– Delusions (false beliefs)
– Inability to...
Schizophrenia Overview
92
Schizophrenia Overview
93
Positive and Negative Symptoms
• Schizophrenics have present
inappropriate symptoms
(hallucinations, disorganized
thinking...
Schizophrenia Subtypes
95
Paranoid Schizophrenia
96
Possible Causes of Schizophrenia
• DOPAMINE
– Too much of it!
– Leads to hallucinations
• UNUSUAL BRAIN ACTIVITY
– Low fro...
98
99
The Schizophrenia Switch
Early Warning Signs of Schizophrenia
100 100
Birth complications, oxygen deprivation and low-birth
weight.
2.
Short attent...
11: What patterns of thinking, perceiving, feeling, and behaving characterize
schizophrenia?
12: What causes schizophrenia...
Check Your Understanding: Schizophrenia
• The _____ type of schizophreneia is characted
by delusions.
A) Rediudal
B) Catat...
Check Your Understanding: Schizophrenia
• Most of the drugs that are useful in the
treatment of schizophrenia are know to
...
Abnormal Psych: Personality Disorders and Stats on
Disorders
• Learning Goals:
– Students should be able to answer the fol...
Labeling a Person Criminally Insane
• “Insanity” labels
raise moral and ethical
questions about how
society should treat
p...
Personality Disorders- Axis II
• Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and/or
distress the affect...
Antisocial Personality Disorder
• AKA: Sociopath or Psychopath
– Typically a male, Begins before age 15
– Lies, steals, fi...
Rates of Psychological Disorders
108
13: What characteristics typical of personality disorders?
14: How many people suffer or have suffered from a psychologica...
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Aguiar ap abnormal

  1. 1. What Is Abnormality?What Is Abnormality?
  2. 2. Abnormal Psych: Intro ($h!t’s about to get weird) • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1: How should we draw the line between normality and disorder? 2: What perspectives can help us understand psychological disorders? 2 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can successfully answer level 3 AND critically debate if labeling disorders has a potential dangerous effect on self-fulfilling prophecy. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the layout of the DSM, and different axes of the DSM AND discuss the pros and cons of labeling disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify the layout of the DSM, different axes of the DSM, but need more time to review how this impacts the classification of disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in level 2.
  3. 3. Fact of Falsehood • 1. In some cultures, depression and schizophrenia are nonexistent. • 2. The more contact people have with individuals with disorders, the less accepting their attitudes are. • 3.About 30 percent of psychologically disordered people are dangerous; that is, they are more likely than other people to commit a crime. • 4.Research indicates that in the United States there are more prison inmates with severe mental disorders than there are psychiatric inpatients in all the country’s hospitals. • 5.Identical twins who have been raised separately sometimes develop similar phobias. • 6. Dissociative identity disorder is a type of schizophrenia. • 7. In North America, today’s young adults are three times more likely than their grandparents to report having suffered depression. • 8. White Americans commit suicide nearly twice as often as Black Americans do. • 9. There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. • 10 Twenty-six percent of adult Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year. 3
  4. 4. The study of abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviors P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y
  5. 5. Early Theories • Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out. • Trephining was often used. • Another theory was to make the body extremely uncomfortable
  6. 6. Early Explanations of Mental Illness • Hippocrates – mental illness from imbalance of body’s four humors • Middle Ages – mentally ill labeled witches LO 12.1 How has mental illness been explained? How is abnormality defined?
  7. 7. Some people still think mental illness is demonology
  8. 8. What Is Abnormal? Inability to Function Statistically Rare Social Norm Deviance Danger to Self/Others Subjective Discomfort
  9. 9. Perspectives and Disorders Psychological School/Perspective Cause of the Disorder Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Internal, unconscious drives Humanistic Failure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings. Behavioral Reinforcement history, the environment. Cognitive Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking. Sociocultural Dysfunctional Society Biomedical/Neuroscience Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.
  10. 10. What is a psychological disorder? • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person‟s ability to cope with everyday life. • Three main components: – Deviant (being different) – Distressful (causes worry, pain or stress) – Dysfunctional (impairing life functioning) • About 1 in 7 adults in the United States have experienced a psychological disorder. 26% in the last year. *Note: Not all deviant behavior is considered a disorder, as sometimes it is just a cultural, situational or generational norm. (e.g. killing in war, dressing differently, praying loudly etc…) 10
  11. 11. Case Study: The Three D‟s: ADHD • ADHD • A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity • 4% of children, though 10% are being medicated for it • Diagnosed 2-3 times more in boys than girls • Correlated to watching more TV before age 7 • Brain appears to be about three years behind on thinning of cortex and pruning • Medications help, but benefits may disappear after three years • FDA just approved an EEG brain wave method for diagnosing ADHD 11
  12. 12. ADHD Setting the Record Straight
  13. 13. Biopsychosocial Approach to Explaining Disorders 13
  14. 14. Section 1: Test Your Knowledge Is this a psychological disorder? Why or Why Not? During most of her life, Mary has been inclined to keep to herself. She has few friends but no close friends. Her feelings are easily hurt, and she seldom participates in any social activities. As a child, she did nearly average work in school but never took part in school activities. She eventually dropped out of school and got a job. She rarely talks with the other employees and prefers to eat her lunch alone. She prefers to keep to herself and quietly talks to herself, even when customers are around. At times she refuses to eat certain foods for fear of being poisoned. Most of the time Mary refuses to attend to her personal hygiene and prefers to be left alone quietly muttering to herself. She leaves the house only for food and work. 14
  15. 15. 1: How should we draw the line between normality and disorder? 2: What perspectives can help us understand psychological disorders? 15 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, the definitions of normality and disorders as well as psychological perspectives on disorders. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can explain, the definitions of normality and disorders as well as psychological perspectives on disorders with no major errors or omissions. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated, the definitions of normality and disorders as well as psychological perspectives on disorders, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  16. 16. Abnormal Psych: Classification and Labeling• Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 3: How and why do clinicians classify psychological disorders? 4: Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labels? 16 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can successfully answer level 3 AND critically debate if labeling disorders has a potential dangerous effect on self-fulfilling prophecy. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the layout of the DSM, and different axes of the DSM AND discuss the pros and cons of labeling disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify the layout of the DSM, different axes of the DSM, but need more time to review how this impacts the classification of disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  17. 17. How do psychologists explain disorders? • The Medical Model (Pinel): – Mental illness is a sickness (psychopathology) • Noticed people would become crazy due to syphilis • Dorothea Dix advocates for humane treatment in mental hospitals in America – Under the medical model, we seek to: • Diagnosis • Understand the Symptoms • Provide Treatment • And use psychiatric hospitals only when necessary Trephination -boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces 17
  18. 18. How do Psychologists classify disorders? • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)-1994, Revised 2000 • Published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) • Closely follows World Heath Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD) • The DSM is revised every few years (DSM-V was published in 2013) – Contains over 400 disorder categories – DSM III included homosexuality as a disorder (1973), the DSM-IV does not. • Critics say the DSM is too broad and anyone can be classified with a disorder. People can be diagnosed falsely with diagnostic labels. • Goals of the DSM: 1. Identify and classify disorders 2. Determine prevalence (not treatment) 18
  19. 19. Two Major Disorder Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders • Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally. Psychotic Disorders • Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. John Wayne Gacy
  20. 20. Group-think Share…. Neurotic or Psychotic and why? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  21. 21. Layout of DSM Disorder Profiles I. Disorder Name II. Diagnostic features (this is complete description of the disorder) III. Associated features ( these are the features that accompany the disorder) IV. Development and Course (this is how the disorder can develop and how it could possibly affect the life course) V. Differential Diagnosis (other possible names or similar disorders)
  22. 22. DSM-IV-TR Psychological Profile Overview Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present?Axis IV What is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning? (0-100 Point Scale)Axis V Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present?Axis III Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis II Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present?Axis I 22
  23. 23. DSM & Reliability • If two different psychologists interview the same patient, will they come up with the same diagnosis according to the DSM? • 83% of opinions agreed in one study based on criteria in the DSM (It supposedly has high validity and reliability) 23
  24. 24. Is There Danger in Labeling People? What would you diagnose these people with? 24
  25. 25. Is There Danger in Labeling People? • The Rosenhan Study (1973) – Faked a disorder to get into a mental institution – After arriving into the institution, the „pseudopatient‟ stopped being symptomatic – On average it took 19 days before „pseudopatients‟ were released, even though they were not experiencing symptoms – Conclusion: Labeling causes Doctors to see people as „insane‟ even when they are „sane‟ 25
  26. 26. Is There Danger in Labeling People? 26
  27. 27. Is There Danger in Labeling People? • Pros of Labeling – Communicate disorders – Discern Treatment – Comprehend underlying causes • Cons of Labeling – Leads to self-fulfilling prophecy for both patient and others – Creates a stigma that follows a person Operational Defiant Disorder 27
  28. 28. Section 2: Test Your Knowledge • A man is feeling depressed about his inability to support his family after losing his job. The fact that the patient is currently unemployed is coded on which axis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)? (A) Axis I (B) Axis II (C) Axis III (D) Axis IV (E) Axis V • The medical model views mental illness as: (A) A character defect (B) A disease or illness (C) An interaction of biological, cognitive, behavioral, social and cultural factors (D) Normal behavior in an abnormal context (E) Maladaptive contingencies of reinforcement 28
  29. 29. 3: How and why do clinicians classify psychological disorders? 4: Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labels? 29 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can successfully answer level 3 AND critically debate if labeling disorders has a potential dangerous effect on self-fulfilling prophecy. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the layout of the DSM, and different axes of the DSM AND discuss the pros and cons of labeling disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify the layout of the DSM, different axes of the DSM, but need more time to review how this impacts the classification of disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  30. 30. Section 2: Product Assessment • In groups of 3 to 4 people, you are to create a poster for a new disorder using the “Layout of DSM Disorder Profiles” (I-Name, II-Diagnostic, III- Associated Features, IV-Development, V- Differential Diagnosis) • A rationale as to why a disorder profile is needed for this disorder (included the three D’s from the prior lesson) • An illustration to go along with this disorder • Example: Senioritis 30
  31. 31. Abnormal Psych: Anxiety Disorders • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 5: What are anxiety disorders, and how do they differ from ordinary worries and fears? 6: What produces the thoughts and feelings that mark anxiety disorders? 31 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and debate the legitimacy of the proposed causes of anxiety disorders. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify, describe and explain causes of specific anxiety disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify and describe some of the specific anxiety disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  32. 32. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety: General State of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger. • Also, nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control • Physical Symptoms caused by over active sympathetic nervous system: – Trembling, Sweating, Rapid Heart Rate, Shortness of Breath, Increased Blood Pressure, Flushed Face, Feelings of Light-headedness 32
  33. 33. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) • Excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances lasting for at least six months – Financial Issues, Work, Relationships • Hard to Treat and Diagnosis • Effects more Women and Blacks 33
  34. 34. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  35. 35. Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia • Panic Attack: a short period of intense fear or discomfort with most of the physical symptoms of anxiety present • Agoraphobia: Fear of being in places or situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible – Accounts for 50-80% of phobia clients seeking treatment • Both panic attacks and agoraphobia lead to avoidance behaviors • Treatment: – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – Behavioral Therapy with conditioning and relaxation 35
  36. 36. Phobias- “Fear Disorder” • Social Phobia – Fear of social situations in which one might be exposed to the close scrutiny of others and might be humiliated or embarrassed – Examples: Public speaking, eating in public or dating • Simple Phobia (most common) – Happens in women 2-1 – Animal, Situational, Injection – Irrational fear of a particular object or situation 36
  37. 37. Phobias- “Pickles”
  38. 38. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Obsessions: Unwanted thoughts, ideas or mental images that occur over and over again • Compulsions: Repetitive ritual behaviors involving checking or cleaning (helps to reduce anxiety from obsessions) • 55% of OCD clients obsess over dirt or contamination • May be caused by frontal lobe glucose metabolism or wired into brain 38 A PET scan of the brain of a person with Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder (OCD). High metabolic activity (red) in the frontal lobe areas are involved with directing attention.
  39. 39. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 39
  40. 40. The Hoarding Debate…
  41. 41. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Intense, persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by a traumatic experience • Added to the DSM after the Vietnam War • Previously called “shell shock” and “battle fatigue” • Events that lead to PTSD: – Rape, Child Abuse, Assault, Severe Accidents, Natural Disasters, War – Lower than average cortisol levels may predispose people to PTSD • Symptoms: – Flashbacks & Nightmares – Tension & Aggression – Avoidance Behavior & Substance Abuse • Treatments: – Prolonged CBT – Virtual Therapy- reliving the event – EMDR 41
  42. 42. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 42
  43. 43. What Causes Anxiety Disorders? • Psychoanalytic Perspective: Repressed unconscious urges from childhood • Biological Perspective: Too much or too little of certain neurotransmitters or brain abnormality; sensitive amygdala • Behavioral (Learning) Perspective: Conditioned through classical conditioning or operant conditioning to experience anxiety 43
  44. 44. 5: What are anxiety disorders, and how do they differ from ordinary worries and fears? 6: What produces the thoughts and feelings that mark anxiety disorders? Mr. Burnes 44 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and debate the legitimacy of the proposed causes of anxiety disorders. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify, describe and explain causes of specific anxiety disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify and describe some of the specific anxiety disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  45. 45. Check Your Understanding: Anxiety Disorders • Which of the following is NOT considered an anxiety disorder? A) Ben, who goes home several times a day to check to see if the stove is off. B) Denise, who is terrorified of eating in public. C) Mary, who worries excessively about an upcoming job interview weeks before it happens. D) Kent, a solider who has experienced sudden blindness after seeing his buddies killed in war. E) Sara, who without reason, starts to hyperventalate and cry, while complaining that she thinks she will die. 45
  46. 46. Anxiety Disorder Review • Create a visual graphic organizer to help remember the different types of anxiety disorders 46 Anxiety Disorders
  47. 47. Abnormal Psych: Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders• Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 7: What are somatoform disorders? 8: What are dissociative disorders, and why are they controversial? 47 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy level 3.0 and evaluate claims made by some researchers that dissociative or somatoform disorders are not true disorders. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify somatoform and dissociative disorders, there symptoms and explain the possible causes of both types of disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify somatoform and dissociative disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  48. 48. Somatoform Disorders • Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem (depression) through a physiological symptom (paralysis). • Two types……
  49. 49. Somatoform Disorders • Type I: Conversion Disorder – People experience a loss or change of physical functioning – No medical explanation – Examples: Sudden blindness, paralysis, glove anesthesia – Not faking it! – Women twice as likely to be diagnosed • Type II: Hypochondriasis – Unrealistic Preoccupation with serious disease – Will visit multiple doctors to be treated – Affects men and women equally – Caused by suppressed emotions that emerge as physical symptoms 49
  50. 50. Somatoform Disorders 50
  51. 51. Somatoform Disorders 51
  52. 52. Dissociative Disorders • Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity (memory issues) • Explained by having unacceptable urges or protection from anxiety (psychoanalytic) • Three Types 52
  53. 53. Psychogenic Amnesia • Also called “Dissociative Amnesia” • A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. • Retrograde Amnesia • NOT organic amnesia. • Organic amnesia can be retrograde or anterograde.
  54. 54. Psychogenic Amnesia
  55. 55. Dissociative Fugue • People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
  56. 56. Dissociative Identity Disorder • Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder. • A person has several rather than one integrated personality. • People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.
  57. 57. DID – Considered extremely rare – The personalities alternate, with the original personality typically denying awareness of the other(s) – Skeptics question whether DID is a genuine disorder or an extension of our normal capacity for personality shifts. 57
  58. 58. DID- The faces of Eve 58
  59. 59. DID Kim Noble 59
  60. 60. DID Paula‟s Struggle 60
  61. 61. 7: What are somatoform disorders? 8: What are dissociative disorders, and why are they controversial? 61 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy level 3.0 and evaluate claims made by some researchers that dissociative or somatoform disorders are not true disorders. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify somatoform and dissociative disorders, their symptoms and explain the possible causes of both types of disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify somatoform and dissociative disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  62. 62. Abnormal Psych: Mood Disorders • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 9: What are mood disorders, and what forms do they take? 10: What causes mood disorders, and what might explain the Western world’s rising incidence of depression among youth and young adults? 62 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and analyze why mood disorders seem to affect some people and not others. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the symptoms associated with specific mood disorders and explain how mood disorders develop from biological and psychological perspectives. 2.0 Developing I can identify certain mood disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  63. 63. Mood Disorders • Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
  64. 64. Major Depression • A.K.A. unipolar depression • Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. • Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders.
  65. 65. Major Depressive Episode 65
  66. 66. Major Depressive Episode • Neurotransmitters involved: Serotonin and Norepinephrine • Five of the following symptoms must be present for diagnosis: 1. depressed mood most of the day 2. loss of interest or pleasure 3. significant weight loss or gain due to appetite 4. sleeping more than normal 5. speeding up/slowing down of physical and emotional reactions 6. Fatigue 7. feelings of worthlessness 8. inability to concentrate 9. recurrent thoughts of death or suicide 10. May last for periods of months or more 66
  67. 67. Dysthymic Disorder • Suffering from mild depression every day for at least two years.
  68. 68. Dysthymic Disorder • Dysthymic disorder lies between a blue mood and major depressive disorder. It is a disorder characterized by daily depression lasting two years or more. 68 Major Depressive Disorder Blue Mood Dysthymic Disorder
  69. 69. Dysthymic Disorder Case Study: Eeyore
  70. 70. Bipolar Disorder • Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. • Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable). • Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
  71. 71. Bipolar Disorder • May hear voices and experience hallucinations, Delusions of superior abilities – Example Behaviors: Spending sprees, quitting jobs to pursue wild dreams, making bad decisions • Mania: – Inflated Self-Esteem – Inability to Sit or Sleep – Pressure to keep talking (push of speech) – Racing Thoughts – Difficulty Concentrating – Overly Optimistic 71
  72. 72. 72 Mania can resemble schizophrenia or a crack high
  73. 73. 73 Creativity and Bipolar Disorder
  74. 74. Bipolar Disorder: Subtypes • Bipolar I (most extreme) disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more manic or mixed episodes. Depressive episodes usually occur too. • Bipolar II (less extreme)disorder is characterized by highs that are never more severe than hypomania (less severe mania) together with major depressive episodes. • Cyclothymic disorder (least extreme) refers to frequent episodes of hypomania and mild depression occurring over at least a 2-year period. 74
  75. 75. Bipolar Disorder an in-depth explanation 75
  76. 76. Famous People with Bipolar
  77. 77. 77 Explaining Mood Disorders Since depression is so prevalent worldwide, investigators want to develop a theory of depression that will suggest ways to treat it. Lewinsohn et al., (1985, 1995) note that a theory of depression should explain the following: • Behavioral and cognitive changes • Common causes of depression
  78. 78. 78 Theory of Depression Gender differences
  79. 79. 79 Theory of Depression • Depressive episodes self-terminate. • Depression is increasing, especially in teens. Post-partum depression
  80. 80. Suicide Statistics • 1 million people worldwide/year • White Americans are twice as likely than Black Americans to kill themselves • Women are more likely to attempt, Men are more likely to succeed • Suicide rates have doubled in the last 40 years among teens • Who is likely to commit suicide? – The Rich – Single/divorced/widowed – White – Nonreligious – Teens & Elderly 80
  81. 81. 81 Biological Perspective Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. The rate of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%). Linkage analysis and association studies link possible genes and dispositions for depression. JerryIrwinPhotography
  82. 82. 82 The Depressed Brain PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with manic and depressive episodes. CourtesyofLewisBaxteranMichaelE. Phelps,UCLASchoolofMedicine
  83. 83. 83 Social-Cognitive Perspective The social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
  84. 84. 84 Depression Cycle Negative stressful events. Pessimistic explanatory style. Hopeless depressed state. These hamper the way the individual thinks and acts, fueling personal rejection.
  85. 85. 85 Example Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming depressed.
  86. 86. 9: What are mood disorders, and what forms do they take? 10: What causes mood disorders, and what might explain the Western world’s rising incidence of depression among youth and young adults? 86 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and analyze why mood disorders seem to affect some people and not others. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the symptoms associated with specific mood disorders and explain how mood disorders develop from biological and psychological perspectives. 2.0 Developing I can identify certain mood disorders. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  87. 87. Section 5: Test Your Knowledge Which of the following is NOT true regarding depression? A. Depression is more common in females than males. B. Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event C. Most depressive episodes last less than 3 months D. Most people recover from depression without professional therapy. The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder dramatically increases if you: A. have suffered a debilitating injury B. have an adoptive parent with the disorder C. have a parent or sibling with the disorder D. have a life-threatening illness E. have above-average intelligence 87
  88. 88. Schizophrenia• Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 11: What patterns of thinking, perceiving, feeling, and behaving characterize schizophrenia? 12: What causes schizophrenia? 88 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and analyze why persons with schizophrenia display different symptoms based on their subtypes. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the specific feature of schizophrenia and its subtypes and discuss the theories that seek to explain how schizophrenia is contracted. 2.0 Developing I can identify the specific feature of schizophrenia and its subtypes. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  89. 89. Schizophrenia Overview • 1 in 100 people develop schizophrenia "split mind” • One of the most serious disorders of psychology • 2 million in the United States, 24 million worldwide • Characterized by loss of contact with reality • May appear suddenly or gradually • Usually appears in males during adolescents and females during 20‟s. • Breakdown in selective attention 89
  90. 90. Schizophrenia Experience 90
  91. 91. Schizophrenia Overview • Disorganized Thinking – Fragmented speech (word salad) – Delusions (false beliefs) – Inability to filter selective attention • Disturbed Perceptions – Hallucinations (mostly auditory sensation errors) – Described as a dream happening while awake • Inappropriate Emotions and Actions – Wrong or no emotions (flat affect) – Senseless or weird acts (playing with hair) 91
  92. 92. Schizophrenia Overview 92
  93. 93. Schizophrenia Overview 93
  94. 94. Positive and Negative Symptoms • Schizophrenics have present inappropriate symptoms (hallucinations, disorganized thinking, deluded ways) that are not present in normal individuals (positive symptoms). • Schizophrenics also have an absence of appropriate symptoms (apathy, expressionless faces, rigid bodies) that are present in normal individuals (negative symptoms). 94 Positive or Negative Symptom?
  95. 95. Schizophrenia Subtypes 95
  96. 96. Paranoid Schizophrenia 96
  97. 97. Possible Causes of Schizophrenia • DOPAMINE – Too much of it! – Leads to hallucinations • UNUSUAL BRAIN ACTIVITY – Low frontal lobe activity – Misfiring neurons – Increased activity in the core (thalamus and amygdala) • MATERNAL VIRUS – Flu virus during first term of pregnancy – Babies born in the winter months increased risk • GENETICS – 1 in 10 if family member has it – 1 in 2 if identical twin has it – Not the sole cause of the disorder • PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW – Id is overwhelmed and out of control – Family members are pushy and overly critical 97
  98. 98. 98
  99. 99. 99 The Schizophrenia Switch
  100. 100. Early Warning Signs of Schizophrenia 100 100 Birth complications, oxygen deprivation and low-birth weight. 2. Short attention span and poor muscle coordination.3. Poor peer relations and solo play.6. Emotional unpredictability.5. Disruptive and withdrawn behavior.4. A mother’s long lasting schizophrenia.1.
  101. 101. 11: What patterns of thinking, perceiving, feeling, and behaving characterize schizophrenia? 12: What causes schizophrenia? 101 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and analyze why persons with schizophrenia display different symptoms based on their subtypes. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify the specific feature of schizophrenia and its subtypes and discuss the theories that seek to explain how schizophrenia is contracted. 2.0 Developing I can identify the specific feature of schizophrenia and its subtypes. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  102. 102. Check Your Understanding: Schizophrenia • The _____ type of schizophreneia is characted by delusions. A) Rediudal B) Catatonic C) Paranoid D) Undifferentiated E) Disorganized 102
  103. 103. Check Your Understanding: Schizophrenia • Most of the drugs that are useful in the treatment of schizophrenia are know to correct ____ activity in the brain. A) Norepinephrine B) Epinephrine C) Serotonin D) GABA E) Dopamine 103
  104. 104. Abnormal Psych: Personality Disorders and Stats on Disorders • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 13: What characteristics typical of personality disorders? 14: How many people suffer or have suffered from a psychological disorder? 104 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and debate whether personality disorders might add negative labels to individuals. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify specific personality disorders and explain how they differ from Axis I disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify personality disorder clusters and some of their subtypes. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0
  105. 105. Labeling a Person Criminally Insane • “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes. • See article: Insanity Defense Una-bomber 105
  106. 106. Personality Disorders- Axis II • Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and/or distress the affected individual impairing their social functioning. • Hard to estimate because people rarely seek treatment (don‟t think they have a problem) • Cluster A: Odd/Eccentric Behaviors – Schizoid (78/22)- Loner – Paranoid (67/33)- Untrusting – Schizotypal (55/45)- Very Odd • Cluster B: Dramatic/Impulsive Behavior – Narcissistic (70/30) – Better than Everyone – Borderline (38/62) – Unstable – Histrionic (15/85)- Center of Attention – Antisocial (82/18)- No Remorse • Cluster C: Fearful/Anxiety Behaviors – Avoidant (50/50) - Timid, Shy – Dependent (31/69) – Stage Five Clinger “needy” – Obsessive-Compulsive (50/50) – My way or the highway- Perfectionistic 106
  107. 107. Antisocial Personality Disorder • AKA: Sociopath or Psychopath – Typically a male, Begins before age 15 – Lies, steals, fights, sexually uninhibited – Don't care about others rights or feelings (even family) • Biological Origins of ASPD – No one gene (although twins studies support genetics) – Reduced arousal in autonomic nervous system – Reduced activity in frontal lobe gives way to impulsivity • Environmental Origins of ASPD – Family instability – Poverty – Conditioning and Abuse 107 Ted Bundy Serial Killer convicted of killing several people including Florida State Chi Omega Sorority girls in 1978
  108. 108. Rates of Psychological Disorders 108
  109. 109. 13: What characteristics typical of personality disorders? 14: How many people suffer or have suffered from a psychological disorder? 109 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can satisfy all the requirements of level 3.0 and debate whether personality disorders might add negative labels to individuals. ★ 3.0 ★ Proficient I can identify specific personality disorders and explain how they differ from Axis I disorders. 2.0 Developing I can identify personality disorder clusters and some of their subtypes. 1.0 Beginning I need more prompting and/or support to identify the concepts stated in 2.0

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