25. 2 Imperialism in Southeast Asiaand the Pacific
LEQ: How did industrialized powersdivide up Southeast Asia and thePacific, and how did the colonizedpeoples react?
French missionaries converted many in whatbecame French Indochina. France invadedVietnam when it protested.The British expanded into Burma from India inthe early 1800s, annexing the country in 1886.The Dutch expanded the bases of the Dutch EastIndia Company to dominate Indonesia.The Dutch, British, and French colonized mostof Southeast Asia in the 1800s.•French Indochina – French holdings in mainlandSoutheast Asia, including Vietnam, Laos, andCambodia
Siam,present-dayThailand,escapedbecominga Europeancolony.• Its king Mongkut studiedwidely and used his knowledgeto negotiate with the West.• He made agreements withWestern leaders in unequaltreaties to maintainindependence.• Siam worked to modernize byreforming its government andusing new technology.•Mongkut – the king of Siam who ruled from 1851to 1868 and was able to make agreements to avoidbecoming a European colony
• They moved for economic opportunities.• The communities they formed became vital centersof trade, banking, and industry in the region.Many Chinese people migrated to SoutheastAsia in the 1800s.
• They modernizedthe region, expandedindustry, and removednatural resources.• The changes in theregion benefitedEuropeans more thanSoutheast Asians.Europe controlled most of Southeast Asiaby the 1890s.
• The Spanish-American Warbroke out in 1898.• The United States destroyed theSpanish fleet stationed in thePhilippines, and encouragedrebel leaders there to declareindependence.Spain had seized the Philippines in the 1500s.•Spanish-American War – the 1893 war betweenSpain and the United States, which resulted in theUnited States taking control of the Philippines
• Instead, America took control of the Philippines.• People in the United States argued over whetherhaving an empire was a good idea.• Nevertheless, United States forces crusheda Filipino rebellion and remained in control,promising a gradual transition to self-rule.When the United States won the war, theFilipinos expected to regain their independence.
• American, French, and British forces wantedbases for their ships.• America signed an unequal treaty with Samoaand gained a naval station there in 1878.• American planters overthrew the Hawaiian queenLiliuokalani and asked the United States toannex Hawaii.Next, Western powers began seizing Pacificislands; they controlled nearly every oneby 1900.•Liliuokalani – the Hawaiian queen overthrown byAmerican planters in 1893
Cultural• Christianity spread.• Some colonized people lost confidencein their own cultures.• Traditions were weakened.Political• Colonizers defined arbitrary borders.• Colonized people struggled for theirindependence.Economic• Colonized people grew cash cropsinstead of food.• Imports of goods destroyed localcottage industries.The effects of Western imperialism
The Dutch took over the Dutch EastIndies; the British took over Burma andMalaya; the French took over FrenchIndochina; and the United States tookover the Philippines and Hawaii.Colonized peoples often fought theircolonizers but could not withstandthem.LEQ: How did industrialized powers divide upSoutheast Asia and the Pacific, and how did thecolonized peoples react?