Today‟s Discoveries Home study opportunity The journey into the world of wine is fun! Gain confidence when ordering, buyingand serving wines Discover the physiology of taste Identify your own wine preferences Understanding the subtleties in wineevaluation Food & Wine affinities
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Prelude to Winemaking Viticulture:Combining sound farming techniqueswith an understanding of terroir tocreate grapes with concentrated flavor. Viniculture:Combining sound scientific techniqueswith an experienced palate and intuitiveartistry to make a delicious wine!
Terroir – “Know the land!” Soil & Drainage Micro-climate Altitude, day/nighttemp. variation Aspect/Sun exposure Proximity to a bodyof water Viticultural Practices
Prelude to Winemaking II Fermentation:Sugar + Yeast = Alcohol + CO2 (& some acid) Degree of DrynessResidual sugar after fermentation Four major categories of wine:Table 8-15% alcoholSparkling 8-12% alcohol + CO2Fortified 17-22% alcoholAromatized varying alcohol+ flavors
Wine Identifying Components Color: Red, White or Rosé Varietal: Grape type (Vitis Vinifera) Region: Where the wine was made Producer: Which vineyard made it Degree of dryness (residual sugar) Style: Table, Sparkling, Fortified orAromatized
Other Wine Elements Aroma: Refers to the natural odors ofthe grape in conjunction with the terroir Bouquet: Refers to aromatic qualitiesin wine that are man-made:Refrigerated fermentation (extended)Oak aging (new/old; French/American)Barrel toast: light, medium or heavyMalolactic Conversion: Malic to lactic acidUmami richness from bottle aging
Wine StylesOld World:More focused on terroir; generallylower in alcohol and made for drinkingwith food. Much more regulation
Wine Styles IINew World:Fruit-focused & higher alcohol. Madefor drinking on its own; more recentshift towards food-focused wines
To begin a WineTaster‟s journey, onemust first understandFlavor Dynamics…
Auguste EscoffierThe father of modern cuisine… Perfected rich vealstock, browning thebones/veggies &simmering for manyhours to create adeep, savory flavor Deglazed roastedmeat pans to pick-upcaramelized flavors &make rich gravies
Basic History of Flavor Dynamics: Greek philosopher Democritus identified four basictastes (bitter, sweet, salty & sour) 2,400 years ago,and became central to western gastronomy In the late 1800’s, Auguste Escoffier suggestedthat a fifth taste was responsible for the savoryflavor of his rich veal stock Escoffier’s theories were dismissed until 1908,when Japanese chemist Kikunae Ikeda showed thatan amino acid called glutamate underlies the tasteof a hearty variety of seaweed broth…
Umami: Japanese for “delicious” Kikunae Ikeda identified the savory flavorof Dashi (broth made from dried kelp) Dashi is used like we use brown stock Flavor caused by protein degradation Isolated glutamic acid & salt = Umami Developed MSG to produce a similarsavory flavor to rich brown stocks,without the time and effort they require
The tongue can only sense4 (now 5) flavors:BitterSourSaltySweetUmami
The Physiology of Taste Recent research has de-bunked the oldtongue flavor map with tasting “areas” All taste buds actually have individualreceptors to detect all five flavors The nose, however, perceives anestimated 10,000 distinct odors! So, when is it impossible to tell thedifference between an apple and aturnip blind-folded?
Smell + Taste = Flavor“Blind taste” your jellybean...
Flavor Dynamics Revealed: The tongue detects 5 flavors… All other volatile flavor componentsare “smelled” from within the mouththrough the retro nasal cavity andperceived by the olfactory epitheliumthat sends the sensory informationto the brain Flavor = Taste + Smell!
The Physiology of TasteOnly 5 tastes > 10,000 odorsBitterSweetSourSaltyUmami
Ah, so howdoes this work? Not thebest, butbetter…Betweenthe kneesand ..PULL!Which wine key to use?Not so good…
Vertical: Comparative:Wine Dinner:Always taste driest whites to rose to red to sweetThere are different formats for tasting:
Tasting & Wine Evaluation Let‟s Taste Our Wines:See: (color/clarity), Swirl & Sniff: (viscosity &aromas; F.E.W.), Sip: (mouth-feel & flavor),Swallow: or expectorate, Savor: the finish Take a minute to savor your wine:15 seconds Mouth-feel30 seconds Fruit flavors & body45 seconds Are other flavors present?1 minute Tannins, length of flavors
The AromaWheel● Starts in general atthe center andradiates to specifics● Isolates Aromas,Bouquet elements,and faults● Helps a wineevaluator expresswhat their olfactoryexperience is
Monkey Bay, Sauvignon Blanc, Marlborough,New ZealandVINIFICATION: After harvesting, the fruit was crushed anddestemmed, and the juice given up to 3 hours skin contact.Fermented in steel tanks, at low temperatures. Afterfermentation the wine remained on yeast lees for two weeks.COLOR: Pale lemon in color, with green tints and brilliantclarity.AROMA: A vibrant bouquet of citrus and tropical fruits, withhints of cut grass.PALATE: A fresh, lively, approachable wine overflowing withripe grapefruit, lemon and passionfruit and infused withdelicate herbaceous characters.
2010 Toasted Head Chardonnay,Yolo Co, CaliforniaThe fruit: Chardonnay grapes (96%) with a touch of Viognier (4%),the majority of which is sourced from our Dunnigan Hills AVAvineyard.The labor: The grapes are picked during the night to preservefreshness, then gently de-stemmed and pressed at the winery. Weferment 100% of the juice sur lie (basically, with the sediment) in acombination of new and used American, Eastern European andFrench oak barrels for eight months.The reward: This wine delivers white peach and Asian pear aromasand is rich, yet crisp on the palate with great acidity. We prefer to justthink of it as a solid American Chardonnay with some oaky heftbehind it.Pairs well with: Pairs well with brie & crackers, a walk in thewoods on a warm fall day, and Skype dates with old friends.
Secrets of the NakedGrape Peel the skin and press into the napkin Eat the skin only Eat the meat of the grape Eat the entire grapeNatural Synergy:The whole is greater thanthe sum of its parts!
The Naked Grape Revealed Tannins add color and flavor Fruit flavors fade as others develop White wines darken with age Red wines lighten with age The astringency oftannins softens withtime (bottle aging) How else do tannins soften?
Oxygen...It helps the flavorpeak, then itCRASHES!
Wine # 3 Vintage: „11 Name: Pinot Noir Producer: Parducci Region: CaliforniaWine # 4 Vintage: „11 Name: Cabernet Sauvignon Producer: Dynamite Region: Rex hills, Lake County, CA
Taste the Red Wines... Tasting WineColor, swirl, smell, taste, savor… Take a minute to savor your wine15 seconds Mouth-feel30 seconds Fruit flavors and body45 seconds Are other flavors present?1 minute Tannins, length of flavors
Winemaker: Bob SwainThree Word Taste Summary: raspberry,strawberry, cedarFood Pairings: Enjoy this medium-bodied redwine with grilled salmon, pork tenderloin, creamymushroom soup, and fine cuts of red meat.Tasting Notes: Our Pinot Noir offers aromas ofjuicy, ripe raspberries and strawberries. Its berryflavors are full and rich on the palate, picking up ahint of cedar on the finish.Parducci Pinot Noir, Mendocino, CA
“Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignon is a fairlydry, medium-to-full bodied red wine that ishigh in tannins. The acidity is decent enoughbut the dryness and strong tannins cause itto really need to be tempered by food - itsnot really a wine for sipping on its own.If it werent for the harshness of the tannins,this Dynamite Cabernet Sauvignon wouldprobably be a much better wine that wouldpair well with a wider variety of foods.”Dynamite, Cabernet, Lake County,California
Why Wine with Food? Complex flavor combinations Harmonic taste groups (or diversity) Cleanses (“scrubs”) the palate Added benefits:Health & the French paradoxImproves disposition! Remember - all things in moderationAllergic reactions: sulfites, histamines, andtyramine (an amino acid found in aged foods)
Food & Wine Affinities Symbiotic RelationshipFoods affect wine perception; wineaffects perception of food Wine elementsIntensity, fruit, acidity, body, oak...Wine elements can either match orcontrast food flavors and texturesThe Finish; how long does it linger?
Food & Wine Affinities IIThe more complex the food, thesimpler the wineMatching or contrasting flavorsChampagne & wedding cake?True or False: White with fish,Red with meat, Rose with anything
Intense food Intense wineSubtle food Subtle wineIT‟S THAT SIMPLE!
Buy on Apples, Sell on CheeseApples: High in malic acid; theybring out imperfections in the wineCheeses: High in fat; they hideimperfections in the wine Taste again with apples; then cheese How did the tastes change?
Food & wine cancreate a harmoniousmarriage while eachstill keeping theirindividual identity!
Food for Thought Serving temperatures Two types of “decanting” The cork controversy Wine storage and left-overs? Oxidized (“turned”) and “Corked” The “French Paradox” Possible allergic reactions
YOU CAN TRUST YOUROWN ABILITY TO TASTE!So go forth with confidenceAnd enjoy the pleasures ofdiscovering new wines –because it‟s the journey thatprovides the most enjoyment!
Nose Training…Did it work? Do you know the basic elements of wine? Can you evaluate wine in one minute? Can you better discern wine aromas? Can you better communicate your tastepreferences when ordering wine? Do you have more confidence in ordering,buying and serving wines? Did you have fun experimenting withfood and wine pairings?