Wine Beginer Course Jan06 Chinese English

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  • Wine Beginer Course Jan06 Chinese English

    1. 1. 红 樽坊 Ruby Red 葡萄酒品尝课程 著名品酒师- Simon Zhou 主讲
    2. 2. How old is the earliest evidence of wine making ? Where was this evidence discovered ? 最早的葡萄酒证据是在多究以前,在什么地区 ?
    3. 3. 葡萄酒是什么 ? What is wine ? <ul><li>葡萄酒是一种由新鲜葡萄汁经过发酵所产生的酒精饮料,发酵的过程是根据葡萄酒产地的传统来控制的。 </li></ul><ul><li>Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of juice from freshly gathered grapes, the fermentation taking place in the district of origin according to local tradition and practice. </li></ul>
    4. 4. 葡萄酒的起源 Origin of wine <ul><li>没有人知道是谁“发明”了葡萄酒。它可能是一个偶然的发现。在收获后,有些葡萄被留在了容器里经过了冬天,天然的酵母和葡萄中的糖把葡萄汁变成了葡萄酒。 </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody knows who &quot;invented&quot; wine. Its discovery was probably accidental. After harvesting, some grapes were left in a container over the winter and the natural yeasts and sugars converted the juice into wine. </li></ul><ul><li>尽管考古学家追溯葡萄酒起源到几千年前,但最早的葡萄酒证据是在大概公元前一万年,在一个伊朗的粘土罐里发现的。 </li></ul><ul><li>Although archaeologists have traced the origins of wine grapes ( Vitis vinifera ) back tens of thousands of years, the first evidence of wine having actually been made from grapes comes from a clay pot found in Persia (now Iran) dating from around 10,000 years B.C. </li></ul>
    5. 5. 古埃及壁画 Egyptian Wall painting <ul><li>古埃及人的壁画上清楚地描述了葡萄酒的酿制过程,从采集葡萄,到品尝成品。而古罗马人则把他们的葡萄园推广到法国和他们的其他欧洲殖民地,包括英国。 </li></ul><ul><li>This Egyptian wall painting shows each stage of the winemaking process, from gathering the grapes, to drinking the finished product. In turn the Romans spread their vineyard lands throughout France a nd to their other colonies throughout Europe, including Great Britain. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 葡萄酒的酿制过程 ? How is wine made ? <ul><li>葡萄 – 需要 3 年才能结果 Grapes – 3 years to grow </li></ul><ul><li>采集及运到酿酒厂 Harvest and transport to winery </li></ul><ul><li>挤压 / 发酵 Press/ferment </li></ul><ul><li>在橡木中成年 Age in oak </li></ul><ul><li>在瓶中成年 Age in bottle </li></ul><ul><li>出厂 Release </li></ul>
    7. 7. 特殊品种的葡萄酒 Special wine making process <ul><li>冰葡萄酒 Ice wine </li></ul><ul><li>高度葡萄酒 Fortified wine </li></ul><ul><li>汽酒 Sparkling wine </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why is stone commonly seen in vineyards ? 为什么葡萄园里经常能看到石头
    9. 9. 白葡萄酒是白葡萄酿的吗 ? White wine from white grapes ? <ul><li>红葡萄酒是由红 / 黑色的葡萄连皮和籽一起发酵的。 Red wine is made from red/black grapes fermented with skin and pips </li></ul><ul><li>白葡萄酒可以由红色或白色的葡萄酿成的,通常不带皮和籽。 White wine can be made from both red and white grapes, usually without the skin and pips </li></ul><ul><li>香槟通常是由两种红葡萄和一种白葡萄酿成的。 Champagne is made from 2 red grapes and 1 white grape </li></ul>
    10. 10. 常见的红葡萄品种 Common Red grape varieties <ul><li>Cabernet S auvignon 赤霞珠 </li></ul><ul><li>Merlot 梅鹿 </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Noir 黑皮诺 </li></ul><ul><li>Shiraz 切拉子 / 设拉子 </li></ul>
    11. 11. 常见的白葡萄品种 Common White grape varieties <ul><li>Chardonnay 夏多内 / 莎 当妮 </li></ul><ul><li>Sauvignon Blanc 白苏维翁 / 长相思 </li></ul><ul><li>Riesling 雷司令 / 薏丝琳 </li></ul><ul><li>Gewürztraminer 琼瑶浆 / 格乌香茗纳 </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Gris 灰皮诺 </li></ul>
    12. 12. 葡萄酒在世界各地的分布 Wine from around the world <ul><li>旧世界与新世界 Old world vs new world </li></ul>
    13. 13. 旧 世 界 Old World Countries <ul><li>法国 France </li></ul><ul><li>意大利 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>西班牙 Spain </li></ul><ul><li>德国 Germany </li></ul><ul><li>葡萄牙 Portugal </li></ul>
    14. 14. 新 世 界 New World <ul><li>美国 USA </li></ul><ul><li>澳大利亚 Australia </li></ul><ul><li>新西兰 New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>智利 Chile </li></ul><ul><li>南非 South Africa </li></ul>
    15. 15. 橡木还是不用橡木 Oak or not to oak <ul><li>大多数葡萄酒在橡木中成熟 Many wines are matured in oak barrels </li></ul><ul><li>橡木主要有两种 2 main types of oak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>法国橡木 French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>美国橡木 American </li></ul></ul><ul><li>橡木桶的容量从 225 升到 3000 升不等 Sizes range from 225L to 3000L </li></ul><ul><li>葡萄酒在橡木桶中可成年三个月到十年 Wine can be oaked for as little as 3 months or as long as 10 years </li></ul>
    16. 16. 葡萄酒并不都是一样的 Not all wines are made equal <ul><li>99% 的葡萄酒没有成年价值 99% of all wine made does not age </li></ul><ul><li>可成年的葡萄酒 Wines that will age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>法国波尔多地区的一级酒 French Bordeaux Grand Cru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>法国布根地地区的一级酒 French Burgundy Premier/Grand Cru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>有年份的香槟酒 Vintage Champagne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port 波特酒 / Sherry 雪梨酒 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上好的意大利酒 Top Italian ( 比如 Barolo, Super Tuscan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上好的澳大利亚酒 Top Australian ( 比如 Grange, Henscheke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上好的西班牙酒 Top Spanish ( Rioja, Priorato) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上好的新西兰红葡萄酒 Top New Zealand red ( Stoneyridge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上好的美国红葡萄酒 Top American red wine (Cask 23) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 年份决定一切 Vintage is everything <ul><li>只有好的年份才有成年价值 Only the best years are worth aging </li></ul><ul><li>For example 例如: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990 Bordeaux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997 Tuscan (Italian) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 为什么在瓶中成年 Advantages of bottle aging <ul><li>单宁会变得柔软 Softer tannins </li></ul><ul><li>酸度会变得柔和 Soft acidity </li></ul><ul><li>口味复杂度增加 Develop complexity </li></ul><ul><li>各种成分更好的结合 Integration of components </li></ul><ul><li>第二层次风格的形成 Secondary characteristics </li></ul>Taittinger 地下酒窖
    19. 19. 1855 年法国葡萄酒等级排序 1855 Classification <ul><li>Premier Cru – 5 </li></ul><ul><li>一级酒五种 </li></ul><ul><li>Deuxièmes Crus – 14 </li></ul><ul><li>二级酒 14 种 </li></ul><ul><li>Troisièmes Crus – 14 </li></ul><ul><li>三级酒 14 种 </li></ul><ul><li>Quatrièmes Crus – 10 </li></ul><ul><li>四级酒十种 </li></ul><ul><li>Cinquièmes Crus – 18 </li></ul><ul><li>五级酒 18 种 </li></ul>
    20. 20. 法国高级酒庄 Examples of the top French labels <ul><li>Chateau Lafite-Rothchild </li></ul><ul><li>拉斐古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Latour </li></ul><ul><li>拉图古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Margaux </li></ul><ul><li>玛歌古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Haut-Brion </li></ul><ul><li>奥比安古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Mouton-Rothchild </li></ul><ul><li>木桐古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Petrus </li></ul><ul><li>波都古堡 </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Chavel Blanc </li></ul><ul><li>白马古堡 </li></ul>
    21. 21. What do you perfer and why 你喜欢什么 ? <ul><li>Cork 木塞 </li></ul><ul><li>Screw cap 旋盖 </li></ul><ul><li>Plasic cork 塑料 木塞 </li></ul>
    22. 22. 木塞和旋盖 Cork and screwcap <ul><li>木塞 vs 旋盖 Cork vs screw cap </li></ul><ul><li>木塞的 14 个等级 14 different grades of corks </li></ul>
    23. 23. 酒杯是重要的一部分 Glassware is important <ul><li>葡萄酒杯的杯口应该收小,以便酒香能在杯中聚集 The glass should taper towards the top, so that the aromas are trapped in the glass </li></ul><ul><li>杯肚应该大一点,可以让酒在杯中作充分的晃动 The bowl should be large enough to allow you to swirl the contents </li></ul><ul><li>杯子必须有一个杯脚,这样手的温度不会加热杯中的酒 The glass must have a stem so the heat of your hand does not transfer to the wine </li></ul><ul><li>酒杯应该清晰透明,可以很好的观察酒的颜色 The glass should be plain and clear so you can see the colour of the wine. </li></ul>
    24. 24. 倒 酒 Pour wine <ul><li>一瓶酒通常倒 18-20 杯 </li></ul><ul><li>A bottle is usually 18-20 pours </li></ul><ul><li>每杯酒不超过酒杯的一半 Never pour more than half full </li></ul>
    25. 25. 怎样品尝葡萄酒 How to taste wine
    26. 26. 葡萄酒的颜色所带的信息 Colour of wine tells a story <ul><li>红葡萄酒年份越大颜色越淡 Red wine gets lighter as it ages </li></ul><ul><li>白葡萄酒年份越大颜色越深 White wine gets darker as it ages </li></ul><ul><li>年轻的红葡萄酒通常是呈紫色 Young red wines are purple in colour </li></ul><ul><li>陈年的葡萄酒可以变成咖啡色 Old red wines can be brown in colour </li></ul><ul><li>检查酒的清透度 Check clarity of the wine </li></ul>
    27. 27. 气味有很大的影响 Smell is far more powerful <ul><li>人可以嗅出几千种味道 There are literally thousands of recognisable smells </li></ul><ul><li>如果鼻子堵塞,食物会失去应有的风味 When you have a blocked nose, food tastes bland </li></ul><ul><li>气味罗盘 Example of aroma wheel </li></ul>
    28. 28. How many tastes can one taste ?
    29. 29. 舌头的味蕾分布 Tongue map <ul><li>4 种主要味道 4 Main tastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>甜 Sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>酸 Sour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>咸 Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>苦 Bitter </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. 葡萄酒气味的组成 Components of wine <ul><li>果味 Fruit </li></ul><ul><li>酸度 Acid </li></ul><ul><li>酒精 Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>涩味 Tannin </li></ul><ul><li>橡木 Oak </li></ul><ul><li>所有的气味必须平衡 All must be in balance </li></ul>
    31. 31. 好习惯-每次品尝后作记录 Write it down every time <ul><li>我们的记忆是有限的 Our memory is limited </li></ul><ul><li>记录我们的感受有助提高对酒的体会 Making notes can be very useful </li></ul><ul><li>打分制 Scoring systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 分 ( 美国 US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 分 ( 英国 UK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 分 ( 红樽坊 Ruby Red ) </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. 怎样储藏葡萄酒 How to store wine <ul><li>温度 - 保持在 20 度以下 Temperature – Constant (less than 20 o C ) </li></ul><ul><li>湿度 - 55 %左右 Humidity – (around 55%) </li></ul><ul><li>在背光的环境下储存 Store in darkness </li></ul><ul><li>避免过多的移动(冰箱旁边) Avoid movement (not next to a fridge) </li></ul>
    33. 33. 应该怎样挑选葡萄酒 What to look for when you are in a wine shop <ul><li>商店的温度 How warm/cold is the shop </li></ul><ul><li>葡萄酒是否储存在冰箱附近 Is wine stored next to airconditioning or similar </li></ul><ul><li>好的酒要斜放 Fine wine should be stored on its side </li></ul><ul><li>销售人员的专业知识和对葡萄酒的热爱 Knowledge of shop person </li></ul><ul><li>选择的范围 Range of selection </li></ul><ul><li>经常的葡萄酒品尝活动和知识讲座 Regular tastings or updates </li></ul>
    34. 34. 中级班的课程 What is in the intermediate class <ul><li>每周一课,连续 4 周 Four-part course over four weeks </li></ul><ul><li>更高层次的品尝技巧 Advanced tasting techniques </li></ul><ul><li>红葡萄酒的品种和特性 Red wine varietal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>白葡萄酒的品种和特性 White wine varietal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>超过 6 个国家的 20 种葡萄酒 Taste over 20 wines from 6 countries </li></ul><ul><li>葡萄酒和食物的搭配 Wine and food matching </li></ul><ul><li>蒙瓶品尝和品酒游戏 Blind tasting & Wine options </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>葡萄酒猜谜游戏 </li></ul><ul><li>Wine Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>神秘奖品 </li></ul><ul><li>Mystry Gift </li></ul>
    36. 36. 法国著名葡萄酒产区波尔多的酿酒木桶容量多少升? How many litres are the standard bordeaux wine barrique 225 245 问题一 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    37. 37. 葡萄酒产量最大的国家是? Which country is the largest wine producer of the world 法国 意大利 问题二 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    38. 38. 目前世界上最古老的葡萄藤在哪个国家? Which country has the oldest vine in the world 法国 澳大利亚 问题三 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    39. 39. 最大的香槟酒瓶是多少立升? How many litres is the largest Champagne bottle you can purchase 15 12 问题四 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    40. 40. 新西兰葡萄酒产量占全世界的百分比是多少? What percentage of wine produced in volumn comes from New Zealand 0.3% 1.5% 问题五 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    41. 41. 相传中国最早发现茶叶的是- Who discovered tea in Chinese Mythology 神农 华陀 问题六 搜索 搜索 搜索 搜索
    42. 42. Wine components indepth - Tannin <ul><li>The tannins in a wine are derived from the pips, skins and stalks. They are vitally important if a wine is intended to age, as they are a natural preservative. The tannins give structure and backbone to the wine. They can be sensed by a furring of the mouth, or puckering of the gums, a sensation very similar to what happens on drinking stewed tea. This is unsurprising, as this effect is also due to tannins, released from the tealeaves after stewing in the hot water for too long. </li></ul><ul><li>Tannins are of more importance in the ageing of red wines rather than white. The tannins act as a preservative, and as they fade over many years, the simple, primary fruit flavours have time to develop into the more complex flavours that are found in fine, aged wines. A level of tannins that is sufficient to provide structure, but not so obvious as to dominate the palate, is the ideal when a wine is ready for drinking. For this reason tannins are still important in red wines not intended for long ageing, as they give grip or structure to these wines also. Tannins may also have different qualities, and may be described as harsh (especially in a wine drunk too young, such as a young classed growth claret), soft (eg. Beaujolais), stalky, chalky, etc. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Wine components indepth - Acidity <ul><li>All fruit requires acidity, be it an apple, lemon, mango or grape. Acidity is what gives fruit its refreshing, flavoursome sensation. Without it fruit would seem overly sweet and cloying, a little like the sensation derived from drinking the sugary fruit syrup in which some canned fruit is presented. Just like fruit, wine also requires acidity. Too little, and it will seem dull, flabby or perhaps cloying, particularly if it is a sweet wine.  Too much, and the wine will be sharp, harsh and undrinkable. Acidity can be detected by the sharpness of the wine in the mouth, particularly around the edges of the tongue near the front. </li></ul><ul><li>Some acids, such as tartaric acid, are known as volatile acids, and in small amounts these can really lift the flavours in the wine. Too much, and the wine begins to resemble furniture polish, acetone (nail-polish remover) or even vinegar. Higher acidity denotes a wine from a cooler region, such as Northern France, England or New Zealand. Low acid wines come from countries with warmer weather, such as Australia, where acidity in the harvested grapes is often low enough to warrant chemical acidification. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Wine components indepth - Alcohol <ul><li>Alcohol is the product of fermentation of the natural grape sugars by yeasts, and without it wine simply doesn't exist. The amount of sugar in the grapes determines what the final alcohol level will be. In cool climates, such as Germany, where the vines struggle to ripen their grapes, sugar levels will be minimal, and consequently such wines often only reach 7 or 8% strength. In very warm climes, however, the final alcohol level will be determined not so much by the amount of sugar but rather by the yeasts themselves. Once the alcohol level reaches about 14% the yeasts can no longer function and rapidly die off. For this reason, wines with a strength of more than 15% are almost certainly fortified. </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion of sugar to alcohol is such a vital step in the process of making wine, that the control of fermentation is the focus of much of the attention of the modern winemaker. Fermentation generates heat, and a cool, controlled fermentation will result in very different flavours in the wine (in particular, it protects fresh, delicate fruit flavours) when compared with wines where fermentation is allowed to run riot. Although fermentation will start naturally, thanks to yeasts naturally present on the grapes in the vineyard, some winemakers prefer to remove the element of chance this involves by kick-starting fermentation using cultured strains of yeast. This can have problems though - cultured yeast strains have been blamed for some unusual characteristics in wine, such as banana flavours in Beaujolais. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Wine components indepth - Sugar <ul><li>Following on from the above, it is clear that if fermentation is arrested, either as a result of the yeasts failing in a gradually increasing alcohol level in the ferment, or as a result of mans intervention, there will as a consequence be some remaining sugar in the wine. Even when the yeasts work is unhindered, most wines still have at least 1g/L of residual sugar as some sugar compounds are resistant to the action of the yeasts. Clearly, the level of sugar in the wine determines how sweet it tastes. This is quite subjective, however, and even wines that taste very dry have some degree of residual sugar. Most dry wines have less than 2g/L of sugar, although levels of up to 25g/L may be present in wines which still taste dry due to the presence of acidity and tannin alongside the sugar. The greater the amount of residual sugar, the sweeter the wine, moving through demi-sec (Champagne) and off dry wines (many German Rieslings) to the dessert wines of the world (Sauternes, Tokay, etc). Some of these have incredibly high concentrations of sugar, as much as 250g/L. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Wine components indepth - Oak <ul><li>Many wines are matured in oak barrels, and some are even fermented in oak. Oak from different sources (most comes from either the forests of France or USA) will impart different characteristics on the wine, but in general oak maturation gives aromas of butter, toffee, caramel, vanilla, spice and butterscotch. </li></ul><ul><li>French oak may give more buttery aromas, whereas American oak gives stronger vanilla and spice aromas, although but there are many more variables in the equation than this simple statement suggests. It all depends on how much oak is used, how much of it is new as opposed to re-used, how long the wine stays in contact with the wood, whether the wine is merely aged in oak or whether the fermentation takes place in it, how the oak has been treated, and so on. For instance, barrels that have been 'toasted', which means the cooper has formed them around a small fire, often burning the oak shavings he has produced in the manufacturing process, will have aromas of smoke and toast. Barrels that have been steamed during manufacture, however, may give more oatmeal aromas. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Wine tasting indepth – Sight 1 <ul><li>It is worth taking a good look at the wine, as it's appearance can yield a lot of information. It's best to view the wine against a white background, in order to avoid mistaking the colour. This doesn't have to be anything technical - a white plate or tablecloth will do. Another good point to make is that the receptacles should be made of plain, clear glass - trying to gauge the intensity of a red wine through blue glass is notoriously difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>Colour: The colour of a red wine will give a clue as to the age of the wine. Many red wines start life as a deep purple colour, sometimes almost opaque. With time, however, the wines lose this youthful intensity, and begin to take on a paler, tawny, brick red hue. Initially this appears at the rim of the wine, but as the years go by the whole wine will take on this colour, fading to a brick red or brown. The colour of a red wine may give a clue not only to the age of the wine, however, but also to the grapes which have been used. This is because different grapes produce wines of differing intensities of colour. Pinot Noir tends to be pale, for instance, whereas many other red grapes, particularly in their youth, would be expected to be an inky purple-black. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Wine tasting indepth – Sight 2 <ul><li>Similar information may be gathered from inspecting a white wine, although the pattern of colour change as a white wine ages is different. A good example is Sauternes, the famous dessert wine of Bordeaux. This wine starts off a lemon gold colour, but unlike a red wine, which becomes paler as it ages, this wine deepens, turning a rich, golden amber. This colour change is gradual, occurring over many decades. As with red wines, the colour of a white wine will also give some clue as to the grapes used, and also from where the wine originates. Cool climate wines tend to be less richly coloured, hence Burgundian Chardonnay will be paler than an Australian example. Certain grapes have an almost characteristic hue, such as the green tinge of Riesling. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Wine tasting indepth – Smell 1 <ul><li>Swirl the glass to throw the wine up onto the side of the glass, thus increasing the surface area of wine in contact with the air. It is at the interface between wine and air that aromas are released, and thus increasing the surface area helps to make the aromas more apparent. The agitation of the wine, of course, also helps. To swirl effectively, don't fill the glass too full - in fact less than half full is recommended. Be gentle, in order to bring the wine up onto the side of the glass without spilling it altogether. If you find you are spilling wine, and haven't overfilled the glass, place the base of the glass on the table and using a few good circular motions on the table top to get the aromas going. </li></ul><ul><li>Once done, stick your nose in the glass a take a good sniff, and think about what aromas are coming up from the glass as you do so. Young wines will have primary aromas, relating to the grape variety. Such smells are often fruit related, and hence wines are described as smelling of blackcurrants, raspberries, and so on, or maybe simply as 'fruity'. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Wine tasting indepth – Smell 2 <ul><li>As wines age more secondary aromas develop, which may be more earthy or animalistic. I believe that the bouquet of a wine is the most enjoyable part of the experience, more so than actually tasting it. The aromas generated by a glass of fine wine can be many, intertwined in a most intimate and complex manner. The aromas of a wine take on many different forms, and very rarely does a wine smell of grapes - but that is because the grapes most of us are familiar with are table or dessert grapes, which are quite unsuitable for making wine . </li></ul>
    51. 51. Wine tasting indepth – Taste 1 <ul><li>There is a lot more to describe when tasting the wine than simple flavour. Flavours are often as expected following the detection of certain aromas. On the 'palate' (the term used to describe the characteristics of the wine detected in the mouth), however, other elements  come into play. Detecting the absolute presence and relative quantities of these substances tells you about quality, ageing potential, how well the wine will drink with food, and so on. This empowers you to select good wines, and discard bad ones, as you analyse the wine and understand what it is you don't like about them. </li></ul><ul><li>When you taste wine, it is important to realise that little of the flavour that can be sensed actually involves the tongue. Much more vital are the nasal chemoreceptors that are involved in smell. Aromas from the wine in the mouth pervade the upper airways, and it is sensations from the nasal receptors that we use to 'taste' the wine. (This is why it is difficult to taste foods when you have a head-cold). So breathe in and out through the nose as you taste, and if you feel like it, slurp some air in through the mouth over the wine. It will help to release the aromas, and probably raise a few laughs! </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the way the wine changes as you hold it in the mouth. First impressions on taking the wine into the mouth may be referred to as the forepalate, followed by the mid and endpalate, leading up to the finish. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Wine tasting indepth – Taste 2 <ul><li>The finish describes the sensations derived from swallowing the wine. It will often be different to how the wine came across on the palate, so take note. The flavours may linger for a while on the palate after the wine has been swallowed, and this is referred to as the length. The more length a wine has, the more time you have to enjoy it, and it's probably true to say that such wines are generally of better quality. Last of all, don't forget to spit. Not necessary most of the time, of course, but at large trade tastings it is the only way to stay upright. And long term, of course, it protects the liver. If you do go to a large public tasting and are nervous about spitting, don't be. Get yourself over the receptacle, don't be afraid to lower your head towards it some way, and simply release the wine from your mouth, almost letting gravity do the job. As you get more confident you may be a little more directional in your technique, but don't confuse confidence with inebriation. Even when spitting, some alcohol is absorbed via the mucous membranes of the mouth, and some via the small part that is inevitably swallowed. </li></ul>

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