Cata v3


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Descriptive Tasting
Practical Rules for Wine Tasting
The Three Main Tasting Phases
The Ideal Wine Tasting Cup
Physiological Principia
Visual Perception
The Colours of Wine
Olfaction - Aroma and Bouquet
Types of Aroma
Tasting, Evolution and Persistence
Tasting Phases
Summary of the Tasting Process
Tasting Sheet

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Cata v3

  1. 1. The Art of Wine TastingA Feast for the SensesA Treasure of CultureA Pleasure of GodsAlberto P. Martínez BorjaJose Insenser Nieto
  2. 2. The Art of WineTastingWine moistens the souland lulls our griefand wakens kindly feelingsand feeds life’s short-lived flameIf we drink with moderationand in small sips,wine distils to our lungsas the morning dewIn this way,it does not break our heartbut brings us to a sweet joySocrates
  3. 3. The Art of WineTastingSummaryDescriptive TastingPractical Rules for Wine TastingThe Three Main Tasting PhasesThe Ideal Wine Tasting CupPhysiological PrincipiaVisual PerceptionThe Colours of WineOlfaction - Aroma and BouquetTypes of AromaTasting, Evolution and PersistenceTasting PhasesSummary of the Tasting ProcessTasting Sheet
  4. 4. The Art of WineTastingDescriptive TastingAttention & InterpretationTasting a wine consists of analysing it, studying it, describing it,appreciating it, enjoying its qualities and the sensations thatit produces on us.Tasting requires a series of sensorial faculties, including:Sight, Smell, Taste and particularly Attention.This last factor is the one thatdifferentiatesConsuming vs. Tasting
  5. 5. The Art of WineTastingPractical Rules for Wine Tasting• You should be rested and calm.• Do not smoke two hours before tasting.• Do not use strong eau de colognes,perfumes or tooth pastes.• Best time for tasting is noon with daylightavoiding artificial light.• In any case use white light (halogen –fluorescent), not neon lights.• A spacious, ventilated, quiet and white room is advisable.• The room temperature should be around 20º. Humidity 70%.• Wine should be resting at least two or three days. Avoid last minute moves.• Open the bottle at least half an hour before tasting.• The capsule must be cut far below the neck not close to the upper edge.• When opening the bottle, only the corkscrew will turn, never the bottle.• The wine cup must be filled up to around one quarter to avoid pouring.
  6. 6. The Art of WineTastingThe Three Main Tasting PhasesObservation: To gather sense stimuli. Colours, aromasand tastes, which are gathered by the peripheral nervoussystem and transmitted to the brain, who orders, analysesand compares them.Comparison: Based on past experiences and alwaysusing a similar model as baseline.Judgement: Consists on describing, with the properterminology, both the product and the sensationsexperienced.It´s indeed a subjective exercise.
  7. 7. The Art of WineTastingThe Ideal Wine Tasting CupThe more universally accepted wine cup(“catavinos”), is the AFNOR cup complying ISO3591-1977. (AFNOR NF 09110)The cup has to be taken by its foot, avoiding heattransfer from the hand to the liquid.It is important to wash the cup each time a newwine is going to be tasted. This can be done withsome water or a few of the new wine.
  8. 8. The Art of WineTastingUpper Diameter : 46 mmTotal Height : 155 mmMaximum Diameter : 65 mmTotal Volume : 215 ccCrystal thickness: 0.8 mmBase to Foot : 55 mmTransparent and smell-lesscrystalwith 10-12% lead contentBase Diameter : 65 mmThe Ideal Wine Tasting Cup
  9. 9. The Art of WineTastingPhysiological PrincipiaVisual Perception. The visual organ provides the first information.It allows to distinguish the so-called ASPECT of a wine;Colour, cleanliness, fluidity, intensity,effervescence and transparencyIs it transparent or blear-eyed?, its brilliance and tint, carbonic bubbles...You have to examine:The Disc (or Crown – the upper part of liquid in the cup):It must be clean and bright.If it is dim it may indicate micro-biological alterations.If it presents white or pink particles the wine is spoiled.If it shows carbonic slippage that indicates a young wine or specialelaboration.
  10. 10. The Art of WineTastingColour and TransparencyColour and tint provide information about wineage (Evolution) and its manufacturing andmaturation. Intensity will announce us itsstructure, volume and final taste in mouth(mouth transit).Visual PerceptionTearsYou will see them during the liquid line disgregationcreated in the internal cup surface after soft circularmovements once the wine recovers its static position.Its number, size and viscosity indicate glycerine,alcohol and sugar contained.
  11. 11. The Art of WineTastingRed WinesClear Red - Dark Red - Ruddy - VioletRed - Poppy Red - Cherry Red -Currant Red - Blood Red - Brick Red -Brown Red - Crimson - Ruby - Garnet- Purple - Violet - Blue - Black - Tile -Partridge Eye - Ochre - CoffeeCleanlinessBright - Crystalline - Limpid - Clean -Sludge - Broken - ArtlessBlearySuspicious - Dim - Cloudy - Opaque -Dirty - Sludge - MutedThe Colours of Wine
  12. 12. The Art of WineTastingOlfaction - Aroma and BouquetOlfaction will allow us to discover the different wine aromas and its bouquet.First Nose TestWithout moving the cup, so-called stopped cup.First notice of the wine aromas.Second Nose TestWhile turning around softly the cup. (Opening the Wine)It allows a detailed perfume analysis. You can improve thesmelling by performing short and frequent successive aspirations.If you feel your nose closed, you can douse water on it.Third Nose TestBreaking the wine surface with stronger circular movements.Only in case we have detected unusual aromas and we want to identify the origin.Retro-Nasal RouteAromas perception trough the existing internal communication mouth-nose.
  13. 13. The Art of WineTastingOlfaction - Aroma and BouquetAromaPrimary: It comes form the grapes. Fruitycharacter.Secondary: It comes from the fermentations.Wine character.Single-Variety vs. CoupageBouquet (Tertiary Aroma)From oxidisation: Wines aged being in contact with the open air.The air passes trough the pores of the wood cask.From reduction: Wines aged without being in contact with the openair. Airtight casks or bottles. (Vintages)
  14. 14. The Art of WineTastingTypes of Aroma (Part One)Empireumatic GroupTobacco smoke, smoked, burned, toasted, candy, gunpowder, burnt wood,rubber, leather, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, dust, ground, ...Floral GroupFlowered, almond flower, from orange, from apple,from peach, from grape, honeysuckle, lemon,hyacinth, polyanthus, jasmine, geranium, heather,magnolia, honey, rose, camomile, lime, iris, violet,carnation ...Fruits GroupRaisins, marmalade, cherry, kirsch, plum, pistachio,wild berry, blueberry, currant, strawberry,raspberry, blackberry, apricot, quince, peach, pear,apple, cantaloupe, lemon, orange, grapefruit,pineapple, banana, dry figs, grenade, nuts,hazelnut, olives ...
  15. 15. The Art of WineTastingTypes of Aroma (Part Two)Animal GroupGame, deer, skin, damp dog, grease, mouse urine, cat urine, meat, fleshy, sweat .Balsamic GroupOil , fir tree, resin, turpentine, incense, vanilla, ...Woods GroupGreen wood, old wood, oak, cedar, sandalwood, pencil, humidor, acacia, bark,firewood, rancid ...Chemical GroupAcetic, alcohol, carbonic, phenol, sulphur, celluloid, medical, pharmaceutical,antiseptic, iodine, chlorine ...Spice GroupDill, fennel, champignon, mushroom, truffle, cinnamon, ginger, clove, nutmeg,pepper, green pepper, basil, mint, thyme, liquorice, garlic, onion, oregano ...
  16. 16. The Art of WineTastingTasting, evolution and persistenceTaste is located in the tasting papillae of the tongue. These organs detect fourelemental flavours: sweet, acidic, salty and bitter.The sweet substances in the wine constitute its lightness, body and softness.The acidic taste come from the organic acids as tartaric, lactic and acetic, whichtransmit the feeling of freshness.The wine contains 2-4 grams per litre of salty components which are part of thewine flavour and its structure.The bitter substances belong to the family of tanics (grape peel). This bittersensation causes astringency and it is better perceived in low acidic wines.bittersaltysweet acidTongue Location of Basic Flavours
  17. 17. The Art of WineTastingTasting Phases (Part One)While evolving, the taste passes through several stages wheresensations change and their complexity increases.These phases are: Attack, Evolution, Final Taste andPersistence.First Phase - Attack–Pour the wine in the mouth andanalyse the basic flavours: sweet,acid, salty and bitter.–The equilibrium is based on thebalance of all flavours.
  18. 18. The Art of WineTastingTasting Phases (Part Two)Second Phase - Evolution–Study of primary tasting sensations, what it is called the mouth aroma.–In this phase also the nature of secondary aromas are analysedincluding its alcohol power, wine body, tanines, …Third Phase - Final Taste and Persistence–Finally in this phase we analyse the different flavours coming from thecellar (both oxidisation and/or reduction). Also tertiary aromas due tomaturation defects, terrain memory, wine diseases or others areanalysed.–When we swallow the wine, the feeling we keep in the mouth for someseconds is what is called persistence. It is positive if it is nice and lastsfor a while.
  19. 19. The Art of WineTastingSummary of the Tasting ProcessOrgan Sense & sensations Perceived CharacteristicsEyesNoseMouthSightVisual sensationsSmellSmelling sensations(Direct nasal route)SmellSmelling sensations(Retro nasal route)Colour, cleanliness, fluidity, intensity,effervescence, transparencyASPECTAroma, “bouquet”ODOURTasteTasting sensationsMouth aroma,Internal “bouquet”TASTETactChemical sensationsMucosal relationshipsTaste.Persistence. EquilibriumAstringency. Asperity. Itching.IrritationTactTactile sensationsThermal sensationsBODYConsistency. Fluidity.Viscosity. Body.Temperature
  20. 20. The Art of WineTastingTaste SmellSight
  21. 21. The Art of WineTastingWine Identification:Date & Place of Tasting :1. SightColour/Tint:Intensity/Evolution:Cleanliness/Bright/Tear/Carbonics:2. SmellInitial description:Opening/Final:Aroma Type/Nature:3. TasteAttack:Evolution:Astringency:Structure:Final Taste:Mouth Transit/Persistence:Conclusions (body, structure, bouquet, balance,…)Defects:Out standings:Price vs. Quality: