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  2. 2. A Report On TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY A GLOCAL PERSPECTIVE DEEPIKA SHARMA Enrollment No. 1001100008 A report submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements Of MBA Program Of the ICFAI University, Dehradun (Date of Submission: 12th December, 2011) Submitted to: Prof. Ajay Saini (Faculty Guide) IBS – Dehradun TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 2
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Milestones achieved in the journey of life are never achieved alone, and this is no exception. As I have completed my Management Research Project, it gives me immense pleasure to present this report on ―Topography of The Indian Wine Making Industry, A Glocal Perspective‖ undertaken by me at IBS Dehradun. The conducive learning environment and competitive culture has enabled my task to be an easier one. I would like to thank my Faculty Guide Prof Ajay Saini for his support and professional approach in guiding me through the careful details of the project. He has been a true source of inspiration and has always extended his support. He not only helped me on the topic but also helped me to understand the research applicability to practical life. I would also like to express my gratitude to my Parents, friends and colleagues who have been support in my effort to explore this area of study. All the above mentioned people have left a mark on this project and I will always remain indebted to them. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 3
  4. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Indian wine has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia. Winemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, the Constitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year The Indian government is planning to showcase ―Wines of India‖ across the globe. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) are working out the strategy and the campaign will be finalized soon. India has recently received its first order for wine exports to the US and Indian wines were also being served in restaurants - both Indian and Western. Approximately 0.1 million liter of wine is exporting to France, Italy, Germany, USA, New York, U.K. and Singapore from Maharashtra state. Stating that the promotion strategy would include analyzing the internal support mechanisms including easing tariff barriers for the liquor, the sources added, ―The promotion campaign will target the US, the European Union, South Africa and Southeast Asia in a major way. There is more and more awareness about wine as a product in Indian market. Changing life styles, frequent travels abroad, more and more women employment Increase in per capita income, international research on health benefits of wines; all have combined together to create wine TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 4
  5. 5. awareness in India; apart from the fact that good quality wines are now available in the market. Imported wines already constitute approx 20per cent of the total wines in India. The market trends indicate year on year growth of approximately 20per cent for imported wines over the next few years and the future is surely bright. That being said, the current slowdown for the industry will most likely hit new importers, especially if they intend to import wines that are not global brand names. The Indian wine industry is currently on an upswing. Production and consumption are expected to increase by 25% to 30% over the next 4 to 5 years. Being in the early stages of market growth, the industry enjoys protection from the state as currently it fares low in cost competitiveness when compared with the global benchmarks. This, coupled with growing domestic demand, therefore orientates the industry highly towards the domestic market and much less towards exports. The wine industry is largely driven by favorable consumer trends induced by high growth in disposable incomes. Rapid urbanization and growth in the retail is expected to sustain the domestic demand for wine. The emergence of modern food retail chains will make wine available for a new and fast expanding consumer base. Constructive policy measures in terms of excise duty exemption, provision of infrastructure facilities such as wine parks and wine institutes provided the necessary fillip to the industry for the establishment of wineries. Investments are increasing fast. As a result the industry is currently on the verge of a new phase of its lifecycle after the emerging phase, during which the latent demand for wine was initiated. Though dominated by few players at present, the wine industry is in an expansion phase with more and more companies entering. These entries include small grape growers and specialized wineries, as well several national and international beverage majors such as United Breweries, Diageo, Seagram‘s, and the beer company Cobra, leveraging their distribution network and brand-building skills. As distribution and TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 5
  6. 6. brand building are key, these entrants are certainly worth keeping an eye on; in particular when they establish specialized sales forces for Wine, as selling wine is quite different than selling beer or spirits. The industry is therefore expected to evolve further with intensifying competition, and more investments in wineries and bottling facilities as well as in the distribution network, in promotions and advertising. If increasing domestic demand supports such investments this will ultimately result in the expansion phase in the lifecycle of the industry, leaving the emerging phase. This will bring about new requirements and challenges, such as increased competition, pressure on prices and the related need to be able to offer scale advantages. This in turn will ultimately result in consolidation. Indian wine companies are expected to adopt various business models in the current scenario. It is important to note that Indian wine companies can currently not compete on costs, and cannot continue to rely on government protection. Focus on the segment of cheap wines is not an option and may ultimately impact demand when quality is not good enough. Companies therefore need to focus on the quality segment of the wine offering to be able to compete and sell their wines. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION Wine is an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation of grapes or grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. But now a day‘s other different type of flavor are also available in market for e.g. apple wine, strawberry wine, plum wine cherry wine etc. It is the most popular beverage, associated with happiness, celebrations and festivities. Global market for wine is estimated at 25 billion liters. Many varieties of wines are made throughout the world. French wines are most popular. The general classification of wines refers to red wines (made from grapes without removing the skins), white wines (made from grape juice) and sparkling wines(carbonated white wine). The alcohol content in wine varies from 10 to 14 %. Wine like beverages can also be made from other fruits and grains. These beverages are also referred to as wines, with a prefix or suffix. E.g. Apple wine. Compared to other countries, wine manufacture and consumption in India is Insignificant. This is attributed to earlier period of prohibition in the country and higher compared to spirits like whisky and brandy manufactured in the country, referred to as Indian made liquors. Wine manufacture on organized scale commenced in India with the setting up of Champagne Indage‘s plant in 1984 in the state of Maharashtra. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 7
  8. 8. Few more units have come up after that. The wine manufacturing units are located in Nasik district of Maharashtra state as the climate there is found to be most suitable for grapes used for wine making. The Indian wine industry has been steadily growing over the last ten years. Wine is gradually becoming a part of urban Indian life style. Rising incomes of Indian population, changing demography and exposure to new culture is adding to the higher consumption. The market for wine is expected to grow at the rate of 20% per annum. This scenario is promising to new manufacturing units. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 8
  9. 9. HISTORY OF WINE Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place in sites in Georgia and Iran, from as early as 6000 BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera.The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. The same sites also contain the world‘s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC, but possibly composed even earlier), Aikman (7th century BC), and others. In Ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamen bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphora were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang, dating from the second and first millennia BC. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, storing it underground in caves to age. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the nineteenth century for refining white wine using Bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine. Wine was forbidden during the Islami Golden Age, until Jābir ibn Hayyān and other Muslim chemists pioneered its distillation for cosmetic and medical uses. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 9
  10. 10. HOW IS WINE MADE? GROWING GRAPES Grapes grow on vines. There are many different types of grapes, but the best wine grape is the European Vitis vinifera. It is considered optimal because it has the right balance of sugar and acid to create a good fermented wine without the addition of sugar or water. HARVEST Weather is a major factor is determining whether a year is going to be a "good vintage" (or "year"). For example, was there enough heat during the growing season to lead to enough sugar? At harvest time, the shortterm effects of weather are quite important. To produce great wine, the fruit should have high (but not overly high) sugar content ("brix"). Think of raisins. As the fruit dries, the water evaporates. What is left is the sugary fruit. If it rains just at the point the wine grapes are ready, and before the grapes can be harvested, the additional water will cause the water level to increase, and the brix will go down. Not good. (You might ask, why not just add some sugar in the wine making process? Some do. Also considered "not good.") Every year the wine grape grower plays a game of chance and must decide when to harvest. Simplistically, if you knew it wasn't going to rain, you would just test the brix until it was just right, then harvest. If you harvest too soon, you will probably end up getting a wine too low in alcohol content (there won't have been enough sugar to convert to alcohol). These wines will be "thin." If you delay harvest, there may be too much sugar, which leads to too low acid content. This also affects the taste (and the aging possibilities) of the wine. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 10
  11. 11. INITIAL PROCESSING OF THE GRAPE JUICE Grapes can (and might still) be crushed by stomping on them with your feet in a big vat. But a more practical way is to use a machine which does the job (and at the same time, removes .What you get may or may not get immediately separated. Skin and seeds might immediately be removed from the juice. Separation may not immediately occur (especially for red wines), since skins and stems are an important source of "tannins" which affect wine's taste and maturity through aging. (See Aging Wines.) The skins also determine the color of the wine (see WHAT IS WINE). Maceration (the time spent while skins and seeds are left with the juice) will go on for a few hours or a few weeks. Pressing will then occur. One way to press the grapes is to use a "bladder press," a large cylindrical container that contains bags that are inflated and deflated several times, each time gently squeezing the grapes until all the juice has run free, leaving behind the rest of the grapes. You can also separate solids from juice through the use of a centrifuge. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 11
  13. 13. FERMENTATION - TURNING GRAPE JUICE INTO ALCOHOL Grape juice is turned into alcohol by the process of "fermentation." Grapes on the vine are covered with yeast, mold and bacteria. By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature, yeast (SACCHROMYCES ELLIPSOIDUES) will turn the sugar in the juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The grape juice will have fermented. Fermentation is carried out in stainless steel vessels. Yeast also gives flavor to the wine. But the yeast that is on the grape skin when it is harvested may not have the desired flavor. Other things on the outside of a grape are not good for wine (for example, acetic bacteria on the grapes can cause the wine to turn to vinegar). The winemaker can eliminate unwanted yeast's, molds and bacteria, most commonly by using the "universal disinfectant," sulfur dioxide. Unfortunately, the sulfites which remain in the wine may cause a lot of discomfort to some wine drinkers. (See ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO WINE.). Some winemakers prefer NOT to do this, and purposely create wines that are subject to the vagaries (and different flavors) of the yeast that pre-exist on the grapes ("wild yeast fermentation"). The winemaker has many different yeast strains to choose from (and can use different strains at different times during the process for better control fermentation). The most common wine yeast is Saccharomyces. This is a good point to stop and mention "Brett," also known as the Brettanomyces strain of yeast (which can be added or come from wild yeast fermentation). As yeast works, it causes grape juice ("must") to get hot. But if there's too much heat, the yeast won't work. Cooling coils are necessary to maintain a temperature below 30 :C. A less modern, but still wide widely used way to ferment wine is to place it in small oak barrels. "Barrel fermentation" is usually done at a lower temperature in temperature controlled rooms and takes longer, TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 13
  14. 14. perhaps around 6 weeks. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor (and usually expense) of the wine. The skins and pulp which remain in a red wine vat will rise to and float on top of the juice. This causes problems (if it dries out, it's a perfect breeding ground for injurious bacteria), so the winemaker will push this "cap" back down into the juice, usually at least twice a day. In large vats, this is accomplished by pumping juice from the bottom of the vat over the top of the cap. Eventually the yeast is no longer changing sugar to alcohol (though different strains of yeast, which can survive in higher and higher levels of alcohol, can take over and contribute their own flavor to the wine-as well as converting a bit more sugar to alcohol). After all this is completed what you have left is the wine, "dead" yeast cells, known as "lees and various other substances. MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION The winemaker may choose to allow a white wine to undergo a second fermentation which occurs due to malic acid in the grape juice. When malic acid is allowed to break down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid (thanks to bacteria in the wine), it is known as "malo-lactic fermentation," which imparts additional flavor to the wine. A "buttery" flavor in some whites is due to this process. This process is used for sparkling wines. FIRST RACKING After fermentation completed naturally or stopped by addition of distilled spirit, first racking is carried out. This involves the wine to stand still until most yeast cells and fine suspended material settle out. The wine is then filtered without disturbing the sediment or the yeast. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 14
  15. 15. WINERY AGEING The winery may then keep the wine so that there can be additional clarification and, in some wines, to give it a more complex flavors. Flavor can come from wood (or more correctly from the chemicals that make up the wood and are taken up into the wine). The wine may be barrel aged for several months to several years. No air is allowed to enter the barrels during this period. Ignoring any additional processing that might be used, you could empty the barrels into bottles and sell your wine. However, during the winery aging, the smaller containers may develop differences. So the winemaker will probably "blend" wine from different barrels, to achieve a uniform result. Also, the winemaker may blend together different grape varieties to achieve desired characteristics. STABILIZATION, FILTRATION Stabilization is carried out to remove traces of tartaric acid. These tartarates present in the grape juice tend to crystallize in wine and if not removed completely can slowly reappear as glass like crystals in final bottles on storage. Stabilization with respect to tartarates may involve chilling of wine that can crystallize tartarates and these crystals can be removed by filtration. PASTEURIZATION If the wine has an alcohol content less than 14% it may be heat pasteurized or cold pasteurized through micro porous filters just before bottling. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 15
  16. 16. BOTTLING WINE Producers often use different shaped bottles to denote different types of wine. Colored bottles help to reduce damage by light. (Light assists in oxidation and breakdown of the wine into chemicals, such as mercaptan, which are undesirable. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 16
  17. 17. HISTORY OF WINE IN INDIA Indian wine has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia. Winemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, the Constitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year Historically, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is grown mostly for wine making in the world over. In India on the contrary remarkable success has been achieved in table grape production and yield levels of fresh grapes are among the highest in the world. At present in India grape is grown over an area of 60,000 ha with an annual production of 1.6 million tonnes (FAO, 2005). Wine has been made in India for as many as 5,000 years. It was the early European travellers to the courts of the Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jehan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries A.D. who reported tasting wines from the royal vineyards. Both red (Kandhari) and white wines (Bhokri, Fakdi, Sahebi etc.) were produced. Under British influence in the nineteenth century, vineyards were established in Kashmir and at Baramati in Maharashtra and a number of Indian wines were exhibited and favorably received by visitors to the TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 17
  18. 18. Great Calcutta Exhibition of 1884. However, Indian vineyards were totally destroyed by unknown reasons in the 1890s. Due to limited domestic consumption of wine and non availability of standard wine varieties to produce good quality wines of international standards, much emphasis was not given for research during previous decades in India. Commercial wine grape production, however in India has begun only since 1980‘s. Although exact figures are not available regarding current area and production of wine grapes in India it is estimated around 1000 hectares in Maharashtra and about 200 hectares near Bangalore in Karnataka. Among these vineyards 70 per cent are yielding another 30 per cent are in establishment stage. In Maharashtra, wine grapes are grown in 3 regions, such as PuneNarayangaon, Nashik and Sangli-Solapur areas. It is expected when all these vineyards start yielding in about 2-3 years, around 15,000 tons of wine grapes will be ready for crushing each year yielding on an average of 90 lakh liters of wine annually. There is a steep annual growth rate of about 20% in the present turnover of around Rs. 200 crores. Demand for imported wine is increasing day by day in India. About 38 private wineries have come up in the country 36 exist in Maharashtra and one each in Karnataka and Goa. The total investment on wineries of Maharashtra was Rs. 77.75 crores in 2004 and rose to Rs. 109.17 crores in 2005. These private wineries were initially established under joint set-up with European collaborations, preparing wine from standard varieties. The most popular red varieties in cultivation are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Merlot and for Rosae still wines, Zinfandel is used. The most popular white wine grapes are Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Viognier, Chardonnay and Riesling. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 18
  19. 19. To meet the domestic demand and for exporting wines from India, good quality wines comparable to standard wines of Europe and USA has to be produced. To give impetus to the grape processing and wine industry in Maharashtra and for the benefit of farmers, the state announced a comprehensive ‗Wine Policy‘ in 2001 and recently in September, 2005 it has established ‗Maharashtra Grape Board‘ especially to develop marketing channels for grape products in our country. Wine Regions Vineyards in India range from the more temperate climate of the northwestern state of Punjab down to the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Some of India's larger wine producing areas are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka near Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad. Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik, Pune, Sangli and Sholapur. The high heat and humidity of the far eastern half of the country limits viticulture activity. Viticulture & Wine The heat and humidity of India's wine region dictates many of the viticulture choices that are made in the vineyards. Vines are often trained on bamboo and wire in a pergola to increase canopy cover and to get the grapes off the ground where they would be more prone to fungal diseases. The canopy protects the grapes against sunburn and rows are spaced wide to help with aeration between the vines. Irrigation is essential in many of India's wine regions and since the 1980s; drip irrigation has been widely used. The tropical conditions often promote high yields which requires frequent pruning throughout the year. Harvest normally takes place in September and is usually done TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 19
  20. 20. by hand. In the very warm wine regions of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, grapevines can produce a crop twice a year. India is home to several indigenous table grape varieties that can also be used in wine production with Anabeshahi, Arkavati and Arkashyam being the most common. Popular non-native grapes include the Bangalore Blue (Isabella) and Gulabi (Black Muscat). The Turkish grape Sultana is the most widely planted grape in India, cover more than half of the 148,000 acres (60,000 ha) planted in the country. In addition to the imported French varieties that Chateau Indage planted, Sauvignonblanc, Zinfandel, Chenin Blanc and Clairette have started to establish a presence in the Indian wine industry. INDIAN WINE MARKET The Indian Wine Industry is growing at 25-30% per annum and currently stands at 4.6 million liters in volume terms and Rs 450 crore in value terms. The wine market is expected to grow to 8.3 million liters by 2010. Per capita consumption of wine remains extremely low in India; however, there is growing consumer interest in wine with a number of wine clubs opening in Delhi, Chandigarh, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Nearly 80 per cent of wine sales are accounted for by the major cities, especially New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Pune and Bangalore. West India accounts for over 41 per cent of total volume sales of wine in India, followed by North India, which accounts for 29 per cent of volume sales. Nearly 90 per cent of wine sales are for still (that is, red and white) wines. Sparkling and rose wines, in contrast, target select segments of particularly affluent consumers. The main market is for wines selling at Rs.300 per bottle. Even though cheaper verities are available, the market is not growing as fast as medium priced wines. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 20
  21. 21. SWOT Analysis Strengths Indian wine consumption has grown 25-30% annually over a 5 year period. Good climate for grape growing Urban population is increasing. Youth are craving an alternative to hard liquors and developing a more refined taste. Wine is becoming more acceptable to women and youth. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Weaknesses Wine is difficult to store in India due to lack of cellars and refrigeration. Less than 50 percent of the population is legally old enough to drink (25 yrs. old). 400 million persons are 18 years old or younger. Poor awareness of wine and infrastructure Page 21
  22. 22. Opportunities Threats 100 million persons will be The Indian constitution legally allowed to drink discourages alcohol alcohol (25 yrs. old) in the consumption. next 5 years. Wine viewed as a “sin” by Supermarkets are emerging some. to support wine distribution Indians still prefer whisky. infrastructure. Advertising for alcoholic Domestic market with beverages is banned. increasing disposable Domestic wine production is income. coddled by State Growing tourism industry. Government. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 22
  23. 23. MARKETING AND ADVERTISING Television: Television advertisements for alcoholic products are illegal in India, so other means have been devised to present alcoholic beverages to the public. Many companies participate in ―surrogate‖ advertising by which they present an advertisement that only mentions the name of the company without any direct allusion to their alcoholic beverage. Magazines: Magazines are also prohibited from advertising alcohol except for the Sommelier India magazine which is dedicated to the wine trade in India. The magazine is written by Indian and international writers, and contains articles and information about the wine culture in India as well as wine profiles that critique different wines. Expos: Wine Expos and wine shows like IFE-India, Vinitaly India in Delhi, and Annapoorna India in Mumbai have become important vehicles for wine companies to do market surveys and have wine tasted by potential customers. Many expos and shows take place throughout India and are generally posted on and Sommelier India. On Site: On-site promotion can often be allowed although it is far less common. In Delhi, it is prohibited to promote/advertise alcohol products; therefore, many companies engage in surrogate advertising, in which they advertise their brand names without referencing alcohol (a common example is for a company to say ―Johnny Walker‖ but have no mention or picture of the whiskey. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 23
  24. 24. Clubs: Wine clubs serve a crucial purpose in making, selecting and, purchasing wines for their members, among other tasks. These institutions make the entire process approachable and easy for the consumer, and they also provide a selling outlet for the producer. By making wine less intimidating, wine clubs involve people who would otherwise be discouraged by it. PRESENT SCENARIO OF WINE INDUSTRY IN INDIA This paper reviews the nascent Indian wine industry in terms of the area, production and marketing of wines in the country. Approximately 38 wineries are presently operating in the country with a total production of 6.2 million liters annually. Maharashtra is leading among the states with 36 wineries and 5.4 million liter production. Apart from this, 72,000 wine cases are imported mainly by ITDC, Sansula, Brindco, E & J Gallo and other private companies. At present 7, 62,000 wine cases are sold every year, which includes 46,000 cases of sparkling wines. This is in contrast to the much higher figures of other drinks such as whisky, brandy and rum sold in the country. Eighty percent of wine consumption in the country is confined in major cities such as Mumbai (39%), Delhi (23%), Bangalore (9%) and Goa (9%). There is growing awareness about the wine as a product in the domestic market. Poor storage and transport facilities in spite of tropical climate are the main problems of wine marketing in the country. Other constraints are the lack of promotional activities for wine consumption in the country and unfavorable rules for domestic marketing of wines except in few states. These and other factors contributed to India‘s low wine consumption which is hardly 0.07 L per capita. Certain promotional strategies, such as easing of tariff barriers for the wines, developing TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 24
  25. 25. awareness on health benefits of wine and to supply good quality wines in reasonable prices in the domestic market are emphasized. Contributions made by major wineries such as, Champagne Indage (CI), Grover Vineyards and Sula Vineyards for indigenous production of quality wines in the country are highlighted. CI at Narayangaon is a pioneer of French style wines in India, produces exquisite qualities in both still and sparkling wines. The company has the capacity of producing over 3 million bottles annually. Some of their wines are exported to many European and Asian countries. The company has a good collection of European wine varieties. The Grover’s Vineyards located in southern Karnataka state also exports wines worth $ 4,35,000 every year. This company has 200 hectares of vineyards under wine grapes of 35 varieties. Sula vineyards at Nashik has new welcome additions to India‘s smarter wine list. In Nashik region ‗Chenin Blanc‘is quite predominantly grown but emphasis should be given to red wine varieties. Sangli is another region but here farmers are advised to choose appropriate varieties depending upon soil and microclimate. Grape growing is a highly capital intensive project, concerted efforts are required by the Financial agencies to reduce the rate of interest to 6-7% from the present 10-13%. Viticulture and wine making aspects influencing the quality of wines have been emphasized on. Wine grape cultivation practices are given in detail along with the prominent European varieties which are commercially grown in the country. The performance in terms of fruit yield, juice yield, TSS, acidity and pH measurements of major wine varieties are presented. The discussions highlighted in this paper will be of immense value to the grape growers, wineries, policy makers, financial institutions and government agencies dealing with the production. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 25
  26. 26. Major Wine markets of the World Out of world‘s total annual production of 32 billion liters‘, the following are among the top countries and MNC‘s have their major share in the world wine market. France Italy Spain US Argentina Germany South Africa Australia China Gallo (MNC) Portugal 5.6 billion liters 5.3 ― 3.5 ― 2.2 ― 1.4 ― 1.0 ― 770million liters 750 ― 690 ― 675 ― 611 ― In case of Australia, that export 230 million liters annually worth more than 1 billion dollars and UK is its major market worth $489 million. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 26
  27. 27. Types of wine Red Wine -Red wine is made from grapes that are usually red or purple in color. The color of the wine comes from leaving these dark colored skins in with the juice during the wine making process. This is different from white wine where the skins are removed before the wine making process begins. Wine has been around for thousands of years. Until recently the process to make red wine, no matter what grape was used, was always exactly the same. In the 1940s, wine makers began to experiment with the wine making process. Today, wine makers use a variety of different wine making techniques leading to the unique combination of taste, aroma and flavor in each wine you try. It is also different from white wine because of the tannin from the grape skins. Tannin gives it the ability to age longer than white wine. It also allows the wine to continue to improve during the aging process. You may have noticed the wine is categorized as having one of three body types: light bodied, medium bodied and full bodied. The body type does not refer to how the wine tastes, instead it gives you an idea of its overall depth and structure. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 27
  28. 28. Red wine is the most popular and preferred form of wine world over. But not many people know about the different types of red wine. The wines are classified according to the grapes they are produced from and the area they are prepared in. when only one variety is mentioned on the bottle, it is called a ‗varietal wine‘. Such wines are named after the grape and the first letter would be a capital letter. Read on to know the different types of red wine. Syrah / Shiraz (Pronounced as See-Rah / Shear-Oz) Syrah wine, also known as Shiraz, is produced widely in places like Rhone Valley (France), California and Australia. The Syrah is known for its rich aroma and dark color. The taste usually is a rich, fruity blackcurrant one. The Syrah is one of the most common grape varieties. Depending on the location and fermentation of the grapes, it is used to produce a spicy, complex wine or a simple wine. Shiraz wine is usually used to produce some of the finest wine varieties in the world with dark color and rich aroma and flavor. Merlot (Pronounced as Mehr-Low) The Merlot is preferred by people these days due to the fact that it has a very soft and light taste. The Merlot grapes can be used independently to make Merlot wine and can also be blended with other grapes to produce some really fine wines. A cool consistent climate is preferred to grow Merlot wine grapes. It is grown in abundance in Italy, Romania, California, Washington State, Chile and Australia. The typical flavor of this wine resembles with the taste of black cherry and herbs. Cabernet Sauvignon (Pronounced as Cah-burr-Nay Sow-vee-Nyoh) One of the best varieties of wine, Cabernet Sauvignon is said to be one of the best varieties of wine, accepted world-wide. It is fermented in oak barrels to give it a unique taste. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes are most widely planted grapes world over. The grapes need ample sunshine and well-drained soils to grow. This wine is supposed to have TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 28
  29. 29. health properties and when taken in moderation, is supposed to have health benefits like preventing cardiovascular diseases. Pinot Noir (Pronounced as Pee-noh Nwah) A rare variety, the Pinot Noir is known as the noblest variety of red wine grape. This rare grape is not very easy to grow and is produced in select places like Loire valley, California, Oregon, and New Zealand. Pinot Noir grapes are among the oldest varieties of wine grapes that are grown. Often, it so happens that the parent grape may produce a fruit that may be totally different in size, flavor, color and even aroma. Zinfandel (Pronounced as Zin-fan-Dell) This is one of the most versatile wines and is grown only in California. It is used to produce the red as well as white wines. The Zinfandel grapes are red skinned and have a very luscious texture. The skin is usually quite thin and if not picked in time, it may rot quickly. They grow in tight bunches and the fruits have much depth of flavor. Sangiovese (Pronounced as San-jo-vay-zay) Sangiovese wine is produced in Tuscany (Italy) and California. It has a strong plum and berry taste and is one of the most important grape that is planted. They are black colored grapes and are widely grown in Italy. These grapes usually give a high yield, even though they take time to ripen. The Sangiovese grapes produce wines that have medium to high natural acidity. Barbera (Pronounced as Bar-bear-ah) Though it has similar attributes as the Merlot, it is not as popular. This is a versatile wine and is produced on a large scale in California. It has a silky texture, juicy plum fruit taste and just the right amount of acidity. The grape that is used to produce Barbera wine is a juicy black one that grows in long tight bunches. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 29
  30. 30. White Wines – White wine differs from red wine in, first and most obviously, color. Under that skin, the pulpy part of a white grape is the same color as that of a red grape. The skin dictates the end color for red wine, which differs from the white's color determinates. Color in white wine does vary, often from the type of grape, occasionally from the use of wood. Listed below are a few of the most common white varieties in the world wine market and of They are listed from lighter bodied, and lighter colored, to fuller bodied with deeper colors. The list is not set in stone – winemaker's decisions and climate may affect the end result of a white wine's body and color – we just give you the guidelines. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 30
  31. 31. Grapes/Region Champagne Where primarily grown Champagne, France Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris Alsace, France; Italy; Oregon; California Sauvignon Blanc Loire, France; New Zealand; California; South Africa Chenin Blanc Loire, France; South Africa Riesling Germany; Alsace, France; Australia; New Zealand; Washington State; California Chardonnay Burgundy, France; Australia; California; South America; South Africa; Oregon Viognier Rhone, France; California Other white grapes to notice, listed alphabetically: Grapes Albariño Where they grow best Spain Gewurztraminer Alsace, France; Germany Sémillon Bordeaux, France; Australia TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 31
  32. 32. White Wine Types The taste and texture of the white wine differs according to the different types of grapes that are used to prepare the white wine and also several other variables like the weather, soil, yeast and the aging manner of the wine. White wine or any of the different types of wine differ according to the outside conditioning that the grapes go through along with the process of wine making. The more they are pampered, the best types of wine they produce. Chardonnay Chardonnay is the most famous and largest selling white wine amongst them all. There is the "ABC; Anything But Chardonnay" formula that tells us the popularity of the Chardonnay white wine. Chardonnay can be said as the best wine to accompany a great food. Chardonnay is also referred as the queen of white wines. Chardonnay white wine is medium to highly acidic with the hint of nuts, oak, fruits, vanilla and several spices as well. Gewürztraminer Gewürztraminer is the famous white wine that is largely produced in Germany and France (Alsace). Gewürztraminer is a type of German wine, the name actually means "spicy". Gewürztraminer is a sweet wine that has floral fragrance. This type of white wine is produced in the cooler parts of the world. Gewürztraminer has light acidity and crispy bold flavor. PinotGrigio Pinot Grigio is known as Pinot Gris in the US. Pinot Gris is the second most favorite white wine amongst the wine admirers. Pinot Grigio tastes best when combined with delightful seafood! Pinot Grigio has a citrus aroma. European Pinot Grigio is acidic than the American Pinot Gris. SauvignonBlanc Sauvignon blanc is also known as 'fumé blanc'. Sauvignon blanc is very popular amongst the middle class white wine TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 32
  33. 33. admirers as it is the most cost effective wine amongst all other types of white wine. It is mostly produced in Loire and Bordeaux which are the wine regions of France. Sauvignon blanc is also produced in South Africa, California and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc has very crisp and light acidic taste. Sauvignon blanc is a totally aromatic type of white wine with a flavor of lemon, gooseberry and grapes. Nothing can compare the shining glass of Sauvignon blanc combined with delicious coconut shrimp! Riesling Riesling, the most expensive white wine, is ideal for a special occasion. Riesling is produced in Germany, France and Finger Lakes District of New York. Riesling has a great fruity aroma and medium to light acidic taste. Riesling has a great ability to age and taste the most delightful. Riesling can age more than many of the red wines as well! Riesling and Asian cuisine can be said as the ultimate lip-smacking combination! Viognier Viognier is a type of French wine, primarily made in the Rhone region of France and also in California. Viognier has a great tropical smell, like a banana or a peach. Viognier has the highest alcohol levels amongst all types of white wine. Since the Viognier has a great floral and tropical aroma any rich tropical food or baked brie cheese will suit just great with it. Along with the above mentioned types of white wine, semillon, muscat, roussanne or marsanne are also very popular amongst the white wine aficionados. White wine always seem interesting when combined with different cuisines. You can learn more about the different types of wine by joining one of the wine clubs in your city, they can be a great help regarding wine and all the information on wine making as well. This was all about the different types of white wine, I hope now you have decided your kind of white wine that will suit your taste! TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 33
  34. 34. Fortified wines A fortified wine is a wine to which spirits such as brandy have been added. In addition to raising the alcohol content of the wine, the spirits also change the flavor profile, making a unique and very distinctive wine. While fortified wine was originally born out of necessity, consumers began to appreciate and enjoy the flavor, and so producers continue to make it. There are a wide number of varieties of fortified wine, although some of the most famous are Vermouth from France, Marsala from Italy, Sherry from Spain, and Madeira and Port from Portugal. Most fortified wines are named after the regions that they are produced in, as each regional fortified wine has a distinct style. They may also be further classified by grade and fermenting process, as is the case with sherry, which comes in varieties like Fino and Oloroso. In some cases, a fortified wine may be protected with an Appellation of Controlled Origin, meaning that only wines from a certain region may bear that name. Wines not made in that region can only be labeled as being in the ―style‖ of that particular area. The origins of fortified wine can be found in the 16th century, when a growing number of countries were exporting wine. Unfortunately, these wines were not terribly shelf stable, and they often went bad during the shipping process. To compound the problem, the wines were also not able to stand up to the often violent movements below decks. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 34
  35. 35. In an effort to preserve their wines, winemakers began adding brandy, creating fortified wine. In brandy is added before the fermentation process begins, the result is a very sweet, rich fortified wine such as Port, which is often used as a dessert wine. Adding brandy afterwards makes a more dry wine, like traditional dry Vermouth. Depending on how the wine is aged and handled, the flavor can vary widely, from the mellowness of cream sherry to the extreme tartness of extra-dry vermouth. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 35
  36. 36. Champagne and Sparkling Wines Champagne, that wonderful nose tickling beverage, is by far the most famously celebrated of all sparkling wines. Champagne is a type of Sparkling Wine, but... The type of sparkling wine that can be truly called Champagne is made only from grapes of the Champagne region of France. Not only that, but French law dictates that all sparkling wines made in that area must be made by a special process called the traditional or champagne method. The French term is méthod champenoise. Only then, should it be called Champagne. Bubblies produced in other parts of the world, even if they are created by the traditional method, should be referred to as sparkling wines. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 36
  37. 37. LIST OF TERMS USED Vineyard- The farm where wine grapes are grown for wine production. Wine grapes- Special grapes used for wine production. Viticulture- The science, cultivation and study of grape growing. Fermentation- The process by which grape sugar turns into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Winery- A winery is a facility where fruit, usually grapes, is processed into wine. Some wineries are located on the same site as the vineyard whose grapes they process, while others process grapes they purchase from vineyards many away from their production site. Clarification- umbrella term for a host of processes designed to ensure wine is crystal clear, including fining, filtration and refrigeration. Treading(Crushing)- an important winemaking operation involving literally pressing the juice (white wines) or astringent press wine out of the skins. Stabilization- umbrella term for all the winemaking operations designed to stop wines developing a fault in bottle such as a haze, cloud or fizz, no matter what the storage conditions. It is practiced most brutally on everyday wines. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 37
  38. 38. REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE   Growth of India wine market India has emerged as one of the fastest growing markets for wine on the global map. Despite the country‘s vast population of over 1.1 Billion, the consumption of wine remains extremely low. The per capita consumption of wine in the country was estimated at around 9 Milliliters in 2008, indicating huge potential for growth in the coming years. Various factors such as favorable government policies, increasing disposable income, amplified wine marketing and influence of western culture are helping to drive India‘s wine consumption. According to our latest research report, ―Indian Wine Industry Forecast to 2012‖, wine consumption in India is expected to grow by 35-30% annually between 2009 and 2012. We have found that various policies by the state level governments are encouraging domestic wine producers to set up their own wineries in the country, giving a boost to the domestic industry. Efforts by the Maharashtra and Karnataka governments remain far-fetched in this regard. However, such measures have raised concerns to WTO which states that India is adopting protectionist policies for its domestic wine industry meanwhile curbing growth of imports. While local players are including affordable imported wines in their portfolios to attract new consumers, foreign firms are trying hard to expand in the market owing to high rate of tax levied. Our research indicates that the premium wine segment in the country is dominated by imported wines. This is because domestic wines are still unable to demand a high price, largely because of low brand awareness and lack TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 38
  39. 39. of quality taste. Meanwhile, total consumption is dominated by domestically-produced cheap wine. Indian Wine Industry Forecast to 2012 provides extensive research and rational analysis on the wine market in India. Our research gives deep insight into India‘s wine consumption in terms of domesticallyproduced and imported wines, price structure, sales by location, type of wine consumed and a possible regional segmentation. Our research also highlights the market trends and developments that are expected to play key role in the growth of Indian wine market over the forecast period. Besides this, the report provides thorough analysis on the wine production, wine exports and wine import of the country. Internationally the wine industry has faced a lot of challenges such as competition with global connoisseurs of wine in Europe, improving the quality of wines in India, sustaining high growth rates and increasing consumption of wine. In order to address these challenges, the government is planning to simplify the complicated structure and introduce a uniform duty structure to process tax and duty calculation. Several Indian states, including Maharashtra, the largest producer of Wine in India, have started to provide duty exemptions. Also, boosting wine consumption is the commissioned sanctioning of wine bars in Maharashtra. The government has also initiated the establishment of wine parks in grape cultivating regions in India. Recently, several state governments are taking initiatives to promote wine tourism.  Project report on setting up wine Industry By: Gowaribidnoor Bangalore Submitted to Karnataka Wine Board TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 39
  40. 40. Findings: Though the market share of wine among the alcoholic beverages is surely but steadily increasing, still it is at a very primary stage. The challenge before the winemakers in India is to develop the domestic market, as a majority of the Indian consumer prefers beer, whisky, and rum and sometimes even home brewed spirits over champagne and wine. The statistics on the Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL) shows that the consumption of wine in India is not more than 2% of the entire IMFL consumption. The international market is a promising arena for the Indian wine. The Indian wine industry though as its infancy stage, is hoping to challenge the supremacy if wine countries in an effort to gain a foothold in the international market. Though they get most of their technology and advice from Europe, Indian winemakers are now promoting themselves in a big way to catch the attention of the rest world. The favorable climatic conditions and superior quality of Indian grapes would provide an added advantage to attain this objective.  Wine promotions in restaurants: do beverage sales contribute or cannibalize? (Financial report) By: Brian Wansink & Glenn Cordua & Ed Blair & Collin Payne & Stephanie Geiger. Findings: A controlled field study of wine promotions in a mid priced chain restaurant generated three key findings: (1) selected wine recommendations increased sales by 12 percent, (2) food-wine pairing recommendations increased sales by 7.6 percent, and (3) wine tastings TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 40
  41. 41. increased sales by 48 percent. In general, 69 to 87 percent of the increase in sales of promoted wines comes from diners who would likely have ordered a non-promoted wine. This means that 13 to 31 percent of the increase comes from diners who would have otherwise ordered liquor, beer, and nonalcoholic drinks. Specific implications for responsible restaurateurs are outlined, including the caveat to not cannibalize sales by promoting a lower-margin, lower-profit wine. • The historical and projected increase in wine sales is caused by a convergence of several factors. Among which are the fit between the product attributes and the market‘s demand for sweeter and fruitier liquors, the classy image of wine drinking, trend towards healthier products, and the influx of cheap wines. • Still, the current base of wine drinkers in the country is less than half of the total potential wine consumers. The potential wine market is large compared to the current volumes. • Almost all of the current drinkers of wines are enthusiasts or consumers. In fact, only 0.1% of the current drinkers are connoisseurs who occupy a small niche in the industry. The enthusiasts are drinking wines because of its sweet and fruity taste, smoothness, health benefits, and lower alcoholic content. However, they are price conscious, preferring economy priced wines. Also, they are not versed and sometimes averse to the idiosyncrasies of wines and wine drinking. • As mentioned, economy-priced wines are responsible for the increase in wine sales, as it now constitutes 83% of the total wine sales. The remaining 17% goes to the middle to premium priced wines, which are bought by the connoisseurs. • Ninety percent of the wines being bought are still wines. Red accounts for 73%. The popularity of still wines may be attributed to the fact that other wines like sparkling and specialty wines, cost more and are less promoted by their importers. • New World wines, particularly from Chile, are the most popular wines because of their simplicity, taste, and price, which are attributes appreciated by majority of the market. Further, these wines are more TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 41
  42. 42. modern in terms of packaging and even content. Thus, they are not intimidating to the enthusiast-consumer who shies away from old world wines. • The wine importers have three strategies. The niche strategy used by importers of middle to premium priced wines cater to the connoisseurs. The piggy backers treat wines as a mere product portfolio addition, while focusing on more profitable alcoholic products. The branders treat the wines as consumer products, backed with traditional marketing strategies. • The two distribution channels for wines, the on and off premises, have increased in sales turnover. Although majority of the people still buy from off-premise outlets, more people are purchasing and drinking wines in the on-premise. Both distribution channels have their own set of marketing practices that wine companies need to know in order to compete in. • Branded wines control the market since they are able to forge an affinity and relationship with the otherwise confused consumer. Further, the top branded wines all possess the taste qualities demanded by the critical mass. These wines create awareness for themselves through push and pull marketing practices and generating a good word-of-mouth buzz around their brands. • The current market leaders also benefited from being the first-movers in the industry, marketing-wise. Asti Martini is now the benchmark of sparkling wines because it was the first brand to advertise on TV seven years ago. Carlo Rossi and Novellino were also the first and only brands of still wines to have television and print advertising. Gato Negro was the first Chilean wine to gain popularity since it was ahead in recognizing the value of being house wine of the top on-premise establishments. Connecting this to the impulsive and emotional behavior of the market and the fact that these consumers are generally not interested in the TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 42
  43. 43. Elitist elements of wine drinking, first-movers instantly create awareness and affinity with the market since these brands eased these people in the world of wines. OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVE OF STUDY The research objective is a statement, in as precise terminology as possible, of what information is needed. The present research was undertaken with the following objective to ensure that the research purpose is satisfied.  To know what profile of people mostly like the wine.  To know the choice of people towards wine.  To know on what occasion they like wine most.  To know the factor which influences people to buy wine?  To know what they prefer to eat with wine. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a strategy that guides a research in providing answers to research questions and for this, research survey is being done. ―Accuracy of the study depends on the systematic application of the method‖. The researcher has to decide the method to be used that helps him to get a desired direction in a systematic way. Research always starts with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to question through the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied. Research Methodology is the investigation of specific problem in detail. At first problem is defined carefully for conducting research. There should be a good research plan for conducting research. No research TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 43
  44. 44. can be done without data collection. After all this analyze is made for getting solution for problem.  Defining the problem  Defining the sampling plan  Collection of data  Analyze and interpretation NEED OF THE STUDY The NEED of this study is find out about various factors leading to the purchase of wines in India and the taste and preference of consumers. The quality of wine can be improved in India according to the international standards. The study also throws light on other demographics contributing to the growth of this industry in India and in the minds of Indian consumers. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  The survey was restricted to Mumbai, so the regional differences if any could have affected the study.  Due to the time and resource constraints the sample size had to be restricted.  Some time respondents did not give accurate information.  Female customers were not interested to fill the questionnaire, it is may be social or cultural reason. RESEARCH PROCESS The research process has four distinct yet interrelated steps for research analysis It has a logical and hierarchical ordering:  Determination of information research problem.  Development of appropriate research design.  Execution of research design.  Communication of results. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 44
  45. 45. Each step is viewed as a separate process that includes a combination of task, step and specific procedure. The steps undertake are logical, objective, systematic, reliable, valid, impersonal and ongoing. DATA COLLECTION:To obtain the necessary information pertaining to the study, questionnaires were prepared. While preparing the questionnaires the objectives of the study were kept in mind. Special care was taken that the questions do not lack simplicity and clarity. The questions were arranged in a proper sequence so that there was continuity in the interview. The questions framed were mostly closed ended. These were in order to obtain the primary source of data. The secondary sources of data were Internet search magazines and the websites of the wines.  PRIMARY DATA:- New data gathered to help solve the problem at hand. As compared to secondary data which is previously gathered data. An example is information gathered by a questionnaire. Qualitative or quantitative data that are newly collected in the course of research, Consists of original information that comes from people and includes information gathered from surveys, focus groups, independent observations and test results. This is contrasted to secondary data which entails the use of data gathered by someone other than the researcher information that is obtained directly from first-hand sources by means of surveys, observation or experimentation Primary data is basically collected by getting questionnaire filled by the respondents. Collect primary data by Personal investigation Observation method Questionnaire methods TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 45
  46. 46.  SECONDARY DATA:- Information that already exists somewhere, have been collected for another purpose, sources include census reports, trade publications, and subscription services. Data that have already been collected and published for another research project called secondary data. There are two types of secondary data: internal and external secondary data. Information compiled inside or outside the organization for some purpose other than the current investigation. Data that already have been collected for some purpose other than the current study. Secondary data are collect from websites and journals.  RESPONDENTS: Customers visiting wine stores in Selaqui,Ballupur chowk and Balliwala chowk. SAMPLING PLAN The sampling plan calls for three decisions. A) Sampling Unit: I have completed my survey in Dehradun(Selaqui,Ballupur chowk and Balliwala chowk. ) B) Sample Size: The selection of 100 respondents. The sample was drawn from daily customers. The selection of the respondent was done on the basis of simple random sampling. C) Contact methods: I have conducted the respondent through personal interviews. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE A simple random sample is a group of subjects chosen from a larger group of population. Each subject from the population is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 46
  47. 47. SURVEY STRATEGY Personal interview method was followed to conduct the survey & collection of the data because:Time was limited and this method was accurate, sure and quick. It eliminates the chances of non-responses. On the spot clarification could be given if necessary. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION  Age (Years) Age 18-24 25-30 Result 18 40 31-35 24 36-40 12 Above 40 6 Age 6% 12% 18% 18-24 25-30 31-35 24% 35-40 40% Above 40 SOURCE: Data collected through questionnaire. Interpretation:From the total respondent 40% people of 25-30 age group consume more wine after that 24% consumed by 31-35 age group. Still 18% by 18-24 age group, 12% by 36-40, and 6% is consumed by above 40, TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 47
  48. 48. that‘s why it is suggested that wine manufacturer and shopkeeper must be targeting those customers who lie in between 25-35.  Gender: Gender Result Female 19 Male 81 Gender 19% Female Male 81% TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 48
  49. 49. DATA ANALYSIS In research process researchers generally use statistical tools viz. Averages (mean, median, and mode), dispersion, percentages etc. Here researcher has used percentage method to analyze the data. Formula to calculate the percentage is shown below X = (Y/ Z) x 100 Or Total no. of responses/total no. of respondent*100 Where X= % of people under certain category Y= number of response Z= total number of people studied Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. We will use conjoint analysis to analyze the data collected. Conjoint analysis is statistical technique used in market research, how retailers value different features which sales particular product or service. The objective of conjoint analysis is to determine what combination of a limited number of attributes is most influential on respondent‘s choice and decision making. A controlled set of potential products and services is shown to respondents and by analyzing how they make preferences between these products; the implicit valuation of the individual element making up the product and service can be determined valuations. These implicit valuations can be used to create market model that estimate market share revenue and even profitability of new design. TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIAN WINE INDUSTRY Page 49