Fluency vs. accuracy

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  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsM45FkBzq8 Youtube.com Speaking Real English
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QirhNeIwQ0w BridgeTEFL Teaching speaking with task-based learning

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  • 1. Nancy Burkhalter, PhDSenior English Language FellowLipetsk, RussiaApril 11-12, 2013
  • 2. FLUENCYPractice what theyalready knowACCURACYFocus on language
  • 3. Keep students at own level of vocabularyand grammar.Let them be creative.Impose no rules.DO NOT CORRECT THEM!Limit teacher-talk.
  • 4. if vocabulary is new?if the focus is on grammar?if there is no push to go faster or moresmoothly?
  • 5. …Should be devoted to fluency?
  • 6. ¼dayweeksemester
  • 7. Practicing fluency with the Brooklyn MonkListen for:How often he corrects studentsHow he engages the studentsHow much he talks
  • 8. It slows down flow of the class. Students lose motivation.  They may not remember the correction anyway.  
  • 9. OUR FEAR:Students will practice mistakes.
  • 10. Most want some kind ofcorrection.It helps them improve.
  • 11. Give students a chance, and time, tocorrect themselves.Use hand signals• –e.g., Point behind you to indicate past tense.
  • 12. Students can correct one another.Peer correction often creates a positiveclass atmosphere as students realize youare not the only source of error correctionand they can learn a lot from one another.
  • 13. Listen in on what they’re saying.Make notes of the mistakes (whether theyare pronunciation, grammatical or lexical).Write them on the boardAsk students to correct them. Usually mostof the mistakes can by corrected by thestudents themselves.
  • 14. If they repeat the same mistakes:All Ss make a notebook to record theirerrors and the correct version.Periodically give quizzes on these errors.
  • 15. Mistake Correction NoteIt depends of theweather.It depends on theweather.Revise prepositions.Not the same as inSpanish - dependedeIve lived in the U.S.since six years.Ive lived in the U.S.for six years.Since - for points intimeFor - for periods oftime
  • 16. FLUENCY: For a class discussions, sostudents can express themselves andthink on their feet.ACCURACY: When they have time toprepare.
  • 17. Be clear of the aims of the task.Make sure Ss know which task they arebeing asked to do.Avoid presenting an activity as a fluencytask and then correct every single mistake.
  • 18. Allow students to work together to create autopian country.
  • 19. 1. Keep the learner interested in the activity.2. Make it easy.3. Do not introduce new material,vocabulary or grammar.TIME TO USE THE HAMMER,NOT TALK ABOUT IT.
  • 20. Fluency strand = ¼ of the course time(daily or weekly).NOT a time to learn new items.Time to use what they know.
  • 21. #1 Rank-ordering#2 Problem solving#3 Planned speaking#4 Group competition#5 Role-Playing Scenarios#6 Time pressure
  • 22. Rank order these teacher qualities. Sense of humor Honesty Love of children Knowledge of subject Flexibility Clear speaking voice Enthusiasm for teaching Pleasant appearance Fairness Ability to create interest Ability to keep order Intelligence
  • 23. -You and a friend are lost in the jungle. Put the following items inorder of importance for your survival. A sleeping bag Radio (listening only) Axe Gun and ten bullets Matches Tent Torch Map of the area Cooking pot Three cans of food Three meters of rope Story book
  • 24. Everyone is given a text.Team A leaves the room.Team B (the class) then makes up andasks them competitors questions about thetext. (They have not seen the questions.)The class judges whether their answersare correct.
  • 25. Ask students to bring in one summarizedstory from the news and talk about it to theclass. They must explain why they broughtit in/why it was important to them.
  • 26. A student asks the teacher for anextension on a paper. The teacher is notinclined to do so.
  • 27. 8waystododictation!
  • 28. Learners should know what mistakes theymade.Text should have known vocabulary.Use texts from familiar material.Let them check their own or other’s work.
  • 29. T sits outside the classroom and tellsstudent A one line of the dictation as hecomes out. Student A memorizes thatsentence, runs to Student B, who writes itdown.
  • 30. Learners work in pairs. One reads dictationand other writes. When pairs are finishedthey yell “Stop!” The first pair that yellsStop is the winner. They have limited time.The one who is writing can ask to havewords repeated or spelled.
  • 31. Do dictation, grade it, then return it so Sscan look at mistakes. Then give the samedictation, to make sure the Ss don’t makethe same mistake.
  • 32. T records dictation into a tape recorder orSs’ mobile phone. Each student can do thedictation on his own by using the rewindand pause buttons. They can regulate thespeed of the dictation.
  • 33. Pairs: the reader looks at a phrase in thetext, tries to remember it, and then looksaway from the text and then says it to theirpartner, who writes it.It forces the reader to rely on memory. Itgoes from book to brain, and then frombrain to mouth.Some consider the most valuable ofexercises.
  • 34. S listens to a long phrase dictated by theT, waits for several seconds, and thenrepeats it.NOTE: The length of the phrase a learnercan hold in memory is an indicator oflanguage proficiency.
  • 35. S reads a phrase (by himself) and then triesto hold as large a phrase as possible in thelanguage before writing it. Do not copyword for word! Ideally suited for individualpractice.
  • 36. T reads a text at normal speed.Ss listen and take notes.Ss get into groups and reconstruct the textfrom memory.Ss compare versions from various groups.Class discusses usage points/mistakes.*difficult!
  • 37. Get in pairs or groups.Design a simple exercise that begins withfluency and ends with a dictation exercise(or vice versa).
  • 38. Fluency and accuracy – NOT the same!Teach separately.Fluency activities = practice.Accuracy = language.Tell them which activity you are doing.
  • 39. FOR YOUR FLUENTAND ACCURATEATTENTION!
  • 40. Bailey, K. & Savage, L. (Eds.) New ways inteaching speaking. Alexandria, VA:TESOL.Kehe, D., & Kehe, P. (2012). Discussionstrategies. Brattleboro, VT: ProLingua.Nation, I., & Newton, J. (2009). TeachingESL/EFL listening and speaking. NewYork: Routledge.