Teaching vocabulary


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Teaching Vocbulary

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  • Read the quote on this slide. Activity 1: What is meant by vocabulary? With a partner, invite participants to take two minutes and see what definition they can come up with for what is meant by vocabulary. Take five minutes to summarize these definitions with participants.
  • Read the quote on this slide. Without sound vocabulary knowledge, children will not be successful readers. Vocabulary refers to the dynamic, on-going process each of us experiences throughout our lives in learning the complex relationships that exist among words. It involves both expressive and receptive abilities with words. We can use words to speak and write or read and listen. It also involves adding new concepts and labels to words already known. Additionally, especially early on in school, vocabulary refers to building an ability with sight words.
  • In early primary grades, children must have access to the large number of high frequency words that occur in the English language. Refer teachers to handout #1: High Frequency word list.
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988). Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc. Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard. Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • We know that students arrive at school with varying levels of word knowledge. Students’ word knowledge or vocabularies are influenced by their life experiences and cultural backgrounds. Once in school, students acquire some of their vocabulary knowledge through teacher instruction, frequent interactions with a variety of texts, and participation in a variety of language activities. Teachers need to build on students’ oral vocabularies and extend their developing reading vocabularies. Several types of vocabulary have been identified: Listening vocabulary includes words students hear and understand. Speaking vocabulary includes words students use in everyday speech. Reading vocabulary includes words in print that students know. As students begin to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto their listening and speaking vocabularies. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand and can reproduce when writing.
  • The language patterns within homes of high and low SES families varies greatly. Children in high SES homes have access to a greater amount of oral and written language both within the home and in the community than low SES children.
  • It is critically important to work towards minimizing vocabulary differences among children early enough to avoid long-term establishment of differences in vocabulary knowledge. Perhaps, even prior to school beginning. Early intervention in vocabulary is critical. However, there is currently little being done in vocabulary instruction.
  • If a child is not familiar with words orally or in text, comprehension will most likely not occur. Instruction should be devoted to developing word knowledge in children. Children learn many words through conversations and reading than through direct instruction. An estimated seven words per day (2,700 – 3,000 words per year) are learned by children throughout their school years.
  • Worksheets are ineffective in helping students use new words and concepts in their continued learning. Children must be actively engaged in their learning of words, in meaningful ways. Active involvement may include discussions around terms, word games and activities, wide reading, etc.
  • To have a clear picture of a word requires knowing what it means, how it is connected to other words, how to pronounce it and use it in writing, and where one might be exposed to the word. Children can gain elaborated word depth and breadth by learning conceptual associations to the word, by placing the word in appropriate contexts, and by relating the word to its definitions. It is not reasonable to expect young children to make any significant cognitive connection of a word to its dictionary definition.
  • Children remember vocabulary better when words are connected to familiar experiences they have had. Children should be encouraged to discuss experiences from their life to connect words to experiences and encourage students word learning.
  • Independent vocabulary strategies that children might develop, fall into phonic analysis, structural analysis, contextual analysis. Phonic analysis – This helps with the pronunciation of the words. This may help if the word is already in the child’s mental lexicon. Structural analysis – Children are taught to recognize morphemes within words (meaningful parts of words). This may help them in building a meaning for an unknown word. Contextual analysis – This may help students to pay attention to meaningful clues within the context where the word appears.
  • When we identify and teach specific words directly, measurable increases in student word knowledge results.
  • Teaching vocabulary

    1. 1. Teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension Evidence-based Practices
    2. 2. Vocabulary Definition <ul><li>“… knowing a word is not an all-or-nothing proposition; it is not the case that one either knows or does not know a word. Rather, knowledge of a word should be viewed in terms of the extent or degree of knowledge that people can possess.” Beck & McKeown, 1991 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Vocabulary Definition “… vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas, and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.” Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/99, p. 339
    4. 4. Vocabulary Definition (cont.) <ul><li>“ Words are the starting point. Without words, children can’t talk about people, places, or things, about actions, relations, or states.” </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, 1993 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Vocabulary Definition (cont.) <ul><li>Vocabulary, or lexicon, refers to information stored in memory concerning the pronunciation and meanings of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Vocabulary Definition (cont.)
    7. 7. Effective Vocabulary Instructional Program <ul><ul><li>Research Base </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Research Base for Vocabulary <ul><li>First graders from high SES populations have access to twice as many word meanings as children from lower SES groups </li></ul><ul><li>Graves, Brunetti, & Slater, 1982; Graves & Slater, 1987 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Once vocabulary differences are firmly established in children, they are very difficult to reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Biemiller, 1999; Hart & Risley, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>There is currently little emphasis on the acquisition of vocabulary in school </li></ul><ul><li>Biemiller, 2001; Scott, Jamieson, & Asselin, 1998; Watts, 1995 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Word knowledge is essential for comprehension Davis, 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Oral interactions and wide reading in a variety of text types is to be encouraged and supported Nagy & Herman, 1987 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Learning new concepts requires active involvement rather than passive definition memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Stahl, 1986 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Multiple exposures to a word is necessary to learn it well –conceptual, contextual, & definitional </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Writing definitions from dictionaries is not a recommended practice </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, 1996 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Relate new words to students’ prior knowledge and to other related words when possible </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Dept of Education, 1987 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Students need to develop the ability to learn new words from the multiple contexts of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson & Baumann, 1984 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Research Base for Vocabulary (cont.) <ul><li>Use direct instruction to teach “Tier 2” and passage or selection critical words </li></ul><ul><li>Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Children learn about 1,000 (conservative) to 3,000 (liberal) words per year (Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Most scholars agree with an estimate of 2,000 – 3,000 words learned per year. </li></ul>Is There a Set of Vocabulary Words Elementary Students Should Have?
    17. 17. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002) do not believe in teaching Tier I words (high frequency). This recommendation clearly assumes these words are already known or will be learned incidentally through conversation and social interactions. </li></ul>Is There a Set of Vocabulary Words Elementary Students Should Have?
    18. 18. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Vocabulary should be taught both explicitly and incidentally. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition and multiple exposure are important for learning new vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to construct vocabulary from rich (directive) contexts is valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary learning tasks should be restructured when necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary tasks should entail active engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit vocabulary instruction should address the use of definitions, context, and concept learning. </li></ul>What Does it Take to Teach a Word Well?
    19. 19. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>First, examine the type of text the children will be reading. Is it narrative or informational? Teach Tier II words if the children will be reading narrative, literary texts. Teach Tier III words if children will be reading informational, expository texts (point of contact). </li></ul><ul><li>Next, examine the text to develop a list of 10 Tier II or Tier III words to be taught during the week, 2 per day. </li></ul>What Words Should I Teach?
    20. 20. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Read the text to determine the nature of the context in which each of the selected Tier II or Tier III words appear. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives clues, hints, synonyms to determine an approximate word meaning in the context. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Directive Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentions the word without giving any clues to determine word meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mis-Directive Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives clues that lead readers to false word meaning construction. </li></ul></ul></ul>What Words Should I Teach?
    21. 21. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>If a word appears in a directive context, then teach children how to use context to determine an approximate word meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>If a word appears in a non-directive or mis-directive context, then these are good candidates for your 10 word teaching list. </li></ul>What Words Should I Teach?
    22. 22. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>If you have ELL students in your classroom, be sure to determine if there is a Spanish-English cognate that may help them make the translation. For example - </li></ul><ul><li>Information (English) </li></ul><ul><li>Información (Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a good source for finding English Spanish Cognates - </li></ul>What Words Should I Teach?
    23. 23. Three Qualities of an Effective Vocabulary Instructional Program <ul><ul><li>Strategies for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Thinking About Vocabulary Instruction: Three Tiers <ul><li>Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Can You Find a Tier II Word?
    26. 26. Can You Find a Tier III Word?
    27. 27. Vocabulary Instruction: Three Tiers <ul><li>Estimates indicate that about 8,000 basic words need no instruction – Tier 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates indicate that about 7,000 words for Tier 2 or about 700 words per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) recommend teaching about 400 words per year K-12. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Teaching Tier II Words <ul><li>Characterize a tier 2 word such as tend – to take care of something. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain meaning of tend in everyday life – If you tend something, say a garden, you take care of it by watering, fertilizing, pulling weeds, and keeping the soil loose around the new plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Altering Task Requirements for Teaching Tier II Words <ul><li>Ask a Question: What do you think the word tend means? </li></ul><ul><li>Have You Ever? Describe a time when you tended something or someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Word Associations: After teaching several tier 2 words have students associate these with questions: Which word goes with baby? ( tend). </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Completions: The Little Red Hen asked if the others would help her take care of her garden. Another word that means to take care of a garden we know is _____. </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Altering Task Requirements for Teaching Tier II Words <ul><li>Like a Test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t care about how you look and what you do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To take care of someone or something. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To act hard and serious. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Altering Task Requirements for Teaching Tier II Words <ul><li>Like a Test Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The word tend means ask someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about something. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True or False </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching definitions with words in a list. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired words with a question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which would you do if you had a puppy that needed to be taken care of ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> mollycoddle tend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Word Webbing (Unfocused) * Based on Johnson, D. D. (2001). Vocabulary in the elementary and middle school. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. asteroid
    33. 33. Word Webbing (Focused) * Based on Johnson, D. D. (2001). Vocabulary in the elementary and middle school. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. asteroid Examples Attributes Context Use
    34. 34. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by looking up the word in a dictionary or glossary and get a definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Next construct a “student friendly definition” using your own words. If you have trouble doing this, consider purchasing this dictionary: </li></ul>I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What?
    35. 35. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Next find the page where the word is found the story or text to read the context. </li></ul><ul><li>List the context clues found in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the students to use the word in an oral sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Write the word in sentence. </li></ul>I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What?
    36. 36. Active Context Word Learning <ul><li>Albasa </li></ul><ul><li>Albasa will usually be found at grocery stores and restaurants. </li></ul><ul><li>People like to eat albasa on their hamburgers, although albasa are tasty with a variety of dishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since albasa are a vegetable, they are also nutritious. </li></ul><ul><li>One disadvantage of albasa is the strong odor which has been known to produce crying symptoms among those who slice them. </li></ul><ul><li>Gipe, J.P. (1980). Use of a relevant context helps kids learn new word meanings. The Reading Teacher, 33,(5), 398-402. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Context Vocabulary Teaching <ul><li>Albasa </li></ul><ul><li>Albasa will usually be found at grocery stores and restaurants . </li></ul><ul><li>People like to eat albasa on their hamburgers , although albasa are tasty with a variety of dishes . </li></ul><ul><li>Since albasa are a vegetable , they are also nutritious. </li></ul><ul><li>One disadvantage of albasa is the strong odor </li></ul><ul><li>which has been known to produce crying symptoms among those who slice them. </li></ul><ul><li>Gipe, J.P. (1980). Use of a relevant context helps kids learn new word meanings. The Reading Teacher, 33,(5), 398-402. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Use pictures or video clips. </li></ul><ul><li>List examples of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a thesaurus to find synonyms, antonyms, and Tier I words. </li></ul>I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What?
    39. 39. Teaching Vocabulary <ul><li>Characteristics/Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Use pictures or video clips. </li></ul><ul><li>List characteristics or attributes of the word. </li></ul>I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What?
    40. 40. Frayer & Klausmeir Model <ul><li>Hochspannungstrohmabnehmer </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lightning rod, Ben Franklins’ kite and key </li></ul><ul><li>Non-example: wooden post, plastic pole </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant attributes: metal, touches an exposed electrical wire, found on top of a streetcar or light rail train </li></ul><ul><li>Irrelevant attributes: slender, lets off sparks </li></ul><ul><li>Superordinate term: electrical conductor </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate term: electrical plug </li></ul><ul><li>Frayer, F. D. & Klausmeir, H.J. (1969). A shema for testing the level of concept mastery. University of Wisconsin. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching <ul><li>Category/Part of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Determine part of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine category of word meaning. </li></ul>I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What?
    42. 42. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching I’ve Selected My 10 Words, Now What? Definitions Dictionary Look Up Student Friendly Vocabulary Word Use Word in Context Find and Read it in the Book/Story Write the Word in a Sentence Examples Context Clue from Reading Category/Class/Part of Speech Characteristics Conceptual Understanding
    43. 43. If you want more information please contact: <ul><li>D. Ray Reutzel, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Emma Eccles Jones Professor </li></ul><ul><li>Utah State University </li></ul><ul><li>www.cehs.usu.edu/ecc </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations Button Left Hand Side </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>IRA Board of Directors </li></ul><ul><li>International Reading Association </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>