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English teaching methods
Grammar translation method

Also known as classical method.originated in
germany.

Wherever a second languge was learned this
method was used .Came with the british

The words,phrases and sentences are to be
taught with the help of mother tongue.

A word to word translation of english words
phrases are to be taught with the help of mother
tongue.

The content of teaching is word not the sentence
(in a way students are forced to cram up the
rules whether they understand it or not)

Process of teaching grammar translation
method :

Stress is given to reading because without
reading word to word translation is not possible.

The teacher reads the content word by word
and translates it into pupil's mother tongue.

The teacher role is very important here.
Learners are passive listeners

Judicious use of mother tongue is advisable in
the teaching.

The notion is that words,phrases and
sentences if we want to make the students
understand well then it should be explained in
mother tongue.

Stress is on the usage of grammar books and
rules.

Uses deductive method of grammar.

Evaluation is also based on grammar

Teacher should be fluent in mother tongue and
English and should have the same amount of
mastery in both the languages
Merits

Makes extensive use of students knowledge in
mother tongue.students are comfortable and
ready to learn a foreign language.

Judicial use helps students in understanding
vocabulary.saves time and is economical

Words and phrases are translated into the
mother tongue ensure better and quicker
understanding and clearness of the term or
vocabulary.

Offers the shortest way to learn a foreign
language.

Learners learn the words easily this method

Follows the maxim from known to unknown
(learners have a sufficient knowledge of mother
tongue when they start learning english)

Helps in testing comprehension. (for primary
level students the teacher can ask the students
to answer in mother tongue....very useful at
primary level)

Is useful in explaining differences between the
structure of the sentences in English and
vernaculars.

Develops the art of translation in students.

Can be easily used in overcrowded classes.
Demerits
1. It is an unnatural method. The natural order of learning a language is
listening, speaking, reading and writing. That is the way how the child learns
his mother tongue in natural surroundings. But in the Grammar Translation
Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of
reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems.
2. Speech is neglected. The Grammar Translation Method lays emphasis on
reading and writing. It neglects speech. Thus, the students who are taught
English through this method fail to express themselves adequately in spoken
English.
3. Exact translation is not possible. Translation is, indeed, a difficult task and
exact translation from one language to another is not always possible. A
language is the result of various customs, traditions, and modes of behaviour
of a speech community and these traditions differ from community to
community. There are several lexical items in one language, which have no
synonyms/equivalents in another language. For instance, the meaning of the
English word ‘table’ does not fit in such expression as the ‘table of contents’,
‘table of figures’, ‘multiplication table’, ‘time table’ and ‘table the resolution’,
etc.
4. It does not give pattern practice. A person can learn a language
only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form
his habit. But the Grammar Translation Method does not provide
any such practice to the learner of a language.
It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use.
Language learning means acquiring certain skills, which can be
learnt through practice and not by just memorizing rules.
The persons who have learnt a foreign or second language
through this method find it difficult to give up the habit of first
thinking in their mother tongue and than translating their ideas
into the second language.
They, therefore, fail to get proficiency in the second language
approximating that in the first language. The method, therefore,
suffers from certain weaknesses for which there is no remedy
Direct method

Came into use as a reaction of Grammar
translation method. Also known as the Natural
method

The basic principle is – English is learnt in the
same way as the mother tongue is learnt.

Focuses on learning English in Natural
environment

Works on the association between word and
experience. Teaching by performing actions

When we make an association between word
and experience of the learner without the help
of mother tongue.

Establishing a direct bond between second or
foreign language.

Objectives:

Aims to brings thought,experience ,expression
and language closer.

It does not need the help of mother tongue but
establishes a contact between the idea of and
the expression in the other language

No translation

The learners follows what he listens or read in
English

Learners are directly involved in the language

Grammar is taught through inductive method.
Principles
Mother tongue is totally banned
Direct bond between English language and
meaning
Lots of oral work is done in the beginning:
dialogues, commands , question and answers
are used.
Lots of drill and practice
Use of functional grammar : inductive method
Vocabulary is expanded
Merits
• Learner learns the foreign language as he
learns the mother tongue.
• Learner gets a lot of opportunity to listen to
spoken English
• It is a natural way of learning the language
• Sufficient scope for the use of audio visual aids.
• Focus in on thinking in English , fluency and
accurate pronunciation
• Considered as the quickest way of learning
English
• Good scope of activities
Demerits
• P.Gurrey and Dr. West think that it is not a
method but just a principle which can be used
along other methods
• Depends on oral work so requires competent
teachers
• Speech is given more importance over reading
and writing
• Expensive method. Lot of AV aids are required
• Lays stress on the words but not on the
positioning of the words in the sentences. Also
many words have the same meaning.
Deductive method

Rule first examples later

Teacher gives the rules/definitions first and
then the examples.are provided to establish
rule.
Steps used in deductive method:

Introduction of the rule: the teacher introduces
the rule first and then he gives examples for
practice and observations.

Presentation of the examples: ample number of
examples are given to establish the rule.

Practice : teacher gives some examples for
• The advantages of a deductive approach are:
• It gets straight to the point, and can therefore be time-saving.
Many rules – especially rules of form – can be more simply and
quickly explained than elicited from examples. This will allow
more time for practice and application.
• It respects the intelligence and maturity of many – especially
adult -students, and acknowledges the role of cognitive
processes in language acquisition.
• It confirms many students’ expectations about classroom
learning, particularly for those learners who have an analytical
learning style.
• It allows the teacher to deal with language points as they come
up, rather than having to anticipate them and prepare for them in
advance.
Disadvantages
•  Starting the lesson with a grammar presentation may be off-
putting for some students, especially younger ones. They may
not have sufficient metalanguage (i.e. language used to talk
about language such as grammar terminology). Or they may not
be able to understand the concepts involved.
• Grammar explanation encourages a teacher-fronted,
transmission-style classroom; teacher explanation is often at the
expense of student involvement and interaction.
• Explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of
presentation, such as demonstration.
• Such an approach encourages the belief that learning a
language is simply a case of knowing the rules.
Inductive method
Insists on lots of examples first and formulations
of rules takes place afterwards.
Steps :
Presentation of examples : teacher should
present several eaxamples in their best order so
that it leads to generalizations.
Analysis of examples: comparing and analyzing
the sentences for eg: Active to passive
I played the piano
The piano was played by me.
Like this the teacher can present various set of
examples
Sentences are compared, contrasted and
analyzed on the basis of similarities and
differences for eg: subject predicate and object
Generalization : after analyzing the sentences the
students come to certain conclusions which is
called generalization
Like : the object becomes the subject
The subject become the object proceeded by the
preposition by.
The form of the verb changes the past indefinite
changes into participle form (sung rang etc.)
Formation of rules: students form the rules with
the help of the teacher
Verification of the rules: application of rule with
another set of examples
Note: In this stage teacher can indicate certain
exceptions in the rules.
Practice : lots of practice is done with several
other examples.

Teacher helps the student to form the rules.

Elicit some more examples

Enhances the thinking process of the students
and participative

Teaching learning process is made interesting
through contextualized discussion.

Incidental learning

Functional grammar

Plenty of practice in sentence patterns

Requires competent teacher. Usage should be
correct.

This method produces very good result with the
beginners
 What are the advantages of encouraging learners to work rules out for 
themselves?
•  Rules learners discover for themselves are more likely to fit their existing
mental structures than rules they have been presented with. This in turn will
make the rules more meaningful, memorable and serviceable.
• The mental effort involved ensures a greater degree
of cognitive depth which again ensures greater memorability.
• Students are more actively involved in the learning process, rather than being
simply passive recipients: they are therefore likely to be more attentive and
more motivated.
• It is an approach which favours pattern-recognition and problem-solving
abilities which suggests that it is particularly suitable for learners who like this
kind of challenge.
• If the problem-solving is done collaboratively, and in the target language
learners get the opportunity for extra language practice.
• Working things out for themselves prepares students for greater self- reliance
and is therefore conducive to learner autonomy.
The disadvantages of an inductive approach include:
• The time and energy spent in working out rules may mislead students into
believing that rules are the objective of language learning, rather than a
means.
• The time taken to work out a rule may be at the expense of time spent in
putting the rule to some sort of productive practice.
• Students may hypothesise the wrong rule or their version of the rule may be
either too broad or too narrow in its application: this is especially a danger
where there is no overt testing of their hypothesis, either through practice
examples, or by eliciting and explaining statement of the rule.
• It can place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson. They need to
select and organise the data carefully so as to guide learners to an accurate
formulation of the rule, while also ensuring the data is intelligible.
• However carefully organised the data is, many language areas such as
aspect and modality resist easy rule formulation.
• An inductive approach frustrates students who, by dint of their personal
learning style or their past learning experience (or both), would prefer simply
to be told the rule.

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Methods of teaching english

  • 2. Grammar translation method  Also known as classical method.originated in germany.  Wherever a second languge was learned this method was used .Came with the british  The words,phrases and sentences are to be taught with the help of mother tongue.  A word to word translation of english words phrases are to be taught with the help of mother tongue.  The content of teaching is word not the sentence (in a way students are forced to cram up the rules whether they understand it or not)
  • 3.  Process of teaching grammar translation method :  Stress is given to reading because without reading word to word translation is not possible.  The teacher reads the content word by word and translates it into pupil's mother tongue.  The teacher role is very important here. Learners are passive listeners  Judicious use of mother tongue is advisable in the teaching.  The notion is that words,phrases and sentences if we want to make the students understand well then it should be explained in mother tongue.
  • 4.  Stress is on the usage of grammar books and rules.  Uses deductive method of grammar.  Evaluation is also based on grammar  Teacher should be fluent in mother tongue and English and should have the same amount of mastery in both the languages
  • 5. Merits  Makes extensive use of students knowledge in mother tongue.students are comfortable and ready to learn a foreign language.  Judicial use helps students in understanding vocabulary.saves time and is economical  Words and phrases are translated into the mother tongue ensure better and quicker understanding and clearness of the term or vocabulary.  Offers the shortest way to learn a foreign language.
  • 6.  Learners learn the words easily this method  Follows the maxim from known to unknown (learners have a sufficient knowledge of mother tongue when they start learning english)  Helps in testing comprehension. (for primary level students the teacher can ask the students to answer in mother tongue....very useful at primary level)  Is useful in explaining differences between the structure of the sentences in English and vernaculars.  Develops the art of translation in students.  Can be easily used in overcrowded classes.
  • 7. Demerits 1. It is an unnatural method. The natural order of learning a language is listening, speaking, reading and writing. That is the way how the child learns his mother tongue in natural surroundings. But in the Grammar Translation Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems. 2. Speech is neglected. The Grammar Translation Method lays emphasis on reading and writing. It neglects speech. Thus, the students who are taught English through this method fail to express themselves adequately in spoken English. 3. Exact translation is not possible. Translation is, indeed, a difficult task and exact translation from one language to another is not always possible. A language is the result of various customs, traditions, and modes of behaviour of a speech community and these traditions differ from community to community. There are several lexical items in one language, which have no synonyms/equivalents in another language. For instance, the meaning of the English word ‘table’ does not fit in such expression as the ‘table of contents’, ‘table of figures’, ‘multiplication table’, ‘time table’ and ‘table the resolution’, etc.
  • 8. 4. It does not give pattern practice. A person can learn a language only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form his habit. But the Grammar Translation Method does not provide any such practice to the learner of a language. It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use. Language learning means acquiring certain skills, which can be learnt through practice and not by just memorizing rules. The persons who have learnt a foreign or second language through this method find it difficult to give up the habit of first thinking in their mother tongue and than translating their ideas into the second language. They, therefore, fail to get proficiency in the second language approximating that in the first language. The method, therefore, suffers from certain weaknesses for which there is no remedy
  • 9. Direct method  Came into use as a reaction of Grammar translation method. Also known as the Natural method  The basic principle is – English is learnt in the same way as the mother tongue is learnt.  Focuses on learning English in Natural environment  Works on the association between word and experience. Teaching by performing actions  When we make an association between word and experience of the learner without the help of mother tongue.
  • 10.  Establishing a direct bond between second or foreign language.  Objectives:  Aims to brings thought,experience ,expression and language closer.  It does not need the help of mother tongue but establishes a contact between the idea of and the expression in the other language  No translation  The learners follows what he listens or read in English  Learners are directly involved in the language  Grammar is taught through inductive method.
  • 11. Principles Mother tongue is totally banned Direct bond between English language and meaning Lots of oral work is done in the beginning: dialogues, commands , question and answers are used. Lots of drill and practice Use of functional grammar : inductive method Vocabulary is expanded
  • 12. Merits • Learner learns the foreign language as he learns the mother tongue. • Learner gets a lot of opportunity to listen to spoken English • It is a natural way of learning the language • Sufficient scope for the use of audio visual aids. • Focus in on thinking in English , fluency and accurate pronunciation • Considered as the quickest way of learning English • Good scope of activities
  • 13. Demerits • P.Gurrey and Dr. West think that it is not a method but just a principle which can be used along other methods • Depends on oral work so requires competent teachers • Speech is given more importance over reading and writing • Expensive method. Lot of AV aids are required • Lays stress on the words but not on the positioning of the words in the sentences. Also many words have the same meaning.
  • 14.
  • 15. Deductive method  Rule first examples later  Teacher gives the rules/definitions first and then the examples.are provided to establish rule. Steps used in deductive method:  Introduction of the rule: the teacher introduces the rule first and then he gives examples for practice and observations.  Presentation of the examples: ample number of examples are given to establish the rule.  Practice : teacher gives some examples for
  • 16.
  • 17. • The advantages of a deductive approach are: • It gets straight to the point, and can therefore be time-saving. Many rules – especially rules of form – can be more simply and quickly explained than elicited from examples. This will allow more time for practice and application. • It respects the intelligence and maturity of many – especially adult -students, and acknowledges the role of cognitive processes in language acquisition. • It confirms many students’ expectations about classroom learning, particularly for those learners who have an analytical learning style. • It allows the teacher to deal with language points as they come up, rather than having to anticipate them and prepare for them in advance.
  • 18. Disadvantages •  Starting the lesson with a grammar presentation may be off- putting for some students, especially younger ones. They may not have sufficient metalanguage (i.e. language used to talk about language such as grammar terminology). Or they may not be able to understand the concepts involved. • Grammar explanation encourages a teacher-fronted, transmission-style classroom; teacher explanation is often at the expense of student involvement and interaction. • Explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of presentation, such as demonstration. • Such an approach encourages the belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules.
  • 19. Inductive method Insists on lots of examples first and formulations of rules takes place afterwards. Steps : Presentation of examples : teacher should present several eaxamples in their best order so that it leads to generalizations. Analysis of examples: comparing and analyzing the sentences for eg: Active to passive I played the piano The piano was played by me.
  • 20. Like this the teacher can present various set of examples Sentences are compared, contrasted and analyzed on the basis of similarities and differences for eg: subject predicate and object Generalization : after analyzing the sentences the students come to certain conclusions which is called generalization Like : the object becomes the subject The subject become the object proceeded by the preposition by. The form of the verb changes the past indefinite changes into participle form (sung rang etc.)
  • 21. Formation of rules: students form the rules with the help of the teacher Verification of the rules: application of rule with another set of examples Note: In this stage teacher can indicate certain exceptions in the rules. Practice : lots of practice is done with several other examples.
  • 22.  Teacher helps the student to form the rules.  Elicit some more examples  Enhances the thinking process of the students and participative  Teaching learning process is made interesting through contextualized discussion.  Incidental learning  Functional grammar  Plenty of practice in sentence patterns  Requires competent teacher. Usage should be correct.  This method produces very good result with the beginners
  • 23.
  • 24.  What are the advantages of encouraging learners to work rules out for  themselves? •  Rules learners discover for themselves are more likely to fit their existing mental structures than rules they have been presented with. This in turn will make the rules more meaningful, memorable and serviceable. • The mental effort involved ensures a greater degree of cognitive depth which again ensures greater memorability. • Students are more actively involved in the learning process, rather than being simply passive recipients: they are therefore likely to be more attentive and more motivated. • It is an approach which favours pattern-recognition and problem-solving abilities which suggests that it is particularly suitable for learners who like this kind of challenge. • If the problem-solving is done collaboratively, and in the target language learners get the opportunity for extra language practice. • Working things out for themselves prepares students for greater self- reliance and is therefore conducive to learner autonomy.
  • 25. The disadvantages of an inductive approach include: • The time and energy spent in working out rules may mislead students into believing that rules are the objective of language learning, rather than a means. • The time taken to work out a rule may be at the expense of time spent in putting the rule to some sort of productive practice. • Students may hypothesise the wrong rule or their version of the rule may be either too broad or too narrow in its application: this is especially a danger where there is no overt testing of their hypothesis, either through practice examples, or by eliciting and explaining statement of the rule. • It can place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson. They need to select and organise the data carefully so as to guide learners to an accurate formulation of the rule, while also ensuring the data is intelligible. • However carefully organised the data is, many language areas such as aspect and modality resist easy rule formulation. • An inductive approach frustrates students who, by dint of their personal learning style or their past learning experience (or both), would prefer simply to be told the rule.