Teaching Grammar


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The role of grammar in ELT
Materials for grammar presentation
Methods for grammar practice

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Teaching Grammar

  1. 2. The role of grammar in ELT
  2. 3. Grammar presentation methods <ul><li>Deductive method </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive method </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning – Analyzing – Comparing </li></ul><ul><li>criticized because: </li></ul><ul><li>1) it teaches grammar in an isolated way; </li></ul><ul><li>2) little attention is paid to meaning; </li></ul><ul><li>3) the practice is often mechanical. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this method is not without merits. </li></ul><ul><li>it could be very successful with selected and motivated students. </li></ul><ul><li>it could save time when students are confronted with a grammar rule which is complex but which has to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>it may help to increase students’ confidence in those examinations which are written with accuracy as the main criterion of success. </li></ul><ul><li>students discover the grammar rules themselves while engaged in language use. </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, the distinction between the deductive method and inductive method is not always apparent. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Grammar practice <ul><li>The following factors contribute to successful practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Success-orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Grammar practice is usually divided into <ul><li>MECHANICAL PRACTICE involves activities that are aimed at form accuracy. By doing mechanical practice, the students pay repeated attention to a key element in a structure. Substitution and transformation drills are most frequently used in mechanical practice. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>In MEANINGFUL PRACTICE the focus is on the production , comprehension or exchange of meaning through the students “keep an eye on” the way newly learned structures are used in the process. Meaningful practice usually comes after mechanical practice. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Using prompts for practice (meaningful practice) <ul><li>1) Using picture prompts.   </li></ul><ul><li>2) Using mime or gestures as prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Using information sheet as prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Using key phrases or key words as prompts.   </li></ul><ul><li>5) Using chained phrases for story telling.   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Names Favourite subjects Favourite food Hobbies Lili Math Pork Collecting stamps Susan English Ice-cream Ping-pong David Biology Chinese football
  6. 7. Suggestions About Teaching Grammar <ul><li>1) Teach only those rules which are simple and which do not have too much exceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>  2) Do not spend too much time on grammar points which do not appear to be very useful or important. Just make the students aware of the special features. </li></ul><ul><li>  3) Wherever possible, teach grammar in context. </li></ul><ul><li>  4) When presenting grammar, try to use charts, tables, diagrams, maps, drawings and realia to aid understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>  5) Avoid difficult grammatical terminology as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>  6) Allow enough opportunities for practice. </li></ul><ul><li>  7) Do not be frustrated by the students’ mistakes and errors, which are inevitable in language learning. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>“ Research has shown that teachers who focus students’ attention on form during communicative interactions are more effective than those who never focus on form.” Spada and Lightbown, 1993. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Grammatical structures not only have FORM , they are also used to express MEANING in context-approriate USE . </li></ul>
  9. 10. FORM/ STRUCTURE Morphosyntactic and lexical patterns Phonemic/ graphemic patterns MEANING/ SEMANTICS Lexical meaning Grammatical meaning USE/ PRAGMATICS Social context Linguistic discourse context Presuppositions about context
  10. 11. FORM How is it formed ? MEANING What does it mean? USE When/ why is it used?
  11. 12. FORM Must + Main Verb <ul><li>MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul>USE it is your duty to do sth., you’re obliged to do sth.
  12. 13. TEFL Online Tutorial: Teaching Grammar in Context
  13. 14. Form <ul><li>Meaningful practice </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Cuisenaire rods </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving activities </li></ul>
  14. 15. 4 TYPES OF EXERCISES FOR THE ASSIMILATION OF GRAMMAR <ul><li>1.1 Recognition exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the sentences and raise your hands whenever you hear the verbs in the Past Simple. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the sentences and choose the correct form of the verb: </li></ul><ul><li>I (go, went) to school yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition exercises are indispensable as pupils retain the grammar material through auditory and visual perception. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>1.2 Drill exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive drill. Pupils pronounce the sentence pattern after the teacher, in imitation of the teacher, both individually and in unison Or pupils listen to the dialogue and say it after the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution. Pupils substitute the words or phrases in a sentence pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>The children are dancing in the park. </li></ul><ul><li>The children are dancing in the garden. </li></ul><ul><li>The children are dancing in the street. (advantage — pupils consolidate the grammar item without thinking about it. They think of the words, phrases, but not of the form itself) </li></ul><ul><li>Completion </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Look at the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is ... ... . </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil: Mike is getting up. </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mike is getting up. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Mike is ... ... . </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil: Mike is dressing. </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mike is dressing. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>1.3 Creative exercises (speech exercises) </li></ul><ul><li>Making statements either on the picture the teacher shows, or on objects. For ex., the teacher hangs up a picture and asks his pupils to say or write three or five statements in the Present Continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions with a given grammar item. For ex., pupils are invited to ask and answer questions in the Past Indefinite. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking about the situation offered by the teacher. For ex., one pupil gives commands to perform this or that action, the other comments on the action (actions) his classmate performs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil 1: Go to the door, Sasha. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil 2: Sasha is going to the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil 3: Open the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil 4: Sasha is opening the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking on a suggested topic. For ex., a pupil tells the class what he did yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>Making dialogues using the grammar item covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Telling the story (read, heard). </li></ul><ul><li>Translating into English. </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in free conversation in which pupils are to use the grammar item they have learned. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>1.4 Grammar tests </li></ul><ul><li>A check on the assimilation of grammar material is carried out through: </li></ul><ul><li>auding (if a pupil understands what he auds, he knows grammar); </li></ul><ul><li>speaking (if a pupil uses the grammar item correctly, he has assimilated it); </li></ul><ul><li>reading (if a learner understands what he reads, he knows grammar); </li></ul><ul><li>tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests allow the teacher to evaluate pupils' achievement in grammar, that is, how each of them has mastered forms, meaning, and usage . </li></ul><ul><li>Tests in grammar may involve: filling in the blanks; opening the brackets; transformation (e. g., make it negative, change into plural, etc.); extension (e. g., / like to read books — I like to read English books in our library); completion (e. g., When I came home ...); making statements on the pictures given; translation. </li></ul>
  18. 19. FORM <ul><li>Grammar Games </li></ul>
  19. 20. Looking for a Flatmate elementary <ul><li>You are looking for a flatmate. You are going to interview two friends to decide who will be your flatmate. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the first column with information about yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs, ask and answer question to complete the second columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch pairs, repeat the procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who you prefer as a flatmate and why. </li></ul>
  20. 21. What on Earth …? Pre-intermediate to intermediate <ul><li>Place your counters on START. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st player cast the dice and moves the counter accordingly. If it land on a square with an object in it, the person to his/her left initiates interaction with him or her: </li></ul><ul><li>A: What on Erath are you going to do with that …? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I am going to …. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a square with an instruction , follow it. </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns, proceeding in this way. The first player to get to the finish (but not beyond) wins the game. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Hat Apple Racket Cup Money Shopping bag Books Parcel Blackboard Mask Pram Potatoes Magnifying Glass Suitcase Broom Bucket
  22. 23. Everyday Hazards intermediate <ul><li>Shuffle the cards and deal them out evenly. </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns laying down your cards, one at a time, in the center of the table to compose 4 story lines. </li></ul><ul><li>You may begin a story line only if you have a character card to lay down . </li></ul><ul><li>You may add cards to any existing stories on the table provided that the stories continue to have sense. </li></ul><ul><li>You may change the sequence of the cards. </li></ul><ul><li>The player who wants to lay down a “So … The end.” card will have to invent its content. This may be done at any time during the game, and other players may continue inserting other cards in the story, but may not change its ending. </li></ul><ul><li>If a player cannot lay down his or her card, he/she says pass . </li></ul><ul><li>The winner is the first to get rid of all his/her cards . </li></ul>
  23. 24. was She suddenly in the middle of the hall, knocking down the tree and decorations, because she was and did not see where she was going. She quickly picked up the tree, and pretended to be the mall’s decorator, because she felt everyone was looking at her.
  24. 25. Snooping Around intermediate to advanced <ul><li>The aim is to point out the use of the present perfect simple versus the simple past. </li></ul><ul><li>A: have you ever been to a fortune teller? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes, I have. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Why did you go there? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Well, I wanted to know when I would find a girlfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>Shuffle the cards, place your counters in the corners. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns casting the dice and moving your counters. If you land on a balloon, pick a card and ask anyone in the group “?”, plus one other related question to satisfy the curiosity. </li></ul><ul><li>The winner is the first to get back to the starting point. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Games for Grammar Practice Zaorob/Chin Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate, Upper-intermediate, Advanced Games for Grammar Practice is a teacher’s resource book containing a selection of more than forty games and activities for grammar practice. The activities are designed to promote intensive and interactive practice with learners of all ages from elementary to advanced level. Photocopiable pages and step-by-step instructions provide instant supplementary activities for busy teachers. The emphasis on peer interaction and cooperation helps students find grammar practice meaningful and rewarding. The grammar areas covered in the book are all commonly found in courses, making the activities easy to slot into a lesson.
  26. 27. Meaning <ul><li>Associate form + meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Realia / pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions (TPR). </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration game. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Adjectives - Adverbs
  28. 29. Order of Adjectives <ul><li>An old black telephone </li></ul><ul><li>A lovely rectangular brass picture frame </li></ul><ul><li>Two pretty white porcelain statues </li></ul><ul><li>Some valuable old English books </li></ul><ul><li>An interesting antique clock </li></ul><ul><li>A traditional wooden rocking chair </li></ul><ul><li>A small blue glass dish </li></ul><ul><li>An old English desk </li></ul><ul><li>A lovely oval chine plate </li></ul>
  29. 30. Use <ul><li>Selecting between different options. </li></ul><ul><li>(Why use one form and not another?) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Summing up