sara cortesi politecnico di milano  .  INDACO dpt.  .   DIS  .  school of design  .   Italy Learning Network on Sustainabi...
CONTENTS .  Environmental requirements for product design .  (Damaging) Environmental effects .  Life cycle .  Functional ...
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN - RELATED TO:  (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED TO (A PRODUCT):...
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS <ul><li>EACH  ENVIRONMENTAL  EFFECT   IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S  EXCHANGE  ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE  N...
INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>RESOURCES EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE </li...
OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>global warming (greenhouse effect) </li></ul><ul><li>ozone layer depletion </li>...
CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUAT...
LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>THE PRODUCT IS SEEN IN RELATION TO THE  MATERIAL AND ENERGY FLOWS AND EMISSIONS  OF THE ACTIVIT...
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. ener...
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. ener...
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. ener...
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. ener...
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION biosphere geosphere resource’s a...
<ul><li>FUNCTIONAL (OR “SATISFACTION”) UNIT </li></ul>IS NOT THE  PRODUCT  TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED)  BUT,   THE WHOLE OF...
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AND LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
LIFE CYCLE  ASSESSMENT  (LCA)
<ul><li>LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life...
Ex. LCA of a sofa  (useful lifespan: 8 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
Ex. LCA   of a fridge  (useful lifespan: 10 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
<ul><li>PRELIMINARY LCA ON EXISTING PRODUCT/S </li></ul><ul><li>to support the definition of design priorities </li></ul><...
LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
<ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>APPROACH </li></ul>an extended design horizon from product design to the desig...
<ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>(ENVIRONMENTAL) OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMISE INPUT AND OUTPUT </li></u...
<ul><li>LCD: DESIGN CRITERIA </li></ul>  RESOURCES MINIMISATION   LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFESPAN OPTIMISA...
<ul><li>FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING) </li></ul><ul><li>identify the (environmental) design  PRIORITIES: </li></ul><ul><...
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2.1 product life cycle design cortesi 10-11

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2.1 product life cycle design cortesi 10-11

  1. 1. sara cortesi politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . school of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) learning resource 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design
  2. 2. CONTENTS . Environmental requirements for product design . (Damaging) Environmental effects . Life cycle . Functional unit . Life Cycle Assessment . Life Cycle Design
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN - RELATED TO: (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED TO (A PRODUCT): > LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS <ul><li>EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE NATURE /ENVIRONMENT AND A ( ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM </li></ul>input : substance extraction from the environment output : substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity)
  7. 7. INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>RESOURCES EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>(damaging outputs of extractive processes) </li></ul>
  8. 8. OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>global warming (greenhouse effect) </li></ul><ul><li>ozone layer depletion </li></ul><ul><li>eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>acidification </li></ul><ul><li>smog </li></ul><ul><li>toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>wastes </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  9. 9. CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN APPROACH: - LIFE CYCLE DESIGN DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
  10. 10. LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
  11. 11. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>THE PRODUCT IS SEEN IN RELATION TO THE MATERIAL AND ENERGY FLOWS AND EMISSIONS OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT GO WITH IT DURING ITS WHOLE LIFESPAN </li></ul><ul><li>input / output > environmental consequences (social, economic, …) </li></ul>
  12. 12. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  13. 13. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  14. 14. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  15. 15. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE
  16. 16. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring
  17. 17. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle
  18. 18. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION biosphere geosphere resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle
  19. 19. <ul><li>FUNCTIONAL (OR “SATISFACTION”) UNIT </li></ul>IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
  20. 20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AND LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
  21. 21. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)
  22. 22. <ul><li>LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit(s) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14040 STANDARD </li></ul>PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
  23. 23. Ex. LCA of a sofa (useful lifespan: 8 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
  24. 24. Ex. LCA of a fridge (useful lifespan: 10 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
  25. 25. <ul><li>PRELIMINARY LCA ON EXISTING PRODUCT/S </li></ul><ul><li>to support the definition of design priorities </li></ul><ul><li>LCA DURING THE PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>to compare one material/process and the other </li></ul><ul><li>to compare one concept and the other </li></ul><ul><li>LCA AT THE END OF THE DESIGN PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>LCA TO DEFINE SPECIFIC (FOR PRODUCT, SECTOR, ...) GUIDELINES </li></ul>LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR DESIGN
  26. 26. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
  27. 27. <ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>APPROACH </li></ul>an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
  28. 28. <ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>(ENVIRONMENTAL) OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMISE INPUT AND OUTPUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantitatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>qualitatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(in relation to life cycle and functional unit) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>LCD: DESIGN CRITERIA </li></ul> RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFESPAN OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFESPAN EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  30. 30. <ul><li>FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING) </li></ul><ul><li>identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>> CRITERIA relevance (relative) per product type </li></ul><ul><li>> most promising criteria related GUIDELINES </li></ul>INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA/GUIDELINES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING
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