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2.1 product life cycle design cortesi 10-11

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  • 1. sara cortesi politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . school of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) learning resource 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design
  • 2. CONTENTS . Environmental requirements for product design . (Damaging) Environmental effects . Life cycle . Functional unit . Life Cycle Assessment . Life Cycle Design
  • 3. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN
  • 4. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCT DESIGN - RELATED TO: (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED TO (A PRODUCT): > LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
  • 5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
  • 6. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
    • EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE NATURE /ENVIRONMENT AND A ( ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM
    input : substance extraction from the environment output : substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity)
  • 7. INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
    • RESOURCES EXHAUSTION
    • ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE
    • (damaging outputs of extractive processes)
  • 8. OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
    • global warming (greenhouse effect)
    • ozone layer depletion
    • eutrophication
    • acidification
    • smog
    • toxicity
    • wastes
    • ...
  • 9. CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN APPROACH: - LIFE CYCLE DESIGN DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
  • 10. LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
  • 11. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
    • THE PRODUCT IS SEEN IN RELATION TO THE MATERIAL AND ENERGY FLOWS AND EMISSIONS OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT GO WITH IT DURING ITS WHOLE LIFESPAN
    • input / output > environmental consequences (social, economic, …)
  • 12. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  • 13. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  • 14. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION
  • 15. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE
  • 16. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring
  • 17. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle
  • 18. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE package trasp. storage DISTRIBUTION manufac. assemb. finish PRODUCTION biosphere geosphere resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. PREPRODUCTION use service USE collection DISPOSING landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle
  • 19.
    • FUNCTIONAL (OR “SATISFACTION”) UNIT
    IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
  • 20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AND LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
  • 21. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)
  • 22.
    • LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
    • a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit(s)
    • ISO 14040 STANDARD
    PRODUCT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
  • 23. Ex. LCA of a sofa (useful lifespan: 8 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
  • 24. Ex. LCA of a fridge (useful lifespan: 10 years) PRE-PROD. + PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL
  • 25.
    • PRELIMINARY LCA ON EXISTING PRODUCT/S
    • to support the definition of design priorities
    • LCA DURING THE PROJECT
    • to compare one material/process and the other
    • to compare one concept and the other
    • LCA AT THE END OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
    • LCA TO DEFINE SPECIFIC (FOR PRODUCT, SECTOR, ...) GUIDELINES
    LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR DESIGN
  • 26. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD)
  • 27.
    • LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
    • APPROACH
    an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
  • 28.
    • LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
    • (ENVIRONMENTAL) OBJECTIVE
    • MINIMISE INPUT AND OUTPUT
      • quantitatively
      • qualitatively
      • (in relation to life cycle and functional unit)
  • 29.
    • LCD: DESIGN CRITERIA
    RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFESPAN OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFESPAN EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  • 30.
    • FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING)
    • identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES:
    • > CRITERIA relevance (relative) per product type
    • > most promising criteria related GUIDELINES
    INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA/GUIDELINES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING