By1880, U.S. is world’s leading producer of goods • Reasons why? Unlimited labor force Abundant coal supply Iron mining Discovery of oil Railroad development
Laissez-faire government policies • Government was hands off in the market place Unlimited immigration supplied labor • Nativist fears • No competition for labor – decrease pay High tariff protected American business • But farmers suffered Public financing of railroads • Regulating prices
Late 1800s saw and explosion of innovation Telephone – Graham Bell Light Bulb – Edison Electric Power – Edison (made it work long distances) Bessemer Process – made possible the mass production of steel Typewriter –Sholes Modern Media made possible because of electricity, telephone and the typewriter
Photography – Wolcott Phonograph – Edison Motion Picture – Lemiere Radio – Tesla (Marconi) Retail Stores – Middle class, brought catalogs and window shopping Canned Food – Appert
Rockefeller – Oil Carnegie – Steel Morgan – Financial Vanderbuilt – Railroads and Shipping Dupont – corporation Duke – Tobacco Westinghouse – air brake and switch tracks for Railroads
“ironhorse” – slow initially but with new technological advances became more efficient Leading consumer or goods • The main transit choice for all farmers and producers Trancontinental, 1869 • Promotory Point Standardization of time • 1884 created 24 time zones to standardize train schedules
Growth of urban areas Development of Company Towns • people worked and lived in the same town/factory (make money and spent money from same person) • Pullman Illinois makes Railroad cars • Cut salary and wouldn’t cut rates • Clean towns Railroad scandals • Credit Moblier – Pacific Railroad • Gov’t land grants
Railroad Abuses • Long haul vs. short haul • Rebates and Drawbacks Granger Laws • Enacted to set maximum rates for shipping and storage Supreme Court Rulings • Wabash and Munn Interstate Commerce Act, 1887 • Attempt to regulate business • Created the Interstate Commerce Commission
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