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The Industrial Revolution - AS Level History

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Learn about how the Industrial Revolution started, from the steam engine to the railway. Gain insights into the historical significance of the revolution - how it lead to the unification of Germany and Italy, the revolutions of 1848, the redrawing of the European map, and eventually how it all led to the start of the First World War.
For AS Level History students

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The Industrial Revolution - AS Level History

  1. 1. AS Level 1780 - 1917 HISTORY
  2. 2. 1789 - 1814 1. THE INDUSTRAIL REVOLUTION AND THE AGE OF ECONOMIC
  3. 3. Statistics • Before the revolution - 80% population engaged in farming - This 80% work to keep themselves and the other 20 alive • Nowadays: - Less than 1% in USA said they are farmers • Industrial Revolution was an increase in production brought by the use of machines and characterized by the use of new energy sources
  4. 4. SOME TIMELINES • http://www.softschools.com/timelines/industrial_revolution_timelin e/40/ - TECHNOLOGICAL TIMELINE • http://www.victorianweb.org/technology/ir/irchron.html
  5. 5. The Start of the Industrial Revolution • Mechanization • The effects on agriculture – a shift from agrarian society to Industrial Revolution • The Agricultural Revolution • The Scientific Revolution… growing out of Enlightenment • The Rise of Capitalism (Usually from commercial revolution) • Growth of Population • The Changes of the society
  6. 6. Before this: Cottage industry • Rural Industry was the economic pillar of Europe • Subsistence • Problems: no quality control, lower quantity, slower speed, Embezzlement, payment by pieces unfair
  7. 7. Cottage Industry • Business owners would provide village people with machines • They would do the work and send products in • Eg. Textile: One home does the weaving, another does the dying • This process meant there was no quality control • The process would be time-consuming • Had to provide them with machines and necessary training • This did allow woman to work at home while minding the children
  8. 8. Pre-industrialize Society is changing • The Changes made to agricultural has been a result of – Fertilizers, crop improvements • However all the money here would still go to the wealthy landlord • Before the French Revolution – this was common • To overcome the issue of inefficiency – landlords would put lands together – yielding greater result from smaller labor – RURAL UNEMPLOYMENT • Population growth led to more competition • The Enclosure Act – further put farmers out of work • Mechanization meant cottage industry was needing less workers • Greater demands for goods = rising prices
  9. 9. How did the Demands increase • The landlords were able to use fertilizer – yielding more crops • Enclosing lands – allowing diversity of crops – selling more quality food • The Growth of population – increase the demand very naturally • Mechanization eg. Spinning Jenny was making cottage industr faster • The working class didn’t have legal rights to public land
  10. 10. Population increase • From 1750 – 1800 : Europe was reaching stage 2 of the Demographic transition Model • High birth rate – a declining death rate • medical advances and the • large baby boom after the event of the black death • Agricultural Revolution occurred in response to the increase in population and the increase demand for food • Went hand in hand with the Industrial Revolution
  11. 11. Agricultural Revolution • Britain radically altered the way they produce food • The improvement in quality and quantity of crop allowed for healthier population • Lower death rate • More cotton for textile • Larger population… led to the movement of population • Some found out turnips or clovers – this put nutrients back into the soil – no time needed for fallowing
  12. 12. Agricultural Revolution • Improvement to ploughs • Irrigation technologies from Belgium • Seed disperser – allowed it to be deeper into the soil – protect them from bird • Clover/ other plants that add chemicals to the soil • Colonization of America – allowed them to discover new food eg. Potato, Corn, Peanuts • Cash crop: Tobacco etc.
  13. 13. The Enclosure Act • Landlords closing in farms • Did allow landlords to improve their products in both quality, quantity and diversity • Meant most farmlands became bigger industry • Put farmers out of work • Created a system where famers had o work for the nobles
  14. 14. Development/ improvement of Transport Network • Before this: Turnpike road and river • Road Problems: Roads are dangerous eg. Highwaymen – people cheating for money – roads are not well taken care of – it could carry a limited weight – had to fee horses • River Problems: It could only go certain places, and it was dangerous • CANALS – the age of canal mirrored the age of Railway • Towns and cities began growing near it
  15. 15. Rural Urban Migration • Increase in population in urban areas • Rural unemployment forced people to move • The large amount of people created an economy of scale • A concentration threshold population • A large workforce for the industries • In France at the time – the rural areas were still clear – in Britain and Portugal and Denmark – urbanization was starting up
  16. 16. Britain – Starts the Revolution • Great supply of coal and Iron • Natural Waterway – the canal further sped up the improvement • Was situated out of Europe – was not a part of the political problems • Early national revolution – more stable government • The colonies – large amount of natural resources and commercialization • Very Le-zafairre government • Early Agricultural Revolution – Rural-Urban Migration • Rise of middle class entrepreneur • Had no trade tariff – encourage capitalism – BANK OF ENGLAND • Protestant Work ethic – work mentality
  17. 17. The Steam Engine • James Hargreaves: Change the cotton industry • Thomas Newcomen: Made the first steam engine to clear water out of mines in 1712 – which increase the rate and the overall production of coal • James Watts: Scottish engineer who developed an improved version of the steam engine in 1769 – backed by a manufacturer Matthew Boulton • Richard Trevithick: Used high pressure steam engine to increase the power of the rail locomotive in 1804 at Wales – later died bankrupt • George Stephenson: A mechanical engineer who, in 1825, built the first modern railway line from Stockton to Darlington railway – mastered geographical issues – 1830 – Manchester to Liverpool – with a twin track – faster transport • Isaambard Kingdom Brunel/ Robert Stephenson: Built a railway network in Britain: Isaambard also built steam ships, gorges and bridges. He made the first tunnel under the river Thames
  18. 18. Impact of the Steam Engines • Used in the Factories – allowed for faster production and retrieval of Coal • Improvement of the steamships • Pre-cursor to railways • Improve first, the Textile industry • Further increase rural unemployment – more urbanization • Cheaper products, now that they are produced quickly
  19. 19. Railways and the Transport Revolution • Revolution in Land communication • Improve the transport of goods – industries – urbanization – faster, more efficient transportation • Increase mobility in the people • Iron used for rails – stronger and hence more efficient and safe • First passenger railway in 1806: Swansea • Richard Trevithick, George Stephenson… The improvement in 1804(Wales), Stockton-Darlington Railway – 1825, Major railway from Manchester to Liverpool - 1830 • Fulton’s steamboat – not dependent on wind • McAdam’s gravel road • Reduce the price of coal by 50% - allowed for more mobility and caused the industry to speed up in production
  20. 20. Railways and the Transport Revolution • Robert/ Isambaard Kingdom Brunel – created larger network • 1840 – Boom period for railways • Toward the end – National Depression • In 1860s – Boom and Bust • By the end of the century – England became very well connected • More urban working class now
  21. 21. Importance of Railway • Railway can transport people/ goods in cheap cost • Increases the mobility of the population – allows for rural urban migration • Cities begin growing around railways • Industrial centers are created • Allowed new ideas to spread more wuickly
  22. 22. Chemical Engineering • 1746 • John Roeback (James Watt’s partner) • Invented the use of lead chamber to produce Sulphuric Acid • Using sheets of lead to build bigger, cheaper chambers (as opposed to glass vessels) – allowing for more productions • Sulphuric acids used to dye clothes • Lead: lead production increase • The increase in textile production – demands increase – hence the transition out of cottage industry
  23. 23. Tariffs and Trade • Pre industrial Society: most farmer lived isolated – could only sell in small markets • Railway allowed for new markets – Higher Mobility • Food shortages reduced in frequency • More products (improvement on agricultural revolution) : More food available – lower prices • The Trade and Tariffs were the limitation on the growth of the economy – Britain had overcome this by not having it in place
  24. 24. Mercantile Capitalism • Borrow money to buy something • Take that something somewhere to sell • Take extra interest – ear money • Chinese – The Silk Road • Indian maritime trade • 17th Century – JOINT STOCK COMPANIES
  25. 25. Capitalism • Industrial Revolution wouldn’t happen without the growth of Capitalism • Before the revolution: Nobles inherit the money – there wasn’t many investments • Some bought lands • Although some were willing to consider investing in large companies
  26. 26. Capitalism – Joint Stock Companies • By combining stocks – people felt like their investments were safer • If the company failed – then one only lose the small amount they invested in • Larger banks were put into place – these were less likely to collapse • Eg. The Rothschild family
  27. 27. The Rise of New Money/ Industrial Capitalism • New Money came through with middle class who would invest money in Joint Stock companies • They would become the new rich as opposed to the higher class nobles • These group of people could be the inventors of steam engines, railways and many more • They would soon dominate the political world in the rise of Liberalism and La-zafairre • Industrial Capitalism: An economic system that relies on investment in machines and technology to increase production for marketable goods.
  28. 28. Resistance to the Revolution • Skilled Craftsmen who lost their jobs – Luddites • Landowners in Germany – their wealth depended on traditional farming system • Safety measures with the railway • The need to construct railroads meant going through the lands of some landlord • Canal owners campaigned against the rail • Lobbying of the politicians
  29. 29. France in the 18th Century • French Revolution • Political instability slowed down industrialization • Under the Directory – inflation was an issue – low amount of capitalism • However, they were indeed receiving the steam engine from Britain side • The Napoleonic War kept everyone busy – hence the development really only started in 1815
  30. 30. France’s products • Focused more on the finish products • Luxury goods: Woven silk, China, Leather • The first major strikes for France occurred in 1830 – the textile industry in Lyon – workers demanded minimum wages
  31. 31. Development of railways • Started out slow in France – private investors were not too keen • Government had to develop • In the 1830s – minor development of railways for transportation of goods – hindered by landowners who benefited from hors and carts • 1852 – Napoleon 3rd was the one who started the expansion (Credit Mobilier) – The late improvement ensured the rail network be much smaller than britain’s
  32. 32. Trade and Tariffs • Napoleon’s economic development was a great help • Having a full set of law – tax collection became more regular – Single currency • Abolish the internal trade barriers – allowing for more capitalism and investment • Napoleon banned trade union • Created a central Bank – this was very important to the economy – encouraged investment
  33. 33. Read further: • http://www.erih.net/industrial-history/france.html
  34. 34. Development of railways in Germany • Started out slow in Germany – private investors were not too keen • Opposition from Junkers – find their lands being terrorized by governmental development of railway • Railway started appearing in1830s – influenced by the fast- industrializing Belgium • George Stephenson was employed there • This went hand-in hand with the process of political unification • The King of Prussia was a railway enthusiast • By 1850 – Germany was well connected • Geographical location – they could trade with many nations
  35. 35. The Zollverein • Started in 1834 • Solved the problem of nations not being able to work together • Industries boomed in areas such as: Upper Silesia and Saarland • No more Trade/ tariffs • Single Currency • High reserves of capital • High Level of quality training for workers • Workers’ organization being set up
  36. 36. Read Further • http://www.erih.net/industrial-history/germany.html
  37. 37. Social Effects • Higher Mobility of population • Woman Rights • Rise of the middle classes • The Factory System • Standard of living • Population Increase • The Labor • Arts and Science • Education
  38. 38. Woman’s Right • More woman were getting education • Social perception still prevents them from getting better jobs • Most women simply move from cottage industry to factory workers • In the eyes of the society they would still cease to work when married • Not until the Suffragettes movement would women become truly important
  39. 39. Standard of Living • A very debated topic • More food available at lower prices • Population growth did strain food supply • Transport system lowered food prices
  40. 40. Health/ Welfare • Cities were polluted from the smoke of factories • River water contaminated • Sanitation was bad – feces released into the Thames • Spread of Cholera – spread in Britain/ France in 1831 (dirty water), Typhoid and Tuberculosis(lack of fresh air) – HIGH DENSITY – QUICK SPREAD • After 1850 – installing pipes/ sewage system allow for disposal of waste and drinking water to be kept separated.
  41. 41. Health/ Welfare • 1842: A report: “Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Class” – create laws to improve the situation • General Board of Health • Local Authority were not willing to pay taxes or impose taxes for that matter • Local government are representative of the rich • The Rich did not want to pay taxes or change their factory system • Laws these days were ineffective • While the rich ate lavishly (imported food) – the poor rarely ate meat – caused malnutrition especially in the younger
  42. 42. Labor/ Working Conditions • Social Structure changed – the middle class now ruled • Child labor – limited education opportunity – children worked – they could pay less – no need for strength/ knowledge to operate machines • Kids as young as 4 were employed – ear 10/20% of the normal wage • Dangerous conditions • Long work hour • Some orphans sell children to factory workers • Abuses • 1833: The Factory Acts (Children working must be 9+, no more than 12 hours, not at night)
  43. 43. Religion • Church was slow to adapt to the industrialization movement • Most were built in the thread of the agrarian society • Protestant group became popular as focal points for community and of Sunday school • Methodist – a branch of Christianity catering for the poor • Salvation army – help alcoholics • Irish immigrants who brought in strict Christianity • Church attendances declining • Most religious men/ women criticize the IR for the deterioration of society • Pope Leo was actually in support against Marxism
  44. 44. Art • A lot of artists expressing ideas • Charles Dickens • Elizabeth Gaskell • Emile Zola
  45. 45. The Political Effects • Political changes in Democracy • Socialism
  46. 46. Britain – The Reform Act • The defeat of Napoleon influenced the idea of politics as well as the French revolution • 1832: The Reform Act 1. Abolishment of the rotten boroughs – seats in parliaments for constituencies with few or no voters Vote only for property owners However since there was no control over the number of votes needed to get an MP into position – there were still constituencies with less voters representing the rich No secret ballots – pressure from the rich played a part
  47. 47. Britain – The Chartist • The Reform act and the Factory Acts failed to satisfy the poor – they started forming campaigns • 1836: William Lovett formed London Working Men’s Association – educate skilled workers • With Francis Plate they drafted the People’s Charter • They planned to improve the people’s lives – inspiring men like Feargus O’Connor • 1839: The People’s Parliament drew up a demand with 3 million signatures • Chartists movement declined due to internal conflicts • Violent uprising in Wales suppressed • Mass rally in 1848 – ended the movmenet soon enough
  48. 48. Britain – Later effects • Most of these ideas do go on to become laws • Votes were made universal • Soon the parliament would have a one-year term • Secret ballots enforced • Prove the importance/ power of the working class • Trade Unions rising
  49. 49. FRANCE
  50. 50. The Revolutions • 1830 July Revolution • The 1848 Revolution Poor harvest – social distress Industrial workers began to lose their jobs Voting Rights and Free trade issues King Charles X was removed
  51. 51. GERMANY
  52. 52. Effects of Industrial Revolution on Germany • Economic developments in the first half of 19th Century – took away Austrian control over Germany • Increase in food outputs, mechanization of agriculture with fertilizers • Urban changes: More middle class/ proletariat classes • Machine-made products became more prominent
  53. 53. Effects of Industrial Revolution in Germany • 1818: Abolishment of internal barriers so they won’t hinder trade • 1830s: Development in textiles, iron, steel • New roads, crucial investment in railways • Germany had a great supply of coal • 1834: Germany organized into the Zollverein – a group of states with no custom barriers • Germany: The largest free trade in Europe • Austrian did not join the Zollverein
  54. 54. Effects of Industrial Revolution in Germany • In the Zollverein: All decisions must be unanimous – no one was dictated by Prussia • Hence: all states enjoyed economic expansion • Develop common currency, uniform trade law • Germany – in the heart of Europe • Allowed for growth in armaments in Prussia/ faster mobilizations/ spread of ideas
  55. 55. Marxism/ Socialism • Karl Marx: founder of Socialism – born in Germany, lived in France/ Belgium, before settling in Britain • 1848: Wrote the communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels • Strongly influenced by the revolution of 1848 in France
  56. 56. Marxism and Socialism • Idea: Economic force were fundamental to crafting of the society • History follows a patter dictated by economic changes • Capitalist/ Bourgeoisie society replaces the feudal society – the next step is the dictatorship of the Proletariat • “The proletariat have nothing to lose but their chains. Workers of the world unite.” • Marxism is quite influential in Germany and France • The most successful revolution however, came in Russia
  57. 57. IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  58. 58. The Industrial Revolution • By the ‘end’ of Industrial revolution • The landscape of the world changed entirely • Cities were now the center of commerce • Socialism grew into a formidable force caused by fundamental economic forces • Capitalism came to dominate society • Although the upper classes maintained their influences • The middle class came to prominence • Politics in Britain changed • The unification and growth of nationalism and Liberalism can be attributed to Industrial revolution
  59. 59. The Industrial Revolution • Whether or not life is now better for the working class is an ongoing debate • Industrial Revolution paves the way for an information based society • Growth of education, knowledge, healthcare, social security and amenities are the result of this profound revolution • Rural-urban migration still commence to this day • Products are cheaper now, mass production reduce hunger all over the world • However, social disparities may have increased – although this is yet another debate • Industrial revolution nevertheless is a progress that leads to an explosive event that was the First World War
  60. 60. Extra stuff • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhL5DCizj5c • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3u4EFTwprM • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution

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