B LU E 1 ST YEA R - 201 3GREEN 1ST YEAR - 2013Industrial Revolution
What’s in a name? The name “Industrial Revolution” is used to describeone of the biggest changes in history. It describes the time when people went from makinggoods by hand to making them with machines.
WHY IN B RIT A IN ?Why did the IndustrialRevolution happen?
The IR began in Great Britain for anumber of reasons.The most dramaticchanges in industrybegan in Great Britain inabout 1750.Scientists had beeninventing things duringearlier years. But most oftheir work centeredaround theories andideas.Now science andinvention took a morepractical turn.Inventors developedmachines especiallydesigned to increaseproduction of goods andto help people make aprofit.
Great Britain had the naturalresources needed for industry…Great Britain had a goodsupply of coal and ironand it had thetransportation thatindustry needed.
1. Navigable riversAll the major rivers ofGreat Britain werenavigable during theIndustrial Revolution.
The Severn was used forthe movement of goodsto the Midlands whichhad been imported intoBristol from abroad andthe export of goods fromcentres of production inthe Black Country, e.g.iron goods fromCoalbrookdale.
TrowsTrows, small sailingvessels, could navigatethe Bristol Channel tothe South Wales portsand Somerset ports.
2. Natural harboursShips can move easily,make trade easier
3. Colonies supplied with abundantraw materialBritain colonies suppliedraw materials to thefactories in London andother cities. And theBritish government waseager to support growingindustry.The colonies wereregarded as a source ofnecessary raw materialsfor England and weregranted monopolies fortheir products, such astobacco and sugar, in theBritish market.
4. Colonies demanded goods fromthe textile and iron industriesThe Navigation Act of1651 stated that allcolonial exports had tobe shipped on Englishships to the Britishmarket, and all colonialimports had to come byway of England.English factoriesconverted raw goods toproducts which werethen shipped back to thecolonies. This providedthe British with aprofitable market, freefrom competition.
5. Abundant deposits of coal whichare easily mined and transported.Coal provides three timesmore energy than wood.Coal kick-started arevolution in XIII centuryBritain, a revolution whichtransformed not only thecountry but the worlditself.Coal could produce theenergy to keep the newsteam engines runningand coal was needed toproduce iron. Iron couldbe used to improvemachines and tools and itcould be used to buildrailroad tracks, bridgesand ships.
6. In Britain the mines were near thesea, so ships could carry coal cheaplyto the most important market, London.
7. The demand for coal became larger,but the deeper the miners went themore water there was underground, soit was necessary to pump water out ofthe mine.
8. Initially people used horse-drivenpumps, but they needed a moreeffective way to draw water from muchdeeper.
9. In 1712 Thomas Newcomeninvented the atmospheric engineThe first commerciallysuccessful steam enginewas the atmosphericengine, inventedby ThomasNewcomen in 1712.The new engine did thework of 20 horses andpumped water fromhundreds of feet belowthe ground - makingdeeper mineseconomically viable.
10. James Watt developed (1763–75) animproved version of Newcomensengine, with a separate condenser.Boulton and Watt’s earlymachines used less coalthan Newcomen’s
The Textile Industry before the IR In the earliest days, British merchants importedcloth from other lands. Because of the costs ofshipping finished goods, cloth was very expensive. In the 1600s, Britain began importing raw cotton.The British spun their own threads and then wovetheir own cloth. Farm families did the work. They set up spinningwheels and looms in their cottages. Both spinningwheel and loom were operated by hand: they werecalled the “cottage weavers”.
The textile industry during the IR In the 1700s some new machines were inventedwhich changed the textile industry. Spinners andweavers left their cottages and went to work in newfactories. The textile industry moved out of the Englishcottages. Mills and factores were built. Workers wereno longer their own bosses. They became factoryhands. They worked in large mills that oftenemployed up to 600 people.
12. Spinning JennyThe Spinning Jennywas invented the firstmachine to produceyarn.Created in the s. XVIII,it represented one of themost importanttechnical innovations inthe textile industry andtherefore can beconsidered one of theleaders of the industrialrevolution.