US history survey March 13, 2012Market revolution: industrialization, transportation, commercialization
announcements• paper # 1, due Tuesday 27 March• details on topic and guidelines at the end of this power point.
Industrialization• Rural & agricultural life based on rhythm of seasons & sun.• Industrial life based on clocks, rhythms of machinery.• Britain & US both began machine-based manufac- turing with textiles.
cotton• Invention of cotton gin by Eli Whitney, 1793.• Cleaned short staple cotton rapidly.• Led to rapid growth of cotton production across lower South, by slave labor.• Primarily exported to English textile mills.
Northern investors, owners, inventors. • Northern business handled shipping, insurance, brokerage of S. cotton exports. • International slave trade financed 18th c. development. • Slave labor/cotton financed 19th c. industrial development.
cotton• Slave labor grew cotton in S.• Mill owners bought raw cotton.• Picking, carding, spinning, warping, weaving – elements of creating cloth, formerly done by hand, now by machinery, under one roof.• Created multiple types of cloth, including “negro cloth,” rough cloth for clothing slaves.
Lowell in 1850• A mile’s worth of factory buildings – 40 mill buildings. Also machine shops.• 6 miles of canals – machinery was powered by the river’s power from waterfalls.• 10,000 looms.• 10,000 workers.• Mills ran 12 hours daily, 6 days a week.• Where could corporations find workers to produce cotton textiles?
Labor force for textile mills• Daughters of New England farmers.• Typically 15 – 25, but began as young as 10.• Mills provided boardinghouses for mill girls, so parents would consent to their daughters’ working in mills: respectability & supervision.• Mill girls required to live in boardinghouses & to attend church on Sundays.• Worked average 73 hours a week, 1830s & 1840s.
Mill girls’ culture• Published workers’ magazines.• Protested against speed-up in work & cuts in wages – 20% cut in 1842, by walking out.• Lowell Female Reform Association, 1844.• New England Workingmen’s Assoc. -- efforts to limit workday to 10 hours.
Mill girls replaced by• Irish immigrant families.• Later Polish, French Canadian, Greek immigrants.• Cheap labor by immigrants – the ongoing rule for profit-making in US business, through the present.
Q: where did technological knowledge come from?• A: stolen from Britain.• Hamilton wanted to copy British factories.• Samuel Slater left England by disguising himself & brought knowledge of factory system & loom to US.• Francis Cabot Lowell lived in England, toured factories, wrote down technology every night, & brought info back to US.
Market revolution, 1815 - 18601. improvements in transportation.2. commercialization – consumer goods for salereplace self-sufficiency & barter.3. industrialization – power-driven machineryproduces goods formerly made by hand.
transportation• natural transportation: Atlantic Ocean, Great Lakes, & deep & powerful rivers.• Canals connected bodies of water.• Roads & turnpikes.• Railroads.• Huge country, rapidly growing population.
Funding transportation• All agreed government had to help fund transportation improvements.• Disagreements over whether states or federal government should pay.• National Road – 1st federally funded highway, 1811 – 1834.
Erie Canal connected westernagriculture, eastern manufacturing, & eastern ports. • Funded by NY legislature passing a bond issue. • Major engineer- ing accomplish- ment - 83 locks. • Irish immigrant laborers.
steamboats• Dangerous, but stimulated trade on inland rivers.• First regulation by federal govt.
railroads • 1830 1st RR, Baltimore & Ohio, 13 miles. • By 1860, 31,000 miles of track. • Technological & supply problems to be solved.• Technological & • Stimulated iron industry scientific development, & created locomotive as well as large profits. industry.
RRs• In 1860, 70% of railroads were in the North.• Railroads were major contribution to industrialization in US. Created many other businesses.
legalities• Supreme Court decisions encouraged commercial enterprise, because they gave federal government (not states) power over interstate commerce.• States passed laws creating incorporation of businesses.
Other impacts of transportation developments• Oriented Americans away from Atlantic/Europe & to own heartland. Pride & American identity.• Spirit of conquest of nature.• Strengthened North by improving ties with West, rather than with South.
paper # 1, due Tuesday 27 March• Imagine that you are one of the following people (b. 1790). – A member of the Lewis & Clark expedition. – A New England farm widow. – A Shawnee Indian. – An enslaved person sold from Virginia to Alabama.• Do as much internet research as you feel necessary to write a convincing autobiography.• Requirements: – 3 – 4 paragraphs, typed, double-spaced. – essay form: introduction, body, and conclusion. – only typed papers will be accepted. – name at top right of page.
Reading assignment for March 20• Solomon Northrup, Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 (1853)• http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/northup/northu p.html• chapter VIII, p. 105 – 117.