The Process ApproachMs. Joy M. AvelinoMAEd- ELTApril 16, 2012
STATEMENTS YES NO1. In writing classes, there is a strong emphasis oncorrect grammar.2. In writing classes, you should focus on what thestudent produces at the end of the lesson.3. Students have to work alone on writingactivities.4. Teachers should mark all the grammar mistakesthat the students make.5. Students should learn to write correct sentencesand build them up into a text.
Process writing is to move away fromthe view that written texts are a collection ofgrammatically correct sentences. Processwriting is connected with the differentsubskills that the language writers use whenthey write.
Theoretical UnderpinningsMerriwether (1997)• Writing is a process which involves severalidentifiable steps.Nunan (1999)• The Process approach focuses on the stepsinvolved in creating a piece of work.Jordan (1997)• Process writing evolved as reaction to theproduct approach.
Process theorists of the 60’s and 70’s• Writing is the result of a long, laborious,intensely personal process in which writersaddress several questions ranging fromWhat do I write about?Who is my audience?How do I structure my essay?to What sort of language and voice should Iuse?
STAGES IN PROCESS APPROACH• Selecting a topicand planningwhat to write• Putting a draughtversion on paper• Making changes toimprove the writing•PUBLISHING• EVALUATION-Assessment of thewritten work
PRE-WRITINGGroup BrainstormingGroup research on a writing topicQuestioning (Journalist Questions)Discussion and DebateCubing- describe it - analyze it- compare it - apply it- associate it - argue for or against it
Mapping / Clustering. The preferred prewritingtechnique for writers who are visually orientedbecause it allows them to generate and organizeideas in a visual context. Outlining.Pass-around topic.Dialogue Writing.Looping
WHILE-WRITINGIndividual writing.Collaborative writing. Students work togetherto write a previously agreed text.
REVISING / EDITINGPeer editing / Proof-reading.Self-editing.Conferencing.Reformulation.Whole class discussion of how a particular textmight need adjustment according to theaudience it is addressed to.
POST-WRITINGEVALUATIONA rubric is…an assessment toola scoring guide(a guide for students and teachers before anassignment begins)PUBLISHINGPublishing the final product and sharing it with anappropriate audience. It may be oral, visual, or written.
Encourages students to communicate their ownwritten messages.Communication of the message is paramountand therefore the developing, but inaccurateattempts at handwriting, spelling, andgrammar are accepted. These skills are furtherdeveloped in individual and small groupconference interviews.
• Process writing could be time-consuming withlarge classes. Teachers may not have enoughtime to schedule individual writing conferencesin large classes.• Lots of grading for the teacher.• Learners who are unused to process writing willview revision as a sign of failure.
“Good writing does not just happen.The best writers spend a great dealof time thinking, planning, rewriting,and editing.”- Elizabeth West
Brown, H.D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach tolanguage pedagogy. USA: Prentice – Hall Regents.Ghaith, G. Writing. (2002). American University of Beirut.http://www.nadasisland.com/writing#processMckensie, L. & Tomkins, G.E. (1984). Evaluating Students’ Writing: Aprocess Approach. Journal of Teaching Writing. Vol. 3, No. 2Simpson, A. A process approach to writing.http://www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtraining/pwpf_adam.htmREFERENCES