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  1. 1. METHODOLOGY AND DIDACTICS 1 ESCUELA : NOMBRES: Inglés Mgs. Orlando V. Lizaldes E. BIMESTRE: Segundo Octubre 2011-Febrero 2012
  2. 2. Second Bimester – Generic competences <ul><li>Ability to work in an autonomous way </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to abstract, analyze, and synthesize </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to put into practice all the acquired knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to search, process, and analyze information from different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to identify and solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to make logical decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to value and respect cultural diversity </li></ul>
  3. 3. How to teach Reading?
  4. 4. Teaching Reading <ul><li>Why is Reading so Important? </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful for language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a positive effect on students’ vocabulary knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing are a single strand…. </li></ul><ul><li>good reader = good writer </li></ul><ul><li>Reading stimulates discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading excites imaginative responses and provide fascinating lessons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teaching Reading…what kind of? <ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>For pleasure (joyful reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Genre reading </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic reading </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reading Principles <ul><li>Encourage SS to read as often and as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>SS need to be engaged with what they are reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage SS to respond to the content of a text, not just concentrate on its construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction is a major factor in reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Match the task to the topic when using intensive reading texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reading suggestions <ul><li>Reading a text developing reading ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the general meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Silent reading (which words catch your attention) </li></ul><ul><li>Checking comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducing the text </li></ul><ul><li>Gap-filling activities </li></ul>
  8. 8. What really matters is …
  9. 9. How to teach Writing?
  10. 10. Teaching Writing <ul><li>Why is writing so important? </li></ul><ul><li>Writing gives SS more thinking time. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows Language Processing , that is thinking about the language. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to make a distinction between writing-for-learning and writing-for-writing </li></ul><ul><li>There are good real-life reasons for getting SS to write: emails, letters, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing reinforces the perception of new words and phrases (gram. structures) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Writing styles <ul><li>In order to help SS write successfully and </li></ul><ul><li>enthusiastically in different styles; we need </li></ul><ul><li>to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>GENRE (type of writing into a discourse community) </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING PROCESS (P-D-R-E) – even if it is time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDING THE WRITING HABIT (become a normal part of the classroom) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Writing suggestions <ul><li>INSTANT WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES </li></ul><ul><li>BROCHURES AND GUIDES </li></ul><ul><li>POETRY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLABORATIVE WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING TO EACH OTHER </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING IN OTHER GENRES </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to teach Speaking?
  14. 14. Teaching Speaking <ul><li>REASONS FOR TEACHING SPEAKING </li></ul><ul><li>- Rehearsal opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>- Feedback for teacher and SS </li></ul><ul><li>- Activate various elements of language </li></ul><ul><li>This means that SS will be able to use words or phrases fluently without very much conscious thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking provides sympathetic and useful feedback. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Speaking <ul><li>Good speaking activities provide tremendous satisfaction for both T and SS. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the ESL trilogy (E-A- S) </li></ul><ul><li>We as teachers should conceive the idea of a “speaking-as-skill classroom” </li></ul><ul><li>Create as a teacher the “Talking classroom atmosphere” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speaking <ul><li>HOW CAN YOU CORRECT SPEAKING? </li></ul>www.google.com.ec/igres?q=shut+up+and+do+it
  18. 18. Correcting speaking <ul><li>GENTLE CORRECTION might take the form of REFORMULATION. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way of correcting speaking </li></ul><ul><li>activities appropriately is to talk </li></ul><ul><li>to students about it. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Main reasons <ul><li>Most people want to be able to understand what the others are saying in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is good for SS’s pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening texts are good pronunciation models. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the main sources of listening for SS is the voice of their teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>SS need to exposed to different ENGLISHES (regional varieties) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Listening sources <ul><li>Recorded Extracts ( a lot on CDs) </li></ul><ul><li>What about your own listening materials? </li></ul><ul><li>Live listening (Real Life Face-to-face encounters in the classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher talk </li></ul><ul><li>Visitors into your class </li></ul>
  22. 22. Listening Principles <ul><li>Encourage students to listen as often and as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students prepare to listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Once may not be enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to respond to the content of a listening, not just to the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Different listening stages demand different listening tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers exploit listening texts to the full. </li></ul>
  23. 23. We need to create <ul><li>MAGIC MOMENTS WHEN IT COMES TO… </li></ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul><ul><li>Write </li></ul><ul><li>Speak </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul>www.google.com.ec/imgres?q=hands+up+classroom
  24. 24. Using Coursebooks
  25. 25. <ul><li>The teacher decides whether or not to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>With a good coursebook, there is a strong possibility that the language, content, and sequencing in the book will be appropriate, and that the topics and treatment of the different language skills will be attractive. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s nothing wrong with omitting lessons from coursebooks. </li></ul><ul><li>PICK AND CHOOSE APPROACH </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Another activity is replacing coursebooks lessons with one of our own. </li></ul><ul><li>Another option is to add what is in the book; to extend the students’ engagement with the language or the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, teachers adapt what is in the book. That is to say, they need to use the coursebooks units creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s almost no limit to the ways in which we can replace coursebook excerpts. </li></ul><ul><li>ARE YOU USING YOUR COURSEBOOK? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Teachers have a very poor opinion about them. </li></ul><ul><li>People like to rely on their own methodologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Coursebooks provide good teaching material. </li></ul><ul><li>Coursebooks have appropriate grammar syllabus and they provide vocabulary exposure and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes less time to prepare a lesson (teachers’ guide). </li></ul><ul><li>The book may become a millstone around the necks of all concerned, endangering the engagement. </li></ul>REASONS FOR (AND AGAINST)
  28. 28. HOW TO CHOOSE COURSEBOOKS? <ul><li>We need to consider a few steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the book (layout and design, methodology, topics, and so on) </li></ul><ul><li>Write a short description of our ideal coursebook (turn them into questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot the coursebook </li></ul><ul><li>Assess its strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Consult colleagues for an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, let our students take a look of it </li></ul>
  29. 29. Planning lessons <ul><li>Determine what will be taught (both content and skills). </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate the learning objectives for the lesson (e.g., &quot;at the end of the lesson, learners will...&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Match what will be taught to 1, possibly 2, of the most applicable benchmarks from the curriculum and identify in the lesson plan. If continuing from a previously taught lesson, the benchmark could be the same as the prior lesson. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Testing <ul><li>Good tests are those that do the job they are designed to do and which convince the people taking and marking them that they work. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Testing <ul><li>A good test should comprise : </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul>
  32. 33. Test types <ul><li>Discrete-item test (one thing at a time) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative test (use a variety of language and skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct test (to do something with language) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect test (correct use of structures) </li></ul><ul><li>* M-C-I </li></ul><ul><li>* Fill-in and cloze </li></ul><ul><li>* Transformation </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>PROGRAMA: Methodology and Didactics 1 Carrera: Inglés </li></ul><ul><li>Fecha: 23 de Enero de 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Docente: Mgs. Orlando Vicente Lizaldes E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hora Inicio: 19h15 Hora Final: 20h15 </li></ul>GUIÓN DE PRESENTACIÓN Puntos de la Presentación Intervienen Duración Aprox. en minutos Material de Apoyo - Presentación - Objetivos Orlando Lizaldes <ul><li>2 minutos </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutos </li></ul>Sin material. Sin material. <ul><li>Desarrollo del contenido: </li></ul><ul><li>Capítulo I </li></ul><ul><li>Capítulo II </li></ul><ul><li>…………… . </li></ul>Orlando Lizaldes <ul><li>35 minutos </li></ul>Diapositivas (cambios cada 5 seg.), videos, otro o ningún material. - Preguntas - Despedida (Contactos, Sugerencias) Orlando Lizaldes <ul><li>15 minutos (Si no existen, proponer y dar solución) </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutos </li></ul>Correo, teléfono, ext, horario de tutoría.