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  1. 1. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Saud University College of EducationPrepared by:Samar Al- Shareef
  2. 2. Each language has four major skills . The receptiveskills: listening , reading and the productive skillsspeaking and writing. Writing is a process that allows writers to explorethoughts and ideas, and make them visible andconcrete. writing is an act of communication suggests an interactive process between the writer and the reader via text.
  3. 3. We all know that writing and learning towrite, especially in a foreign or secondlanguage is not simply a matter of"writing things down"; the process isvery complex, and the old saying, "If youcan say it, you can write it," is verysimplistic. This would not be the kind ofwriting that students should strive tolearn and teachers to teach.
  4. 4. Good writing involves the knowledge of theconventions of written discourse in the ESL or EFLculture as well as the abilities to (1) choose fromnear synonyms the precise word that conveys one’smeaning, (2) select from a variety of syntacticstructures . and (3) adopt a style that will have themost positive rhetorical effect .
  5. 5. The first step in teaching reading and writing skills in aforeign or second language classroom center around themechanics of these two skills .By mechanics we usuallyrefer to letter recognition , letter discrimination ,punctuation, and capitalization , as well as recognition ofwhole sentences and paragraphs .
  6. 6. The interaction between reading and writing hasoften been in focus in the methodology of languageteaching.The teaching of the mechanics of reading and writing hasthree different goals:•To enhance letter recognition .•To practice sound-spelling correspondence via all fourlanguage skills.•To help learners move from letters and words tomeaningful sentences and larger units of discourse.
  7. 7. How do we teach mechanics? Tree major types of recognition tasks are used at the early stage of reading and writing ,each type has a great variety of drills: •Matching task. •Writing tasks. •Meaningful sound- spelling correspondence practice.
  8. 8. More advanced writing activities shift their goal from thefocus on mechanics of writing to accuracy and content ofthe message. To deal with these activities we need a set ofspecifications which will help the teachers and theirstudents: Task Description Content Description Audience Description Format Cues Linguistic Cues Spilling and Punctuation Cues
  9. 9. This method emphasized speech and writing servedto achieve mastery of grammatical and syntacticforms.This approach stresses writing quantity rather thanquality. The emphasis in this approach is on contentand fluency rather than on accuracy and form.Instead of accuracy of grammar or fluency ofcontent, the Paragraph-Pattern-Approach stresseson organization. Students copy paragraphs andimitate model passages.
  10. 10. Teachers who follow this approach maintain thatwriting cannot be seen as composed of separate skillswhich are learned sequentially. This approach links thepurpose of writing to the forms that are needed toconvey message.This approach stresses the purpose of writing and theaudience for it. Student writers are encouraged tobehave like writers in real life
  11. 11. Teachers were mostly concerned with the final product ofwriting, and what that product should ‘look’ like. Theresult of such approach was that even though studentswould do hundreds of grammar exercises and memorizemany vocabulary lists, they often be surprised, frustratedand discouraged upon receiving their essays full of redmarks. They could not understand how after all thathard work, they still had difficulty in writing.
  12. 12. A new approach appeared , based on the processes that writers use when the write .The principle features of this approach are:•A view of writing as a process that can be taught.•An emphasis on writing as a way of learning as well ascommunicating.•A view that writing assignment include a sense of audience,purpose and occasion.•A procedure for feedback that encourages the teacher to aid thestudent to improve his first draft.•A method of evaluation that determines how well a writtenproduct adapts the goals of the writer to the needs of the reader.
  13. 13. Word Grammar/ Content Process Audience Organization Mechanics choice Syntax Controlled- to Free Free-Writing Paragraph- Pattern Grammar-Syntax- Organization Communicative Product- oriented approachProcess -oriented approach
  14. 14. Prewriting Composing Revision 1) Prewriting: (It is defined by Oluwadiya* as "any structural activities – oral, written or experiential -- that influence active student participation in thinking, talking, writing, and working on the topic under focus in a writing lesson, stimulating higher-level thinking as well as writing skills.)
  15. 15. Can you give three reasonsfor why is the pre-writingstage is important?.
  16. 16. We can use prewriting techniques as mental warm-upsto help them get started on their writing process:-Oral group brainstorming - Clustering - Dialogue writing - Free writing- Debating - Fantasizing- Outlining - Oral compositions- Oral reading - Silent reading- Interviewing - Use of pictures to stimulate students- Visits to places of - Lecturing interest in the school locality
  17. 17. 2) Composing: (focuses on organizational and mechanicalconsiderations)•Writing preliminary outlines.•Making ongoing decisions about every aspect ofwriting, from vocabulary choice to syntax, style, andorganization•Reviewing, rereading, and anticipating what willcome next .•Reformulating and adjusting parts of themanuscript as it evolves .3) Revision:•Contemplating the finished draft .•Revising the organizational and stylistic features ofthe composition•Revising the grammatical features.
  18. 18. 1)Feedback:With written works , feedback may be delayed by days or weeksdepending on (a)how quickly the teacher reads and corrects thework, and (b) when the class meets. Teachers should provide feedback that addresses the specificinstructional needs and expectations of the various groups ofstudent-writers. 2)correction: The teacher should give periodic and systematic feedback on the students’ writing . The teacher and the students should be familiar with the correction symbols. The teacher should review or discuss again the patterns which constitute a general mistake or most problem of most students. The teacher should firmly ask his students to do the corrections.
  19. 19. In this paper a student is trying to learn(How to write a note to her teacher) .Please correct her note and don’t forgetto use symbols.
  20. 20. The teacher should inform his students with the genre they are tackling for example:Personal letter AdvertisementBusiness letter CondolencesBirthday Card Curriculum vitae Story
  21. 21. How to write a post card?
  22. 22. POST CARD Date May 15, 2004 StampGreeting Dear Noura, My new school is nice. You can see Noura Madani how huge it is from the picture. Im P.O. Box 529,Message very happy because everyone is so Jeddah, 1291 nice and helpful. Ill tell you about Saudi Arabia my friends in my letter. AddressSignature Asmaa
  23. 23. Which post card is written correctly? Why? 3/8/2004 Dear khalid, Cairo is a very beautiful city .Im Khalid Fadel having a great time even P.o Box 323, though its quite hot during the Jizan, day, Ill write again soon. Saudi Arabia Mazen
  24. 24. 13/5/2004 Hi, how are you? This is the village were staying at. Its probably the mostDear Fatima, beautiful place in Tunisia. The peopleP.o box 158 here are very nice and the food isMakkah, great. I bought you a nice gift. Im sureSaudi Arabia you will like it. See you in 3 weeks. Maha
  25. 25. Imagine you are a visitor in yourhometown. Send a postcard to yourfriend in Egypt telling him / her about it. Postcard