Why teaching writing? The reasons for teaching writing include: REINFORCEMENT It helps to reinforce acquired knowledge through visual construction of language LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The mental activity we experience when we write help us to learn LANGUAGE STYLES Some students get the language better and faster by looking it written. WRITINGA S A SKILL It is important to teach writing just because is a basic language skill.
Speaking WritingAcquired in the first Not everyone learn ityears of life Demands form ofDilect variations grammar, syntax and vocabularyUses voice and Use wordsbodies to expressUses pauses and Uses punctuationintonationIt is related to It is related topronunciation spellingUsually spontaneous Mostly plannedFeedback at the Feedback is delayedmoment or nonexistentInformal FormalExcessives use of Connecting wordsand’s and but’s
ELEMENTS TOPRODUCE A PIECE OF WRITING Syntax Grammar Mechanics Organization Word choice Purpose AudienceThe writer´s process Content
THE CONTROLLED-TO-FREE APPROACH It is sequential Develops students’ writing skills Students change different grammatical issues in the paragraphs Can be used to introduce a context for new concepts A variety of changes can be made for students to demonstrate their english abilities Can be used for changing numerous sentence parts (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, articles, tenses, pronouns, word choice or placement, adjectives, adverbs, and other concepts as the teacher directs) By reading, revising, and rewriting the paragraphs students can recognize correct writing and learn to edit their own writing based on a correct writing sample
THE FREE WRITING APPROACH Fast writing without editing (Students should not edit while writing or afterwards. ) It develops fluency Students learn that the goal is to write as much as they can using many words, even if the grammar is not correct. this approach is seen as being effective in that students are able to selfdiscover their own set of skilful practices and techniques as writers it is also marked with certain limitations. It is not an approach which works well in students with low proficiency in the language
THE PARAGRAPH-PATTERN APPROACH It is focused on organization on the paragraph levelExercises are directly or indirectly linked to how larger chunks of writing are organized into paragraph units.Things like topic sentences and linking devices as well as ordering are taught overtly and practiced in many different ways. The underlying belief of this approach is that organization differs from culture to culture and must be learned overtly and that paragraphs, being the basic units of larger pierces of writing, are a necessary first step in any type of developing writing proficiency
THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The purpose and the audience are stressedStudents should act like writers in real-life situations.Real-world types of writing tasks are devisedThe writing exercises in this approach are created so that the teacher, other students, or people from out of the class can be the audience. CContext has a central role The basic idea here is the same which underlies the communicative approach in general and that is that language and writing of course is used for communication so students benefit from doing activities and practice which has as a its goal a communicative event.
THE GRAMMAR-SYNTAX-ORGANIZATION APPROACH Students are given a specific writing task Students must complete the task successfully finding out what vocabulary items and structures are necessary The main focus in this approach is using forms, often at the sentence level to achieve the clearest and most appropriate meaning possible. Students practice by linking specific vocabulary words, structural elements, and organizational features to specific writing tasks
THE PROCESS APPROACH Focuses on the how writing is to be done based on research on the habits/techniques of successful writersTeachers lead students, in a wide variety of ways, through the steps one must follow in creating a good piece of writingSome of the most important elements of this approach include the ideas of planning and rewritingStudents are given time explore a topic on different levels The steps of writing are supposed to act as a process of discovery by which the students not only learn how to write, but how to learn about a topic. The ultimate goal is to make them successful and autonomous writers.
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