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Discourse Analysis

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  • 1. COMMUNICATION THEORY: SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS AND CONVERSATIONAL ANALYSIS Language is used in human being for communication. In human communication, there is a system of how people should communicate. Goffman stated in Hatch‟s book (Hatch. 1992) that there is a set of universal constraints in all communication. All human language has constraints and these become universal in all type of communication. It means that it will appear in all languages. Even like that, how exactly and in which way the constraints are met are different and vary according to the communication channel. Based on his point of view, there are two types of communication constraints, they are; system constraints and ritual or social constraints. System constraints are the components which required for all communication systems. While, ritual constraints are the social constraints which smooth social interaction. The first is about system constraints, where the components required for all communication system and conversational analysis as the way to analyze spoken language into written language by using some signals or symbols or transcription. In analyzing conversational data, it is better for analysts or communication specialists to take a natural conversational data, where the language is produced in normal or ordinary and in everyday ways. The way to transcribe the conversation or spoken language into conversational data or written language commonly uses videotape data. That videotape data will help the specialists to analyze language, not only from verbal language but also from body language. Many communication specialists work from videotape data because non-verbal communication such as gaze, body orientation, hand movements and head may serve as communication signals (Hatch. 1992). There is no rule for transcribing the conversational data. The transcription developed by Jefferson (Atkinson & Heritage 1984) for conversational analysis (Variations appear in Schegloff and Sacks 1873; Brown & Yule 1981). There are several kinds of the transcription, they are as follows:
  • 2. 1. Overlaps symbols a. Slash (// or / ) Function : Indicates that the next speaker overlaps at this point. Examples : P: but umm in the high school/they R://Don‟t they use „em? P: but ummm in the high school ummmm b. Bracket ( [ ) Function : An alternative is to use a bracket at the point of overlap. Also show when two speakers start simultaneously. Examples : R: I mean it‟s not time P: we can go c. An asterisk ( ] ) Function : Shows the point which overlap ends. Examples : M: it‟s very/very H: /interesting M: yes interesting uh d. Equal ( = ) Function : Used for “letching” to know there is no gap between utterances. Examples : M: mmmmm(.2) ye:s = H: = like saffron 2. Elapsed time a. Number in parentheses (.2) Function : Elapsed time in tenth of a second. b. Dot in parentheses (.) Function : Micro paused. c. Plus ( +, ++, or +++) Function : Short pause, a somewhat longer pause, and a long pause. 3. Punctuation for intonation a. Question mark ( ? ) Function : Strong rising intonation.
  • 3. Examples : What? At University? b. Comma ( , ) Function : A slight rise c. Colon ( :, ::::: ) Function : The syllableis lengthened or indicate a more prolonged syllable. Example : J: wo:::::w 4. Stress (pitch and volume) a. Uppercase type Function : Used for stress (pitch and volume) Example : A: to my BOYfriend ann NOTHING else 5. Talk softly a. Degree (◦) Function : The talk is said softly Example : S: (◦) hn I don‟t get it 6. Aspiration a. h in parentheses [ (h) ] Function : Explosive aspiration b. h without parenthesis ( h ) Function : Audible breathing c. Dot ( . ) Function : In-breathe 7. Unsure of accuracy a. Single parentheses [ ( ) ] Example : S: to do a (chef) 8. Nonverbal sounds a. Double parentheses [ (( )) ] Example : ((cough)) 9. Part of the transcript relevant to the analyst‟s description a. A right arrow ( )
  • 4. Function : Used to point to parts of the transcript relevant to the analysis description b. Underline ( __ ) Furthermore, the spelling of words is altered to try to capture of the detail of natural speech. For example: 1. “See you in ten minutes” “see yuh „n ten minutes” 2. “give me the key” “gimme the key” In universal constraints of Goffman theory, there are eight system constraints in all human communication. They are; channel open and close signals, backchannel signals, turnover signals, acoustically adequate and interpretable message, bracket signals, nonparticipant constraints, preempt signals, and gricean norm for communication. For the clear understanding, all of them will be explain more as follows: 1. Channel open and close signals In all communication, there must be ways to show that the communication is about to start and to end. The term of open and close signals will be according to the situation where the communication runs. For example, in meeting, classroom, letter, phone call, or interpersonal communication, there are different ways on how to open and close the conversation. In other words, the description of the signals and how they vary across mode, channel, and setting is part of analysis of discourse. Depending on the type of channel or social context (spoken/written, formal/informal), different (verbal or non-verbal) conventional ways of signaling the opening and closing of communication are employed and reciprocally exchanged. For example, expressions like introductory and/or farewell greetings, enquiries about one´s well-being, etc. Not only that, partners´ readiness to begin (e.g., summons- answer adjacency pair) and close (preclosing signals) communication are mutually elicited, checked and confirmed. An important constitutive component of openings is the activity of participants aimed at their reciprocal identification and recognition (Ferenčík: 2002).
  • 5. The example can be shown from American telephone conversations, they are as follows: The example above shows that there are four basic parts of phone conversation opening as what Schegloff (1968) stated, they are: summon-answer sequence, identification sequence, greeting sequence and how-are-you sequence. 1. Summon-Answer Sequence The phone conversation will be different in summon-answer sequence based on formal and informal phone conversation. For example: ((phone ringing)) A : Hello B : Hi ((phone ringing)) C : Good morning D : Good morning 2. Identification sequence According to Hatch (1992:9), we are very often able to identify the caller or the answerer from minimal voice samples. There are such sequences to identify the caller will be discussed. First is A caller who recognizes the answerer by the initial “Hello”. For example: A : Hello ! B : Hi !
  • 6. A : Hi, Chandra ! There are sequences where the names of the answerers and callers are given. For example: A : Hello ! B : Dr. Spongebob ? Or C : Hello ! D : Hh mom ? Sometimes intonation is exclamatory. For example: A : Hello ! B : Mia ! Or C : Hello ! D : MOM-my, you‟re home Callers may give an immediate self-identification. For example: A : HELLO ! B : Hi Mom, it‟s me ! Self identification is forthcoming, often in the second turn. For example: A : Hello ! B : Hi Sue ! A : Hi ! B : It‟s Chandra 3. Greeting sequence Greeting sequence is just the continuing opening and identification sequence. The one distinguish characteristic of “Hi” as a greeting versus that of identification is that greetings are not repeated. However, one “hi” can serve both purposes- recognition and greeting.
  • 7. For example: A : Hello ? B : Hi, A : Hi, Eka B : Hi, Mom 4. How-are-you sequence The opening may include a “how-are-you” sequence. The default response is usually “okay: or “fine”. If the default is not used, the how-are-you sequence expands and may become the first topic of conversation if, in fact, it was not the reason for the call. For example: A : Huh-lo? B : He-LO! A : Hi Leo, How are you? B : Fine, how‟re you? A : Hmmm, not so good, I‟ve got B at morphosyntax. In other words, the how-are-you sequence gives the answerer the opportunity to capture the first topic of conversation. For closing the conversation, it is not a simple “good-bye”. Use Preclosing signals such us “well”, “so”, and “okay”. Used with falling intonation are among the signals given by each participant when he/she is ready to close the communication. For example: A : Okay, so B : Yeah A : Yeah, so I‟ll call you tomorrow then B : Okay Mom, talk to you later A : Bye B : Bye
  • 8. 2. Backchannel Signals Backchannel signals secure the transfer of the information that the message is being received and signal the degree of (un)involvedness of the receiver in the communication. They may be verbal (noises: mhm, right, really) or non-verbal (smile, head nod) and may vary as to the degree of their spontaneity (casual conversation) and/or ritualization (religious congregations); in some contexts they may be more obligatory than in others (e.g. teachers´ feedback is mandatory in the classroom interaction). Backchannel signals encourage the speaker to continue. Backchannel or feedback signals differ across setting and according to the roles of speaker. Here is an example of conversation that use backchannel signals; L : Here‟s a little girl E : Uhhuh L : She was walking with the flower in the grass E : mmhmm L : And then she was the ice cream and she told a lady can she have some E : Yeah L : And then the lady, the lady gave her some. 3. Turnover Signals Turnover signals as communication is intrinsically an exchange between two parties, there are signals which project the end of individual contributions, such as turns in conversation and the readiness to ´yield the floor´ of linguistic (end of syntactic unit), paralinguistic (reestablishment of eye-contact), and suprasegmental (lowered intonation). These shifts normally happen smoothly and even if overlaps occur, they may indicate involvement rather than hostility or conflict. The right to produce an extended turn by a speaker is often ensured by a preannouncement or a ticket. In communication there must be a set of signals that allow for a smoothness exchange of turns. Related to turn over signal, Schegloff‟s introduce one term which called “Transition Relevant Place or TRP”. Considering the transition of the
  • 9. communication, there must be a set of signals, they are; slowing of tempo, vowel elongation, falling intonation and a place for an exchange. Sometimes, in turn over signals, overlaps do happen. An overlap is talk in the same time. It does not mean not listening each other or they want to “grab the floor” or interrupt each other. Overlaps show encouragement mush as backchannel signals do. It is just to assure the speaker is not in the conversation alone. For example: Teacher : Who did that land already belong to? Students : Spain ((a few students respond at the same time)) Teacher : And now + explore coming + and claiming it for? Students : England ((several students respond at the same time)) Syntactic completion can also signal a transition-relevant place. A change direction (at or away from the listener) can indicate the end of turn. Or, if speaker begins to raise his or her arms at a possible transition place, listener can project when the turn will end. Again, the next speaker will not normally try to take a turn until the speaker‟s arms are lower. For example: R : Mmhmm sometimes it dangerous because if you go out of chair = chair is name of it? A : Yeah the sadle R : Maybe you die because if you (pause) A : Yeah you hit your head. ((completes turn for R) 4. Acoustically Adequate and Interpretable Messages Acoustically adequate and interpretable messages are requirements that must be met in order to secure a successful message transfer as a prerequisite of its comprehension. Participants are striving to overcome the presence of communication noise (e.g., illegible handwriting, a missed ironical remark) and when they encounter an interpretation problem, a repair or requests for clarification may follow. Also, they make an effort to use identical or similar code, or they may try to adjust their codes and build a special code or register, for example; expert vs. lay communication, baby talk, cf. Beebe and Giles´ (1984).
  • 10. Communication requires ungarbled and interpretable messages that have to be hearable. If the messages are garbled, they must be repaired. Two ways in dealing with difficulty adequate and interpreting messages because of their language level competence are fake it and use backchannel cues. Fake it means that pretending to understand and continuing to interact in the hope that we will catch the theme or focus of the conversation. Communication can continue fairly smoothly, but it may also break down completely since information that allows the participants to build a common theme or focus is missing. As what Gumperz said that participants need not agree on the details of what was meant in any utterance, so long as they have negotiated a common theme or focus. For example: M : (pointing to a picture on Joe‟s wall) What about this? J : Well it‟s called “The Broken Bridge and the Dream”. I uh I‟m not sure what it means. But ya know this is the broken bridge and it‟s kinda looks like = M : = uhhuh J : The more real everything is, everything is solid but as you get closer here (pointing) like man‟s hopes or his aspiration everything becomes a little more transparent less real M : yeah J : Dali would say I‟m wrong. He says everybody's wrong. M : very strange. What‟s that? Use backchannel cues means that let the speaker know we do not understand. Then, the speaker repairs the messages. The message become comprehensible during the repair process, but both the native speaker and language learner may find the need for constant negotiation of repairs too burdensome to make the conversation worth-wile. In the other words, as the talk is negotiated, repaired and readjustments are made, and the talk becomes simplified to the appropriate level. For example; NS : Is it the final? M : Uhh, it‟s un mmm pardon? NS : Is it your final? M : Fi:ne?
  • 11. NS : Are you filing or is it the rough draft + + or the final? M : Oh I see. Final you mean last one. NS : Right. Is it the last one? M : Yesss ((sounds unsure)) NS : Yeah, last copy? M : Mmhmmm (still sounds uncertain) NS : Right++ is it all typed now? To overcome communication breakdown when one partner is not yet proficient in the language or in the content of the material being talked about, we may use: a. a fill in the blank cooperative completion; b. rephrase questions so that less language is demanded of the learner; c. supply answers; d. model the learner‟s response; or e. model better forms of answer. All languages have a variety of repair mechanisms that can be used to reframe messages in moiré acoustically adequate and interpretable forms. 5. Bracket Signals Bracket signals help separate ´off-line´ (side) talk from ´on-line´ talk, they mark the beginning of a side sequence (discourse markers: by the way) and a return to the main message (well, anyway). In writing, the bracketed asides are conventionally marked off spatially (footnotes) or by punctuation (parentheses, dashes). Bracket signals are used to show that parts of the message, “side sequences”, are not right on-line with the message of the moment. To show that the conversation is cut by other action”. By using these signals, it means the next sentences does not include in the main message before. For example:
  • 12. Lecture : (reading a lecture paper) ... to the total of the – ((looks up and directly at audience)) I‟ts very hot here..can you turn on the AC Please.– ((point one of the students then continues reading the text))... Bracket signals also show non-verbal action appears during the communication. For example to show caughing, laughing, taking something, body movement, or picking up and talking on the phone where those actions are not include on-line with the message of the moment. Signals used for bracket signals such as dashes „-...-„, or parentheses „((...)). 6. Nonparticipant Constraints Nonparticipant contraints is where we are not in group of conversation and trying to get into the conversation. There is one strategy used to move from non participant to participant status that is to repeat parts of what one overhears in the ongoing communication. Nonparticipant constraints block up sources of communication noise with potentially disrupting effects. As a result, nonparticipants must compete for the admission to ongoing communication such as change their status from non- participant to participant by gazing steadily or intently, waving, asking for a permission to enter conversation, etc. Here is an example of nonparticipants constraints: (Setting: A coffee shop; two women are speaking together and a man is seated at the next table “listening in”.) A to B : ... like someone from Jakarta. B : yeah C : Someone from Jakarta? I mean, I‟ m from Jakarta and..... Laughter, eye contact and hand waving (non-verbal signals) can also be used as a cue to move from non participant to participant status. 7. Preempt Signals Pre-empt signals are ways of interrupting ongoing communication. As they are presented by a non-participant, permission must be elicited such as by formulaic
  • 13. excuse me, or May I interrupt? The signals may alter the course of communication or bring it to an end. Preempt signals is the condition where we are in a part of conversation but want to stop or interrupt the conversation. The aim of interrupting is not only to stop conversation but also to request repairs or message clarification. But when we want to stop a conversation because of we want to do something else, perhaps preempt signals that we could use be supported by non-verbal action. In a conversation, non- verbal signals which are used such as, a. learning forward; b. shifting forward in our seat; c. opening our eyes wide; d. raising eyebrows; or waving a pencil in the air. 8. Gricean Norms for Communication Conversation is cooperative events, without cooperation and interaction, it would be chaotic and would be no reason to communicate. In other words, communication can not truly work unless participants generally observe the major norms. There is a norm which called maxims that is proposed by Grice in 1975 as criteria for cooperative communication. Grice's Maxims are minimal agreements needed to interact and need to cooperate to achieve goal of "getting information". Avoid certain conversational moves: i.e., lying, deliberate confusion Further, it is called Gricean norms for communication. Gricean norms for communication include the principles of quality, quantity, relevance and clarity. 1. Relevance - "be relevant" Communication messages cannot be random, but must relate to what has gone before. Topic in a conversation is dynamic and is negotiated as a conversational progress. In writing, only one person is building the text, trying to put information into appropriate sequence so that the pieces most highly related to each other come together. (Example 1) A: Do you do buttonholes?
  • 14. B: She'll be back in an hour. (Example 2) A: Do you have orange juice? B: Large or small? Relevant means that have relation or pertinent to the context. To make the message "cohere," contributions must be relevant to what goes before and what one expects might follow. 2. Truthfulness - "be truthful" Cooperative conversationalist does not usually say other than what he or she believes to be true. When we violate truthfulness, we often do so using special intonation for sarcasm, for teasing, or for playfulness. Learning how to move in and out of "truthfulness" with appropriate marking may be acquired early in life, but the markings are not always easy for L2 learners to recognize. 3. Quantity - "be brief" It is very difficult to judge how much sufficient and not excessive quantity of talk is. We want to be brief, but not so brief that our message isn't clear. In conversation, everyone should have his or her “fair” share talk time. No one should “hog” the floor without permission. In writing, some of us are very long winded, while others too brief. 4. Clarity - "be clear" We should avoid obscurity and ambiguity. Our message should be constructed in an orderly way. All four of Grice's maxims are important for effective communication. An example of non-cooperative communication -crosstalk- the study of crosstalk shows how violations of maxims can distort communication.
  • 15. COMMUNICATION THEORY: RITUAL CONSTRAINTS Ritual constraints present a culture-specific reflection of individual system constraints (needless to say, they offer vast possibilities of cross-cultural comparisons pinpointing various differences in cultural assumptions and expectations), which together help build a complicated social network of values, norms of conduct and appropriacy and, when adhered to, equip individual members with a feeling of their social worth. According to Goofman (1976), Ritual Constraints is the social constraints that smooth social interaction. Ritual constraints explain that the system of social markers that allow communication to flow in an appropriate way. We try, throughout our interaction, to show that we and our communication partners are people of social worth. How ritual and system constraints interact and high light cross cultural differences in discussing the interaction will be explained below. 1. Ritual Constraints in Opening/Closing Signals Openings and closing give due recognition to the parties, are of appropriate length and structure, greetings are exchanged reciprocally and with due attention. In all cultures, greeting are given and returned. Such as in some cultures, American is often seen as rude and uncaring because their opening greetings are fairly short. About closing signals, in some languages, every person in the group must be spoken to in the closing. In other social groups one can take leave with non-verbal signals. Sometimes we thought rude or angry, as though we didn‟t wish to enter into communication and rushed to get out of it if opening and closing are too abrupt. And if opening and closing are too extended, we thought as fawning, long-winded or boring, or self centered. All in all, the differences in how opening and closing are to be done in order to show that participants have demonstrated social and intellectual worth differ. Perception regarding these differences can have important social sequence.
  • 16. 2. Ritual Constraints and Backchannel Signals Backchannel cues such as smile are expected to signal interest, support and encouragement. If backchannel signals differ across cultures, we may misjudge the value placed on our participation. For example, a group of Soviet teachers of English came to one of University. Many of them used the English word “well” as a backchannel signal rather than “mmhmmm” and “uhh.” For American teachers as an English speaker, it is inappropriate when using backchannel signals. They felt that the worth of what they were saying was continually being challenged. While, for the Soviet teachers, using backchannel signals during interaction is interesting thing and support for the speakers. Besides, non verbal background signals may also vary across culture. For example, American students usually nod and smile to signals that they are following the lectures, when they understand and interested in their lectures‟ explanation. While, for students of other language, they just keep listening to but not necessarily following or appreciating the lecture. In our environment also, some students usually use frown and lack of eye contact to signals lecturers when the material which given to them is already known and lecture is boring. 3. Ritual Constraints and Turnover Signals In cooperative communication, participants expect to contribute evenly to communication and so they often compete for this ´right´ by timing of their turns such as gaps, latching, and silence as well as by turn ordering or who talks after whom. However, differences in power and status may lead to interactional asymmetries. The turn of talk is different across culture. The gaps, or small silences, between turns at talk also differ across language and culture. For example, in American conversation sometimes there is an overlaps. It means that there is only a little gap between turns. Overlaps in communication let the speaker know that she or he is not talking to the wall but everyone is participating. While, in Scandinavian
  • 17. language, gaps between turns are relatively long. Nevertheless, the important thing is not the differences in length of gaps but the social interpretation made of this small difference. 4. Ritual Constraints and Acoustically Adequate and Interpretable Messages Participants may adjust their codes in order to show alignment and solidarity. They may even play a kind of ´game´ which Hatch (1992) names ´benevolent conspiracy´, viz. they try to conceal communication problems caused by the insufficient overlap (knowledge) of their codes (this may often happen in communication of native with non-native language users); or, participants may wish to exclude the third party by not attempting to accommodate their code. Social consequences are obvious when messages are either too acoustically adequate or acoustically inadequate. For examples, in ordinary conversation, friends use a relaxed register of speech where careful enunciation is not demanded. In fact, if they enunciate each other clearly, or if they are unable to match the general articulation patterns of those around them, there are sure to be social consequences. 5. Ritual Constraints and Bracket Signals Side sequences without overt boundaries may be in certain types of texts (e.g., postmodern fiction) preferred more than in others (e.g., academic writing), and it is the reader who is invited to take greater effort to supply missing connections. Bracket signals help separate ´off-line´ (side) talk from ´on-line´ talk. They mark the beginning of a side sequence (by the way) and a return to the main message (well, anyway). In writing, the bracketed asides are conventionally marked off spatially (footnotes) or by punctuation. Bracket signals differ across language groups and the appropriateness of allowing asides or side sequences also differs. In academic discourse, for example, some language groups allow for what might be called a very ornate style, where personal comments, anecdotes and illustrative side sequences are valued. In other language groups, no such diversion is allowed. Footnotes or notes may be allowed, but side sequences and markers that provide ways of tracing back to the original thesis are not allowed.
  • 18. 6. Ritual Constraints and Nonparticipants Signals Joining communication in progress (e.g., in conversation) may be a difficult task because of the danger that a potential new participant will be treated as an intruder; also whispering and passing notes is a socially sanction able behavior because it excludes another party like assigns participants a non-participant status. Nonparticipant constraints block up sources of communication noise with potentially disrupting effects. As a result, nonparticipants must compete for the admission to ongoing communication by gazing steadily or intently, waving, asking for a permission to enter conversation, etc.. Most of us do not feel comfortable attending a party where we know practically no one. Though we may know the conventional signals for joining the group, we may not be sure our entry into the group will be seen as valuable. When our host draws us into a group, introduces us and tells us something about the others, he or she is trying to build a bridge by establishing that we do indeed belong to the group and that each member of the group has something of worth to contribute. 7. Ritual Constraints and Preempt Signals Preempt signal is Ways of participants to interrupt an ongoing channel message. For examples, in joining the lecture, the tea servers come in to take orders for tea, cigarettes, and biscuits, office people wanting to distribute materials for other courses and family members wishing to talk with the students. Interruptions tend to be treated as disrespectful (and politeness-sensitive) acts, but, depending on the culture, situation, participants, etc., there exist socially ´acceptable interruptions´, i.e., ones without damaging effects to one´s face (e.g., when a task is urgent or beneficial to the ´interrupter´). 8. Ritual Constraints and Grice’s Maxims The lack of adherence to the principles of cooperation usually leads to social sanctions. For example, some conversationalists may be disliked or hence only suffered or even avoided because they offer too much irrelevant detail (violation of the principle of quantity), they are incapable of talking to the point (violation of the
  • 19. principle of relevance), they may provide information which appears to contravene reality (violation of the principle of quality) and they may often lose sight of the main focus (violation of the principle of clarity). In none of the cases do they behave cooperatively. It is not the case, though, that conversationalists are always clearly focused or that they never lie - it is their partners´ assumption that they do observe the principles. Underlying all human communication is the mutually shared effort to achieve communication success and, at the same time, present oneself as a competent social creature while respecting identical social needs of the others. In relevant maxim, we expect listeners will judge our talk not only as relevant but also as a valuable contribution to the theme of the conversation. We also expect that the speaker says what he/she believes to be true or be truthful. While, the maxim of quantity is differ greatly among language and social groups. The allowable quantity of talk relates to turn taking, it also relates to the amount of information given in talk. For example, in religious services, only a limited number of people are allowed to talk for any length of time. There are also social consequences linked to the notion of clarity maxim. For example in American prose, it is customary to use headings to promote clarity to help the reader remember the writer‟s focus or theme.
  • 20. SCRIPTS AND COMMUNICATION THEORY A. The Script The central focus of Schank's theory has been the structure of knowledge, especially in the context of language understanding. Schank (1975) outlined contextual dependency theory which deals with the representation of meaning in sentences. Building upon this framework, Schank & Abelson (1977) introduced the concepts of scripts, plans and themes to handle story-level understanding. Later work (e.g., Schank, 1982, 1986) elaborated the theory to encompass other aspects of cognition. The key element of conceptual dependency theory is the idea that all conceptualizations can be represented in terms of a small number of primitive acts performed by an actor on an object. For example, the concept, "John read a book" could be represented as: John MTRANS (information) to LTM from book, where MTRANS is the primitive act of mental transfer. In Schank's theory, all memory is episodic, i.e., organized around personal experiences rather than semantic categories. Generalized episodes are called scripts -- specific memories are stored as pointers to scripts plus any unique events for a particular episode. Scripts allow individuals to make inferences needed for understanding by filling in missing information (i.e., schema). Schank (1986) uses script theory as the basis for a dynamic model of memory. This model suggests that events are understood in terms of scripts, plans and other knowledge structures as well as relevant previous experiences. An important aspect of dynamic memory is explanatory processes (XPs) that represent stereotyped answers to events that involve analomies or unusual events. Schank proposes that XPs are a critical mechanism of creativity. Scripts are similar to schemata, though they are more specific and are not as flexible based on context. Scripts carry detailed information on how events unfold and in what particular order. In the restaurant script, for example, the participants wait to be seated, a host or waiter takes them to their table and gives them menus. The participants are then left to choose something off the menu, they order food, wait
  • 21. for food, and then eat it. Then they wait for the bill, pay the bill, and leave (Jay, 2003). Knowing the script guides people on how to behave in a restaurant situation, and provides an outline for how to write stories involving restaurants. In social cognition theory, scripts are essentially perception-and action schemas. Aschema is "a spatially and/or temporally organized cognitive structure in which the parts are connected on the basis of contiguities that have been experienced in time or space" (Mandler, 1979:263). Scripts are generalized event schemas, which are "derived from concrete experience of events and thus represent „how the world works.' Nonetheless, they are very much abstractions from experienced reality." (Nelson, 1986:8). Schemas organize both perception and action, and this applies equally to scripts: 'A script is a knowledge structure in long-term memory that specifies the conditions and actions for achieving a goal" (Barsalou, 1992:76); compare "scripts tell people what to do in familiar situations" (Nelson, 1981:109). Script theory attempts to explain how individuals understand and act within a recognizable and routinely ordered world of events. It assumes that events themselves (social events primarily) are more or less ordered and predictable, such that competence to perceive, to recall, and to take part in those events rests on our capacity as individuals to draw generalized abstractions across variations in experience, and to notice and learn from exceptions (expectation failures). This foundational "cognitive-perceptual" meta theory is retained across variations and developments in its basic principles (Abelson, 1981; Schank, 1982; Schank & Abelson, 1977), and throughout its various extensions from cognitive science into experimental psychology (e.g., Bellezza & Bower, 1982; Bower, Black, & Tirrner, 1979; Graesser, Woll, Kowalski, & Smith, 1981), developmental psychology (e.g., Nelson, 1981, 1986; Nelson & Gruendel, 1986), and social psychology (e.g., A belson,1976, 1981; Wyur Carlston, 1979). The classic example is the restaurant script. Nelson (1981, p' 102) offers the following useful summary, derived from schank and Abelson (1977). Based on the description above, it can be conclude that the structure of a script includes a set of actions in temporal sequence to meet a goal. Within a script, there are three main points, they are; scenes, actors (roles), props and actions. Scenes
  • 22. are the place where the script is happened. For example, a restaurant script will include an ordering scene, eating scene and paying scene. Actor roles are independent of the individual person who plays the roles. For example, a customer in shopping script. Props are an important thing of the script. For example, in a grocery shopping script, the items for sale, the checkout counter, the register and the basket are important to the script. Each actor carries a series of actions to meet his or her goal within script. B. The Application of Script Script theory is primarily intended to explain language processing and higher thinking skills. A variety of computer programs have been developed to demonstrate the theory. Schank (1991) applies his theoretical framework to storytelling and the development of intelligent tutors. Shank & Cleary (1995) describe the application of these ideas to educational software. C. The Example of Script The classic example of Schank's theory is the restaurant script. The script has the following characteristics: Scene 1: Entering S PTRANS S into restaurant, S ATTEND eyes to tables, S MBUILD< where to sit, S PTRANS S to table, S MOVE S to sitting position. Scene 2: Ordering S PTRANS< menu to S (menu already on table), S MBUILD< choice of food, S MTRANS< signal to waiter, waiter PTRANS to table, S MTRANS< 'I want food' to waiter, waiter PTRANS to cook. Scene 3: Eating Cook ATRANS food to waiter, waiter PTRANS food to S, S INGEST food Scene 4: Exiting waiter MOVE write check, waiter PTRANS to S, waiter ATRANS check to S, S ATRANS money to waiter, S PTRANS out of restaurant. There are many variations possible on this general script having to do with different types of restaurants or procedures. For example, the script above assumes
  • 23. that the waiter takes the money; in some restaurants, the check is paid to a cashier. Such variations are opportunities for misunderstandings or incorrect inferences. D. Principles of Script Based on Schank (1991) theory of script, the principles of script are as follows: 1. Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction. 2. All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primative acts. 3. All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts. 4. Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal/written discourse. 5. Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans. E. The Classroom Script As teachers and as students, we participate in many school-related scripts. one of them is the language classroom script. There is general idea of what the goal of the classroom or learning objectives. During teaching and learning process, there are some activities or scenes. The actors in a classroom script include the teacher and the students. The teacher and students MOVE from place to place and DO a series of actions within classroom. Some of these actions are PTRANS as students place their books on desks, ATRANS as the teacher collects and returns papers, and MTRANS as ideas are exchange among students and teachers. There are a number ways in which the actions of the classroom have been described aside from script theory. Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) divided the discourse into lessons, which include transactions, which include exchange made up moves, which include acts. These could be integrated into script using the DO segment of the script and the primitives of MTRANS, MBUILD, PTRANS, ATRANS and so on. The teachers and students together DO the lesson and they contribute to transactions, exchange, moves and acts according to their roles.
  • 24. In Sinclair and Coullthard‟s system, the lesson is made up of transactions. These transactions include preliminary, medial and terminal exchanges. There are several subtypes of teaching exchange that could be classified as DO or MTRANS in script theory. Each exchange elaborates moves. There are types of moves, they are; framing moves, focusing moves, opening moves, answering moves and follow-up moves. Framing moves indicate that the one stages of the lesson is ended and another is about to begin, for examples, “right, OK, well” or a stressed silence. Focusing moves tell the students what the students is going to happen or what has happened. For example: Framing : Right (silence stress). Now, Focusing : What we‟ve done, what we‟ve just done is we‟ve decided how to outline our arguments. Opening moves get students to participate in the teaching exchange. These are often following by an answering move. For example: Opening : there were differences in who interrupted the most. Do you know who did the most interruption? I‟m sure you do. Vanessa? Answering : The-the men did. At least in meetings. The answering moves is then given a follow-up moves. Follow-up : The men did. That‟s another important finding. Each of these moves is further subdivided into acts. For example, in the framing move, “right” and “now” are marker acts. The system used by Sinclair and Clouthard allow you to take a classroom transcript and annotate it in a way that reveals levels of structure within it. F. Script and Memory Schank (1982) suggest that scripts serve as pointers to two types of memory, general event memory such as your memory of visit to the dentist and situation memory, which includes memory of common to many events such as paying a bill.
  • 25. M-Doctor M-POV Need Make Appt. Go Enter waiting room M- Contract $Doctor Pay Thus, a visit to the dentist is no longer a script. If it were, we could no transfer knowledge across scripts (say from the dentist to the doctor), nor could we transfer parts of scripts, for example paying a doctor for services is part of a more general contract script,. Lytinen and Schank (1982) represent a visit to the doctor‟s office as calling up two other MOPS, one for professional office visit and another for the contract. The M-Contract is one that would be activated in all services encounter scripts. M- POV refers to professional office visit. A MOP activated by doctor, dentist, lawyer, or other such service visit. Note for the diagram above is as follows: M-Doctor M-POV, M-Contract M-Contract Negotiate + get service + pay M-Professional Office Visit (M-POV) Have problem + make appointment + go + enter + waiting room + get service In conclusion, scripts direct us in a sense to generic outline memory. When we encounter a new instance, we immediately understand much of what will happen based on the general event memory. We understand what processes are involved and what roles are to be played.
  • 26. SPEECH ACTS AND SPEECH EVENTS A. Speech Acts Conversation analysis is an approach to the study of natural conversation both verbal and non-verbal in situations of daily life, especially with a view to determining the participants‟ ways of turn taking, constructing sequences of utterances across turns, identifying and repairing problems, and employing gaze and movement. It also determines how conversation works in different conventional settings. Conversation analysis was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s principally by the sociologist Harvey Sacks and his close associates Emanuel Scheghloff and Gail Jefferson. In the present age conversation analysis is an established method used in sociology, anthropology, linguistics, speech- communication and psychology. It is particularly influential in interactional sociolinguistics, discourse analysis and discursive psychology, as well as being a coherent discipline in its own rigtht. Recently, Conversation analysis techniques of sequential analysis have been employed for instance by phoneticians to explore the fine phonetic detail of speech (Kelly and Local: 1989). In analyzing conversations one should, among other things, be aware of speech acts. According to Austin (1962), the acts performed by uttering something are called speech acts. There are three levels at which speech acts are analyzed. They are as follows: 1. Locutionary Act Lucotionary act is the act of saying or writing something in a language. It should be constructed by respecting the grammatical rules of the language we are speaking. It can be analyzed syntactically, morphologically, phonetically, etc. Locutionary act is simply the speech act that has taken place the performance of an utterance. A locutionary act is the act of using a referring expression and a predicating expression to express a proposition. For example:
  • 27. “I warn you to stop smoking” It constitutes an expressed locutionary act because its propositional content predicates a future act (to stop smoking) of the hearer (you). 2. Illocutionary Speech Act Illocutionary speech act is a complete speech act, made through utterances that consist of the delivery of the propositional contents of the utterance and a particular illocutionary force, by which a speaker asserts, suggests, demands, promises. For example, in saying, "Watch out, the ground is slippery", It performs the speech act of warning to someone to be careful. 3. Perlocutionary Speech Act A perlocutionary speech act is a speech act that produces an effect, intended or not, achieved in an addressee by a speaker‟s utterance. Perlocutionary effect is in some sense external to the performance, it may be thought of, in a sense, as the effect of the illocutionary act. Therefore, when examining perlocutionary acts, the effect on the hearer or reader is emphasized. For example, if the addressee complies with the illocutionary speech act, that means, if he/she carries out the act of bringing a glass of water, it will be a perlocutionary speech act. According to John Searle (1975), all speech act classified into five categories, they are; directives, commissives, representatives, declaratives and expressive. 1. Directives Directives are speech acts where the speaker requests the hearer to carry out some action or to bring about some state of affairs. Speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. Directives express what the speaker wants, such as commands, orders, requests, and suggestions whether it is positive or negative. The speaker attempts to make the world fit the words via the hearer. For examples: - Gimme a cup of coffe. Make it black - Could you lend me a pen, please? - Don't touch that
  • 28. To account the choice of directives forms, Ervin-Tripp (1972) classify directives into five types that include the relationship between the speaker and the addressee roles, they are: a. Personal need or desire statements, for example, “I need a book or I want a book”. Addressee is subordinates. b. Imperative, for example, “gimme a cake”. The addressee is subordinates or familiar equals. c. Imbedded imperative, for example, “Could you give me charger, please?” The addressee is unfamiliar people; a person who differs in rank or who are physically distant; people who is in his or her own territory; or someone whose willingness to comply is in doubt. d. Permission directive, for example, “May I have this pen? Is there any cake left?” The addressee is someone who might not comply and also used when there is an obstacle to compliance. e. Hint (sometimes with humor), for example, “This has to be done over. What about yours?” The addressee is person with shared rules such as members of a family, people living together and work group. 2. Commissives Commissives are speech acts where the purpose of which is to commit the speaker to carry out some action or to bring about some state of affairs. Commissive peech acts that speaker use to commit themselves to some future action. They express what the speaker intends, they are promises, threats, refusals, pledges. They can be performed by the speaker alone, or by as a member of a group. The speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words via the speaker For examples: - I'll be back - I'm going to get it right next time - We will not do that
  • 29. 3. Representatives Representatives are speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not, statements of fact, assertions, conclusions and descriptions are all examples of the speaker representing the world as he/she believes. The speaker makes words fit the world (of belief). For examples: - The earth is flat - Chomsky didn't write about peanuts - It was a warm sunny day A representative speech act can be judged for truth value. It usually also called assertive speech act. Representatives may vary in terms of how hedged or aggravated the assertion might be. Hedges are not always the same as “weasel words” which temper directness if a statement. However, hedges also serve a ritual function. They may act like disfluencies in something over a disagreement with a conversational partner. 4. Declaratives Declaratives are the speech acts that change the world via their utterance. The speaker has to have a special institutional role, in a specific situation. The speaker changes the world via words. In other words, Declaratives are speech acts where the speaker brings about some state of affairs by the mere performance of the speech act. For examples: - Priest : I now pronounce you husband and wife - Referee : You're out - Jury Foreman : We find the defendant guilty 5. Expressives Expressives are speech acts that state what the speaker feels. They express psychological states and can be statements of pleasure, pain, likes, dislikes, joy and sorrow. The speaker makes words fit the world (of feeling). For examples: - I'm really sorry
  • 30. - Congratulations! - Oh yes, great, mmmmm! Some speech acts like apologizing, promising, and thanking, can be performed by anyone, whereas others like, arresting, and declaring war, bear important restrictions; allowing only qualified people to perform them under suitable circumstances. Nowadays, even computer systems can be allowed to perform speech acts, e.g., granting parking permits, issuing passports, etc. B. Speech Act Functions and Subfunctions While the Council drew on the work of Austin and Searle, the final set of speech functions differ somewhat. There are six major functions of speech acts, they are as follows. 1. Exchange factual information, for example, “The bus arrives at 8 a.m.” (representative speech act). 2. Exchange intellectual information, for example, “Your answer is correct” (representative speech act). 3. Exchange emotional attitudes, for example, “She is really worried about me” (expressive speech act). 4. Exchange moral attitudes, for example, “The teacher appreciates the best students” (expressive speech act). 5. Suasion, for example, “Submit your paper as soon as possible” (directive speech act). 6. Socializing, for example, “Hi, Ridhel, what‟s up!” (directive speech act). In the notional-functional framework, each function is divided into subfunction then. The following is a list of some of the sub functions identified in van Ek (1976). 1. Imparting or seeking factual information: identify, ask, report, say, and think X. 2. Express or discover intellectual attitudes: state whether you/ask if others agree or disagree, know or don‟t know, remember or forgot, ask or give information, accept or decline an offer/invitation.
  • 31. 3. Express or inquire about emotional attitudes: express your own or question others‟ interest or lack of interest, surprise, hope, disappointed, fear or worry, intention, want or desire. 4. Express or question moral attitudes: express or request, apology or forgiveness, approval or disapproval, appreciation, regret, indifference. 5. Suasion: suggest, request, invite, instruct, advise or warn someone to not do something. 6. Socializing: greet, take leave, introduce, congratulate, and begin a meal. These lists functions have become the basis for “threshold” level syllabus design in teaching where the emphasis is on teaching functions. The functions are sequenced into a syllabus so that students are taught how to apologize, express preference or disappointment, disagree and so on. Linguists may use different names for functions, but most descriptions do resemble each other. Halliday‟s system (1975, 1976) although not incorporated into a teaching syllabus is widely used in child language research. Halliday‟s primary functions include: 1. Instrumental that serves our wants or needs. 2. Regulatory that lets us control actions. 3. Interactional that gets attention and allows us to interact with others. 4. Personal that expresses our individual personalities through language. 5. Heuristic that helps us build our own worlds, such as “teach me” or “tell me.” 6. Imaginative that helps us build our own worlds, such as “let‟s pretend.” 7. Informative that let us share information with others. C. Speech Act Analysis Speech act analysis has provided researchers with a valuable way to look at language function and the connection between function and grammar forms. Much work has been done on children‟s acquisition of particular function, for example, comprehension of direct and indirect directives. In spite of the insight that can be gained from speech act analysis, a number problem remains in applying to language analysis. First, it is difficult to input the
  • 32. function speakers intend for utterance, especially if one has recourse only to an utterance out of context. Second, it is not clear how the subcategories relate to one another. Third, it is still relate what has to do with the system. Speech act analysis has been of value to applied linguistics as researchers and test and materials developers have moved to include it as one of the many resources available for their work. In addition, speech act theory has lead to the design of the national-functional syllabus in language teaching, setting off a major change in language teaching methodology, away from an emphasis on linguistic form to an emphasis on language use. D. Speech Events According to Richards et. al (1985), speech events are activities that are ordered by norms and rules for the use of human speech. Language users in such events use language that indicate the way the participants belong to or their social interactions. In analyzing conversations speech events are also to be considered. While, Hatch (1992) stated that speech event is larger unit with multiple turns, for example, job interview. A speech event is an activity in which participants interact via language in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome. It may include one obvious central speech act. Also, may include other utterances leading up to and subsequently reacting to that central action. For example: A: Oh, Mary, I'm glad you're here. B: What's up? A: I can't get my computer to work. (the request is the whole speech event) B: Is it broken? not a single speech act. A: I don't think so. B: What's it doing? (no actual request is made) A: I don't know. I'm useless with computers. B: What kind is it? A: It's a Mac. Do you use them?
  • 33. B: Yeah. A: Do you have a minute? B: Sure. A: Oh, great The question 'Do you have a minute?' could be characterized as a pre-request, allowing the hearer to say that she's busy or that she has to be somewhere else. While, the response 'Sure' is taken to be an acknowledgement not only of having time available, but a willingness to perform the unstated action. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar said that a speech event can be defined by a unified set of components throughout same purpose of communication, same topic, same participants, and same language variety (generally). For example: exchanging greetings, telling jokes, giving speeches. Three examples of speech events are compliments, complaints, and advice. 1. Compliments Olshtain and Weinbach (1988) looked at 330 Israeli & 330 American responses on DCT and found five forms of response: a. reinforcing the compliment b. simply thanking the complimenter c. agree with it d. justify it e. express surprise Compliments serve to invigorate, establish or create or hearten solidarity between the speaker and the hearer. Holmes (1986) says, “Compliments are positive expression or evaluation, which is directed either explicitly or implicitly to someone for something valued positively by the speaker and the hearer.” So, it is evident that the function of compliments is to establish and maintain social connections and amiability between participants. Conversation where a father is complimenting his daughter on her success in a music examination and its analysis: Father : Nuha (.) How was your exam today? Daughter : My exam was fantastic=My teacher told me, “Well done!”
  • 34. Father : CONGRATULATIONS! Daughter : Thank you. Father : You are welcome! Daughter : I have an art exam tomorrow. Father : O.K. Practice it. =You can do well in that also. Among a number of functions of compliments, Hatch (1992) says, one is to reinforce and encourage good performance. Analyzing the above conversation it has been found that the language used is of politeness. Next, the function of the compliments is a positive evaluation of the daughter‟s performance in the examination she has done well. This compliment on the part of the father will work to enhance the bonds between the father and the daughter. Again, this conversation has turn-allocation component of the turn taking system. It means that the speaker and the hearer know when to speak and when to end. Then, the adjacency pairs are also conspicuous. “Congratulations, Thank You, and Welcome” have been used in usual sequence. Furthermore, the event structure of the compliment can be described as “compliment + acknowledgement/acceptance + bridge (congratulations + thank you + I have another exam…).” In conclusion, compliment speech events have a definite structure that can be described. Parts of the event are optional (compliment elicitation, agreement, thanks). Parts are obligatory (compliment statement, acknowledgment, bridge). Compliment has several functions and those functions relate to their position in conversations. Compliment may be offered to encourage good performance, to show thanks and to criticism. The functions of compliments may turn out to be very similar across language groups. When and where compliments are appropriate, however, are more likely to be language or culture-specific. 2. Complaints Some people are naturally positive and optimistic, whereas others tend to see the world in a more negative light and always think the glass is half-empty which is half-full. Therefore, it is only natural that some people tend to complain more than
  • 35. others do. However, complaining is not always a measuring device to judge how pessimistic a person is. Just because some people complain a lot, it cannot be said that they are unhappy. Obviously, there is some connection between what happens in someone‟s life and the things that they complain about. Complaints are meant to contrast what is with what ought to be. De Capua (1988) study showed female made more requests for repairs than male. While, Boxer (1993) study indicated that female mostly commiserated with indirect complaints and male were prone to contradict or to give advice. These is the classification of complaints: Strategies combination Remarks Indirect complaint • It’s ok. Don’t worry about it. • It’s ok. Accidents happen. • It’s ok. It’s not like you meant to do it. Request for repair • Do/ Don’t do X • Can (Could) I/you X… • I’d like to X… • I was wondering if I/you can (could) X… Brown and Levinson (1978) categorized complaints as “face-threatening acts”, acts that have strong potential for disturbing the state of personal relationships. Brown and Levinson suggested three kinds of reactions to complaints, they are: a. Decide not to perform the complaint at all. b. Use “off-record” strategies, such as hints, vagueness, or rhetorical questions. c. Use bald “on record” strategies, such as direct or clear statements. Later, “on record” strategies categorized as showing positive when the listener‟s positive self image is of concern or negative politeness when the speaker‟s freedom of action, freedom from imposition, and the addressee‟s negative self-image are central. In the data from Americans, negative politeness was used, but the complaints were softened with hedges: R : Do you have any idea how long you‟ll be staying . . . just curious.
  • 36. A : Uh . . . any chance of your maybe keeping . . . a little bit . . . shorter hours during the week or something . . . maybe just going out on the weekends. R : Ummmm . . . just a … we-we‟ve been kinda … ummm … well … we go to bed kinda early around here. A : We were wondering if ah … if it would … if you wouldn’t mind … and if you could manage to come home a little bit earlier. The role plays of the Chinese were classified as positive politeness filled with statements of concern for an interest in the guest: Pu yao … ma … kung tso nema shin ku a tao san ching pan yeh … ti erh t‟ien tsao shang i ta tsao yao ch‟u ch‟u … chei yang t‟ai hsin ku … chen t‟i chung yao. ( don‟t … work so hard till midnight … the next day go out very early … this way it‟s too hard on you … health is important). So far we have note that complaints have patterns that are influenced by the social need to maintain good relationships. Complaint speech events typically contain on opening that includes an identification of the complainer and an explanation of why he or she is entitled to complain, for example, self-justification for the complaint. Complaints are often presented to service agencies and business in written form. 3. Advice An analysis of advice speech events shows that here, too, a template or script is easily discernible. Hatch (1992) notes that the components of advice follow a predefined sequence. Normally, a group of components for seeking and giving advice mostly follow the order below. a. Opening b. Participant identification c. Problem statement d. Symptom negotiation e. Diagnosis f. Advice g. Advice negotiation
  • 37. h. Advice acceptance i. Preclosing j. Closing A conversation involving academic advice in an admissions office of a university (Bangladesh University, Dhaka) and its analysis: Student : Hello! (Can I have some information?) Adviser : Hello! O yea. DEFINITELY. (Can I help you?) Student : I would like to know about your MA courses in your university + MA in English. Adviser : Mmmm(.3) + We have + we offer MA in English over here++ We have it on literature+MA in literature. Student : What is the duration of the course? Adviser : Mmmm actually we have two options mmm over here. Like + if you were a student with honours‟ degree + a bachelor‟ s degree in English, then the one-year course for you. Mmm(.2) but mmm if you don‟ t have a bacherlor‟ sdgreee in English + then it is a two-year course. Student : Don‟ have a MA in ELT? Adviser : Mmm. actually at the moment we don‟ t have it + haven‟ tMmm(.2) MA ELT but we are planning to start from next year. Student : Do you have hostel facilities for girls? Adviser : O yea + of course + we have a very good facility over here for girls only. Mmm, + yea + for girls. Student : O.K. Thank you. Adviser : Any other questions? Student : No, no, I will come later. Conversation analysis is the way to identify the components better. Here in this advice speech event conversation also the sequence of components occur like agency pairs. After the opening the advice seeker poses a question whether she may have some information and when she asks the question, “If they (the university) have MA in English course”, the problem is revealed and that should be solved by the
  • 38. adviser. The advice seekers, as in here, normally spend much time to know in detail about their query. Then the advice giving sequence begins. Sometimes, the advice is readily accepted but sometimes not. As is the case in here, the advice is not readily accepted. It is assumed that some more negotiation is required. When the first questions “whether the university has MA in English”, what the duration were answered, the advice seeker does not say she has accepted the advice. Rather she goes on asking whether they have a MA in ELT and hostel facilities. Here the advice seeker does not seem to accept the advice because at the end of the advice session she just thanks the adviser. When asked whether she has any other questions, she says “no” and adds that she will come again. However, whether the advice is accepted or rejected, the sequential order of the components of the advising speech event has been maintained. E. Speech Event Analysis In speech event analysis, we are concerned with how speech act functions are realized in larger units. The structure of the event forms a template similar to those of scripts. Speech event analysis also attempts to build an abstract representation by identifying components like what have been explained above in speech event examples. In sociolinguistics, speech event analysis would include a description of the speech setting, the participants, and the structure of the event set in a template sequence. In applied linguistics, given the popularity of the notional-functional approach to language teaching, it was only a matter of time before researcher began to look at the cross-culture or cross-linguistic similarities in speech act and speech events. For examples, the research which examining similarities and differences of speech acts and speech events across different language group, such as Wolfson and Judd (1983) and Blum-Kulka et al. (1989). It is not only shows us that speech events have structure in all languages but also the value that discourse analysis of this type has for teaching profession.
  • 39. REFERENCES Atkinson, J., and Heritage, J. 1984. Structure of Social Action: Studies in Conversational Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austin, J. L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Blum-Kulka, S.,; House, J.; and Kasper, G. 1989. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Request and Apologies. Norwood, N.J:Ablex. Brown, G., and Yule, G. 1981. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, P., and Levinson, S. 1978. Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. In E. Goody (Ed.), Questions and Politeness: Strategies in Social Interaction, p: 56-310. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ervin-Tripp, S. 1977. Is Sybil There? The Structure of American Directives. Language in Society, 5, 25-66. Goffman, E. 1976. Replies and Responses. Language and Society, 5, 3: 254-313. Hatch, E. 1992. Discourse and Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Halliday, M. A. K. 1975. Learning How to Mean: Explorations in the Development of Language. London: Edward Arnold. Halliday, M. A. K. 1976. Early Language Learning: A Sociolingustic Approach. In W. McCormack and S. Wurn (Eds.) Language and Man. Anthropological Issues (pp. 97-124). The Hague: Mounton. Richards, M. 1985. Teacher Talk: Experimental Classroom Research of the ESL Teacher Register. Master‟s Thesis, Applied Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles. Schank, R. 1982. Dynamic Memory: A Theory of Remind and Learning in Computers and People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schank, R. C., and Abelson, R. 1977. Script, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
  • 40. Schank, R.C. 1986. Explanation Patterns: Understanding Mechanically and Creatively. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Schank, R.C. 1975. Conceptual Information Processing. New York: Elsevier. Schegloff, E. A. 1968. Sequencing in Conversatinal Openings. American Antropologist, 70, 6:1075-1095. Schegloff, E. A., and Sacks, H. 1973. Opening up Closing. Semiotica, 8, 4:287-327. Searle, J. R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, J. R. 1975a. ‘A taxonomy of illocutionary acts’. In K. Gunderson (ed), Language, Mind and Knowledge. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 344–369. Searle, J. R. 1975b. „Indirect speech acts’. In Syntax and Semantics, 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole & J. L. Morgan, pp. 59–82. New York: Academic Press. Sinclair, J. and Coulthard, R. M. 1975. Towards an Analysis of Discourse. London: Oxford University Press. Van Ek, J. A. 1976. The Treshold Level for Modern Language Teaching in Schools. London: Longman. Wolfson, N.; and Judd, E. 1983. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition. Rowley, Mass.: Newburry House.
  • 41. PORTFOLIO DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AGUSSATRIANA 13B01052 Class A GRADUATE PROGRAM
  • 42. STATE UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR 2014