Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
Teaching English for specific purposes
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.



Download to read offline

Discourse Analysis

Download to read offline

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Discourse Analysis

  1. 2. Discourse Analysis presented to Madam Rabia Akram by Muhammad Sajid us Salam Mphil Linguistics Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
  2. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is Discourse Analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>The origin of the term “Discourse Analysis” </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Discourse Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between text and discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Textual functions </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion and Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal functions </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions of conversations like turn-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operative principle </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge </li></ul>
  3. 4. DA and Zelling Harris <ul><li>The term discourse analysis was first employed by Zelling Harris as the name for ‘a method for the analysis of the connected speech or writing for continuing descriptive linguistics beyond the limit of a single sentece at a time and for correlating culture and language’ ( Harris 1952) </li></ul>
  4. 5. The meanings of discourse <ul><li>The word discourse is an elastic term, </li></ul><ul><li>The word discourse has a complex history. It is used in a range of different ways by different theorists. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally the word ‘discourse’ comes from Latin, ‘discursus’ which denoted ‘conversations’, ‘speech’. </li></ul><ul><li>As a noun it can mean verbal communication, talk, formal speech or writing on a subject and a unit of text used by linguists for the analysis of linguistic phenomena that range over more than one sentence </li></ul>
  5. 6. Definition of Discourse Analysis <ul><li>Discourse analysis is the study of how stretches of language used in communication assume meaning, purpose and unity for their users: the quality of coherence (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics by Keith Johnson and Helen Johnson,1998) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Two domains of language <ul><li>TEXT/ SENTENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Text is a message coded in auditory or visual medium </li></ul><ul><li>Essays, notices, road signs etc </li></ul><ul><li>DISCOURSE </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal activity/ transaction between speaker and hearer </li></ul><ul><li>Written as well as spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews, commentaries, speeches, etc </li></ul>
  7. 8. Difference between Text and Discourse <ul><li>According to David Crystal Discourse analysis focuses on the structure of naturally o </li></ul><ul><li>ccuring spoken language, as found in such ‘discourses’ as conversations, interviews, commentaries and speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>Text analysis focuses on the structure of written language, as found in such ‘texts’ as essays, notices, road signs and chapters. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Geoffery Leech and Michael Short; ‘’discourse’’ is linguistic communication seen as transaction between speaker and hearer, as an interpersonal activity whose form is determined by its ‘’social purpose’’. </li></ul>
  8. 9. What do we do in Discourse Analysis? <ul><li>We analyze and investigate all those features of that are part of the total communicative act: context of utterance, relationships, mode of discourse and so on </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational behavior is observed </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions of conversation (turn-taking) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for beginning and ending a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>How topics appear and disappear </li></ul><ul><li>How different speech acts (e.g. politeness) are performed </li></ul><ul><li>To establish underlying norms of conversation </li></ul>
  9. 10. Agenda of Discourse Analysis <ul><li>To establish underlying norms of conversation that people implicitly follow by </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational behavior is observed </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions of conversation turn-taking) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for beginning and ending a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>How topics appear and disappear </li></ul><ul><li>How different speech acts (e.g. politeness) are performed </li></ul>
  10. 11. Two main areas of DA <ul><li>It is centrally occupied with two main linguistic functions: </li></ul><ul><li>The interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Textual </li></ul>
  11. 12. Linguistic functions of DA <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Because it focuses on the way in which we use language as a means of interacting with others </li></ul><ul><li>Textual </li></ul><ul><li>Because it also focuses on our ability to construct coherent/cohesive texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Texts can be written or spoken </li></ul>
  12. 13. Importance of Discourse Analysis <ul><li>Since it has a large agenda, it continues to have a wide appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Language is irreducible part of social life </li></ul><ul><li>In speech behavior not only linguists but sociologists, anthropologists and psychologists are also interested. </li></ul><ul><li>DA is helpful in other forms of analysis like ethnography( the study of races of people) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Coherence and cohesion Textual function
  14. 15. Difference between Cohesion and Coherence <ul><li>Cohesion in a text comes from the rules of sentence connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence means the degree to which a piece of discourse makes sense. </li></ul><ul><li>The following is an example of both cohesion and coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>A : Can you go to Lahore tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes, I can. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example second sentence is linked with first in sequential order. This is cohesion. It is also coherent because B has given an appropriate response to A. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Example of coherence <ul><li>In the following example the aforementioned concept will be more clear. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Can you go to Lahore tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>B: there is a general strike. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus two sentences are not cohesive because the second sentence is not linked to the first sentence in a grammatical sense. There is no repetition or obvious connection between the two sentences. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cohesive Devices <ul><li>Pronouns or Substitution : In order to avoid repeating the same words several times in one paragraph it is replaced, most often by one, do or so. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis: It is very similar to substitution, however, it replaces a phrase by a gap. (Omission of noun, verb, or a clause on the assumption) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions: Specifies the relationship between clauses or sentences. Most frequent relations of sentences are: addition (and, moreover), temporality (afterwards, next) and causality (because, or since). </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: The use of words which do not have meanings of their own, such as pronouns and articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical cohesion : Denotes links between words which carry meanings: verbs, nouns, adjectives. There are two types of lexical cohesion namely reiteration and collocation. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Conversational Interaction The underlying rules of conversation that people implicitly follow (Interpersonal function)
  18. 19. Conversational interaction <ul><li>Conversation is an activity where two or more people take turns at speaking. </li></ul>A B interaction
  19. 20. How ‘B’ comes to know that its his or her turn? <ul><li>Signaling of completion point( by the speaker) </li></ul><ul><li>Ways of signaling completion point </li></ul><ul><li>1. by asking a question </li></ul><ul><li>2. by giving a pause at the end of sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling by the listener to say something . </li></ul><ul><li>1. B. starts to make short sounds while A is talking. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Body shifts. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Facial expressions. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Strategies of conversational interaction. <ul><li>Normal expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Completion points are marked by the end of a sentence and a pause. </li></ul><ul><li>1. One way to keep the turn is to avoid having those two indicators occur together. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Make your sentences run on by using connectors such as and, and then, so, but </li></ul><ul><li>3. Place your pauses at points where the message is clearly incomplete. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Preferably fill the pauses with hesitation markers such as ‘err’ ‘en; ‘un’ um’ </li></ul>
  21. 22. Example <ul><li>A: that’s their favorite restaurant because they…. In France they couldn’t believe it that….you know that they had….that they had had better meals back home. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Pauses are placed before or after verbs rather than at the end of the sentences. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Example <ul><li>X: I mean his other…..em his later films were much more….er really more in the romantic style and tht was more what what he was….you know…em best at doing. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Note of Caution. <ul><li>These strategies should not be considered undesirable. </li></ul><ul><li>These are a part of daily conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>These make conversation work. </li></ul><ul><li>These strategies make possible a non-cooperative discourse. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Co-operative principle Interpersonal function
  25. 26. Co-operative principle <ul><li>The underlying in most conversational exchanges assumption seems to be that the participants are in fact cooperating with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful communication takes place where people are cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>It is certainly true that, on some occasions, we can experience conversational exchanges in which the cooperative principle does not seem to be in operation but in most cases this principle is observed </li></ul>
  26. 27. Supportive maxims of co-operative principle <ul><li>1.quantity (the right required amount of information) </li></ul><ul><li>2.quality (say true no false) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Relation (be relevant) </li></ul><ul><li>4.Clarity (avoid obscurity, be brief and orderly) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational implicature </li></ul><ul><li>When someone violates any of the maxims, implied meaning arise </li></ul>
  27. 28. Example <ul><li>A. Where is my box of chocolate? </li></ul><ul><li>B. the children were in your room, this morning. </li></ul><ul><li>B violates the maxims of relation because reply is not relevant to A’s question. It implies that children may have taken the chocolate. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Background Knowledge Interpersonal function
  29. 30. Background knowledge <ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Script </li></ul>
  30. 31. Activity of background knowledge <ul><li>Bashir was on his way to school. </li></ul><ul><li>He was worried about the math lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Last weak he had been unable to control the class. </li></ul><ul><li>It was unfair of the math teacher for leave him incharge. </li></ul><ul><li>After all, it is not a normal part of a clerk’s duties </li></ul>
  31. 32. Thank You
  • AmnaZia11

    Jun. 9, 2021
  • SyedAbbas252

    May. 3, 2021
  • ArzooEllahi

    Feb. 20, 2021
  • marcedecastro

    Feb. 9, 2021
  • HemantN2

    Jan. 28, 2021
  • ZaraNur2

    Dec. 10, 2020
  • MohammadKhizarRehman

    Aug. 26, 2020
  • MdFaruqueFaisalMasud

    May. 26, 2020
  • NeelamRajput14

    Dec. 6, 2019
  • NabinShrestha56

    Nov. 18, 2019
  • ZahoorSaid

    Nov. 14, 2019
  • SazanSaber

    Nov. 13, 2019
  • alhammuslah

    Nov. 12, 2019
  • KiranYahya

    Nov. 9, 2019
  • Saimasaif

    Oct. 21, 2019
  • MagdielKhateeb

    Oct. 8, 2019
  • afafmohammed355

    Oct. 3, 2019
  • QaisarMughal4

    Sep. 16, 2019
  • GloriaBb1

    Aug. 30, 2019
  • Azharmehmoodkiani

    Aug. 2, 2019


Total views


On Slideshare


From embeds


Number of embeds