COMMUNICATION THEORY: SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS AND
Language is used in human being for communication. In human
communication, there is a system of how people should communicate. Goffman
stated in Hatch‟s book (Hatch. 1992) that there is a set of universal constraints in all
communication. All human language has constraints and these become universal in
all type of communication. It means that it will appear in all languages. Even like
that, how exactly and in which way the constraints are met are different and vary
according to the communication channel.
Based on his point of view, there are two types of communication constraints,
they are; system constraints and ritual or social constraints. System constraints are
the components which required for all communication systems. While, ritual
constraints are the social constraints which smooth social interaction.
The first is about system constraints, where the components required for all
communication system and conversational analysis as the way to analyze spoken
language into written language by using some signals or symbols or transcription. In
analyzing conversational data, it is better for analysts or communication specialists to
take a natural conversational data, where the language is produced in normal or
ordinary and in everyday ways.
The way to transcribe the conversation or spoken language into
conversational data or written language commonly uses videotape data. That
videotape data will help the specialists to analyze language, not only from verbal
language but also from body language. Many communication specialists work from
videotape data because non-verbal communication such as gaze, body orientation,
hand movements and head may serve as communication signals (Hatch. 1992).
There is no rule for transcribing the conversational data. The transcription
developed by Jefferson (Atkinson & Heritage 1984) for conversational analysis
(Variations appear in Schegloff and Sacks 1873; Brown & Yule 1981). There are
several kinds of the transcription, they are as follows:
1. Overlaps symbols
a. Slash (// or / )
Function : Indicates that the next speaker overlaps at this point.
Examples : P: but umm in the high school/they
R://Don‟t they use „em?
P: but ummm in the high school ummmm
b. Bracket ( [ )
Function : An alternative is to use a bracket at the point of overlap. Also
show when two speakers start simultaneously.
Examples : R: I mean it‟s not time
P: we can go
c. An asterisk ( ] )
Function : Shows the point which overlap ends.
Examples : M: it‟s very/very
M: yes interesting uh
d. Equal ( = )
Function : Used for “letching” to know there is no gap between
Examples : M: mmmmm(.2) ye:s =
H: = like saffron
2. Elapsed time
a. Number in parentheses (.2)
Function : Elapsed time in tenth of a second.
b. Dot in parentheses (.)
Function : Micro paused.
c. Plus ( +, ++, or +++)
Function : Short pause, a somewhat longer pause, and a long pause.
3. Punctuation for intonation
a. Question mark ( ? )
Function : Strong rising intonation.
Examples : What? At University?
b. Comma ( , )
Function : A slight rise
c. Colon ( :, ::::: )
Function : The syllableis lengthened or indicate a more prolonged
Example : J: wo:::::w
4. Stress (pitch and volume)
a. Uppercase type
Function : Used for stress (pitch and volume)
Example : A: to my BOYfriend ann NOTHING else
5. Talk softly
a. Degree (◦)
Function : The talk is said softly
Example : S: (◦) hn I don‟t get it
a. h in parentheses [ (h) ]
Function : Explosive aspiration
b. h without parenthesis ( h )
Function : Audible breathing
c. Dot ( . )
Function : In-breathe
7. Unsure of accuracy
a. Single parentheses [ ( ) ]
Example : S: to do a (chef)
8. Nonverbal sounds
a. Double parentheses [ (( )) ]
Example : ((cough))
9. Part of the transcript relevant to the analyst‟s description
a. A right arrow ( )
Function : Used to point to parts of the transcript relevant to the analysis
b. Underline ( __ )
Furthermore, the spelling of words is altered to try to capture of the detail of
natural speech. For example:
1. “See you in ten minutes” “see yuh „n ten minutes”
2. “give me the key” “gimme the key”
In universal constraints of Goffman theory, there are eight system constraints
in all human communication. They are; channel open and close signals, backchannel
signals, turnover signals, acoustically adequate and interpretable message, bracket
signals, nonparticipant constraints, preempt signals, and gricean norm for
communication. For the clear understanding, all of them will be explain more as
1. Channel open and close signals
In all communication, there must be ways to show that the communication is
about to start and to end. The term of open and close signals will be according to the
situation where the communication runs. For example, in meeting, classroom, letter,
phone call, or interpersonal communication, there are different ways on how to open
and close the conversation. In other words, the description of the signals and how
they vary across mode, channel, and setting is part of analysis of discourse.
Depending on the type of channel or social context (spoken/written,
formal/informal), different (verbal or non-verbal) conventional ways of signaling the
opening and closing of communication are employed and reciprocally exchanged.
For example, expressions like introductory and/or farewell greetings, enquiries about
one´s well-being, etc. Not only that, partners´ readiness to begin (e.g., summons-
answer adjacency pair) and close (preclosing signals) communication are mutually
elicited, checked and confirmed. An important constitutive component of openings is
the activity of participants aimed at their reciprocal identification and recognition
The example can be shown from American telephone conversations, they are
The example above shows that there are four basic parts of phone
conversation opening as what Schegloff (1968) stated, they are: summon-answer
sequence, identification sequence, greeting sequence and how-are-you sequence.
1. Summon-Answer Sequence
The phone conversation will be different in summon-answer sequence based
on formal and informal phone conversation.
A : Hello
B : Hi
C : Good morning
D : Good morning
2. Identification sequence
According to Hatch (1992:9), we are very often able to identify the caller or
the answerer from minimal voice samples. There are such sequences to identify the
caller will be discussed. First is A caller who recognizes the answerer by the initial
A : Hello !
B : Hi !
A : Hi, Chandra !
There are sequences where the names of the answerers and callers are given.
A : Hello !
B : Dr. Spongebob ?
C : Hello !
D : Hh mom ?
Sometimes intonation is exclamatory.
A : Hello !
B : Mia !
C : Hello !
D : MOM-my, you‟re home
Callers may give an immediate self-identification.
A : HELLO !
B : Hi Mom, it‟s me !
Self identification is forthcoming, often in the second turn.
A : Hello !
B : Hi Sue !
A : Hi !
B : It‟s Chandra
3. Greeting sequence
Greeting sequence is just the continuing opening and identification sequence.
The one distinguish characteristic of “Hi” as a greeting versus that of identification is
that greetings are not repeated. However, one “hi” can serve both purposes-
recognition and greeting.
A : Hello ?
B : Hi,
A : Hi, Eka
B : Hi, Mom
4. How-are-you sequence
The opening may include a “how-are-you” sequence. The default response is
usually “okay: or “fine”. If the default is not used, the how-are-you sequence
expands and may become the first topic of conversation if, in fact, it was not the
reason for the call.
A : Huh-lo?
B : He-LO!
A : Hi Leo, How are you?
B : Fine, how‟re you?
A : Hmmm, not so good, I‟ve got B at morphosyntax.
In other words, the how-are-you sequence gives the answerer the opportunity
to capture the first topic of conversation.
For closing the conversation, it is not a simple “good-bye”. Use Preclosing
signals such us “well”, “so”, and “okay”. Used with falling intonation are among the
signals given by each participant when he/she is ready to close the communication.
A : Okay, so
B : Yeah
A : Yeah, so I‟ll call you tomorrow then
B : Okay Mom, talk to you later
A : Bye
B : Bye
2. Backchannel Signals
Backchannel signals secure the transfer of the information that the message is
being received and signal the degree of (un)involvedness of the receiver in the
communication. They may be verbal (noises: mhm, right, really) or non-verbal
(smile, head nod) and may vary as to the degree of their spontaneity (casual
conversation) and/or ritualization (religious congregations); in some contexts they
may be more obligatory than in others (e.g. teachers´ feedback is mandatory in the
classroom interaction). Backchannel signals encourage the speaker to continue.
Backchannel or feedback signals differ across setting and according to the roles of
Here is an example of conversation that use backchannel signals;
L : Here‟s a little girl
E : Uhhuh
L : She was walking with the flower in the grass
E : mmhmm
L : And then she was the ice cream and she told a lady can she have some
E : Yeah
L : And then the lady, the lady gave her some.
3. Turnover Signals
Turnover signals as communication is intrinsically an exchange between two
parties, there are signals which project the end of individual contributions, such as
turns in conversation and the readiness to ´yield the floor´ of linguistic (end of
syntactic unit), paralinguistic (reestablishment of eye-contact), and suprasegmental
(lowered intonation). These shifts normally happen smoothly and even if overlaps
occur, they may indicate involvement rather than hostility or conflict. The right to
produce an extended turn by a speaker is often ensured by a preannouncement or a
In communication there must be a set of signals that allow for a smoothness
exchange of turns. Related to turn over signal, Schegloff‟s introduce one term which
called “Transition Relevant Place or TRP”. Considering the transition of the
communication, there must be a set of signals, they are; slowing of tempo, vowel
elongation, falling intonation and a place for an exchange.
Sometimes, in turn over signals, overlaps do happen. An overlap is talk in the
same time. It does not mean not listening each other or they want to “grab the floor”
or interrupt each other. Overlaps show encouragement mush as backchannel signals
do. It is just to assure the speaker is not in the conversation alone. For example:
Teacher : Who did that land already belong to?
Students : Spain ((a few students respond at the same time))
Teacher : And now + explore coming + and claiming it for?
Students : England ((several students respond at the same time))
Syntactic completion can also signal a transition-relevant place. A change
direction (at or away from the listener) can indicate the end of turn. Or, if speaker
begins to raise his or her arms at a possible transition place, listener can project when
the turn will end. Again, the next speaker will not normally try to take a turn until the
speaker‟s arms are lower. For example:
R : Mmhmm sometimes it dangerous because if you go out of chair = chair is
name of it?
A : Yeah the sadle
R : Maybe you die because if you (pause)
A : Yeah you hit your head. ((completes turn for R)
4. Acoustically Adequate and Interpretable Messages
Acoustically adequate and interpretable messages are requirements that must
be met in order to secure a successful message transfer as a prerequisite of its
comprehension. Participants are striving to overcome the presence of communication
noise (e.g., illegible handwriting, a missed ironical remark) and when they encounter
an interpretation problem, a repair or requests for clarification may follow. Also, they
make an effort to use identical or similar code, or they may try to adjust their codes
and build a special code or register, for example; expert vs. lay communication, baby
talk, cf. Beebe and Giles´ (1984).
Communication requires ungarbled and interpretable messages that have to
be hearable. If the messages are garbled, they must be repaired. Two ways in dealing
with difficulty adequate and interpreting messages because of their language level
competence are fake it and use backchannel cues.
Fake it means that pretending to understand and continuing to interact in the
hope that we will catch the theme or focus of the conversation. Communication can
continue fairly smoothly, but it may also break down completely since information
that allows the participants to build a common theme or focus is missing. As what
Gumperz said that participants need not agree on the details of what was meant in
any utterance, so long as they have negotiated a common theme or focus. For
M : (pointing to a picture on Joe‟s wall) What about this?
J : Well it‟s called “The Broken Bridge and the Dream”. I uh I‟m not sure what
it means. But ya know this is the broken bridge and it‟s kinda looks like =
M : = uhhuh
J : The more real everything is, everything is solid but as you get closer here
(pointing) like man‟s hopes or his aspiration everything becomes a little more
transparent less real
M : yeah
J : Dali would say I‟m wrong. He says everybody's wrong.
M : very strange. What‟s that?
Use backchannel cues means that let the speaker know we do not understand.
Then, the speaker repairs the messages. The message become comprehensible during
the repair process, but both the native speaker and language learner may find the
need for constant negotiation of repairs too burdensome to make the conversation
worth-wile. In the other words, as the talk is negotiated, repaired and readjustments
are made, and the talk becomes simplified to the appropriate level. For example;
NS : Is it the final?
M : Uhh, it‟s un mmm pardon?
NS : Is it your final?
M : Fi:ne?
NS : Are you filing or is it the rough
draft + + or the final?
M : Oh I see. Final you mean last one.
NS : Right. Is it the last one?
M : Yesss ((sounds unsure))
NS : Yeah, last copy?
M : Mmhmmm (still sounds uncertain)
NS : Right++ is it all typed now?
To overcome communication breakdown when one partner is not yet
proficient in the language or in the content of the material being talked about, we
a. a fill in the blank cooperative completion;
b. rephrase questions so that less language is demanded of the learner;
c. supply answers;
d. model the learner‟s response; or
e. model better forms of answer.
All languages have a variety of repair mechanisms that can be used to reframe
messages in moiré acoustically adequate and interpretable forms.
5. Bracket Signals
Bracket signals help separate ´off-line´ (side) talk from ´on-line´ talk, they
mark the beginning of a side sequence (discourse markers: by the way) and a return
to the main message (well, anyway). In writing, the bracketed asides are
conventionally marked off spatially (footnotes) or by punctuation (parentheses,
Bracket signals are used to show that parts of the message, “side sequences”,
are not right on-line with the message of the moment. To show that the conversation
is cut by other action”. By using these signals, it means the next sentences does not
include in the main message before. For example:
Lecture : (reading a lecture paper) ... to the total of the – ((looks up and
directly at audience)) I‟ts very hot here..can you turn on the AC
Please.– ((point one of the students then continues reading the text))...
Bracket signals also show non-verbal action appears during the
communication. For example to show caughing, laughing, taking something, body
movement, or picking up and talking on the phone where those actions are not
include on-line with the message of the moment. Signals used for bracket signals
such as dashes „-...-„, or parentheses „((...)).
6. Nonparticipant Constraints
Nonparticipant contraints is where we are not in group of conversation and
trying to get into the conversation. There is one strategy used to move from non
participant to participant status that is to repeat parts of what one overhears in the
Nonparticipant constraints block up sources of communication noise with
potentially disrupting effects. As a result, nonparticipants must compete for the
admission to ongoing communication such as change their status from non-
participant to participant by gazing steadily or intently, waving, asking for a
permission to enter conversation, etc.
Here is an example of nonparticipants constraints:
(Setting: A coffee shop; two women are speaking together and a man is seated at the
next table “listening in”.)
A to B : ... like someone from Jakarta.
B : yeah
C : Someone from Jakarta? I mean, I‟ m from Jakarta and.....
Laughter, eye contact and hand waving (non-verbal signals) can also be used
as a cue to move from non participant to participant status.
7. Preempt Signals
Pre-empt signals are ways of interrupting ongoing communication. As they
are presented by a non-participant, permission must be elicited such as by formulaic
excuse me, or May I interrupt? The signals may alter the course of communication or
bring it to an end.
Preempt signals is the condition where we are in a part of conversation but
want to stop or interrupt the conversation. The aim of interrupting is not only to stop
conversation but also to request repairs or message clarification. But when we want
to stop a conversation because of we want to do something else, perhaps preempt
signals that we could use be supported by non-verbal action. In a conversation, non-
verbal signals which are used such as,
a. learning forward;
b. shifting forward in our seat;
c. opening our eyes wide;
d. raising eyebrows; or waving a pencil in the air.
8. Gricean Norms for Communication
Conversation is cooperative events, without cooperation and interaction, it
would be chaotic and would be no reason to communicate. In other words,
communication can not truly work unless participants generally observe the major
norms. There is a norm which called maxims that is proposed by Grice in 1975 as
criteria for cooperative communication. Grice's Maxims are minimal agreements
needed to interact and need to cooperate to achieve goal of "getting information".
Avoid certain conversational moves: i.e., lying, deliberate confusion
Further, it is called Gricean norms for communication. Gricean norms for
communication include the principles of quality, quantity, relevance and clarity.
1. Relevance - "be relevant"
Communication messages cannot be random, but must relate to what has
gone before. Topic in a conversation is dynamic and is negotiated as a conversational
progress. In writing, only one person is building the text, trying to put information
into appropriate sequence so that the pieces most highly related to each other come
A: Do you do buttonholes?
B: She'll be back in an hour.
A: Do you have orange juice?
B: Large or small?
Relevant means that have relation or pertinent to the context. To make the
message "cohere," contributions must be relevant to what goes before and what one
expects might follow.
2. Truthfulness - "be truthful"
Cooperative conversationalist does not usually say other than what he or she
believes to be true. When we violate truthfulness, we often do so using special
intonation for sarcasm, for teasing, or for playfulness. Learning how to move in and
out of "truthfulness" with appropriate marking may be acquired early in life, but the
markings are not always easy for L2 learners to recognize.
3. Quantity - "be brief"
It is very difficult to judge how much sufficient and not excessive quantity of
talk is. We want to be brief, but not so brief that our message isn't clear. In
conversation, everyone should have his or her “fair” share talk time. No one should
“hog” the floor without permission. In writing, some of us are very long winded,
while others too brief.
4. Clarity - "be clear"
We should avoid obscurity and ambiguity. Our message should be
constructed in an orderly way.
All four of Grice's maxims are important for effective communication. An
example of non-cooperative communication -crosstalk- the study of crosstalk shows
how violations of maxims can distort communication.
COMMUNICATION THEORY: RITUAL CONSTRAINTS
Ritual constraints present a culture-specific reflection of individual system
constraints (needless to say, they offer vast possibilities of cross-cultural
comparisons pinpointing various differences in cultural assumptions and
expectations), which together help build a complicated social network of values,
norms of conduct and appropriacy and, when adhered to, equip individual members
with a feeling of their social worth.
According to Goofman (1976), Ritual Constraints is the social constraints that
smooth social interaction. Ritual constraints explain that the system of social markers
that allow communication to flow in an appropriate way. We try, throughout our
interaction, to show that we and our communication partners are people of social
How ritual and system constraints interact and high light cross cultural
differences in discussing the interaction will be explained below.
1. Ritual Constraints in Opening/Closing Signals
Openings and closing give due recognition to the parties, are of appropriate
length and structure, greetings are exchanged reciprocally and with due attention. In
all cultures, greeting are given and returned. Such as in some cultures, American is
often seen as rude and uncaring because their opening greetings are fairly short.
About closing signals, in some languages, every person in the group must be spoken
to in the closing. In other social groups one can take leave with non-verbal signals.
Sometimes we thought rude or angry, as though we didn‟t wish to enter into
communication and rushed to get out of it if opening and closing are too abrupt. And
if opening and closing are too extended, we thought as fawning, long-winded or
boring, or self centered. All in all, the differences in how opening and closing are to
be done in order to show that participants have demonstrated social and intellectual
worth differ. Perception regarding these differences can have important social
2. Ritual Constraints and Backchannel Signals
Backchannel cues such as smile are expected to signal interest, support and
encouragement. If backchannel signals differ across cultures, we may misjudge the
value placed on our participation.
For example, a group of Soviet teachers of English came to one of University.
Many of them used the English word “well” as a backchannel signal rather than
“mmhmmm” and “uhh.” For American teachers as an English speaker, it is
inappropriate when using backchannel signals. They felt that the worth of what they
were saying was continually being challenged. While, for the Soviet teachers, using
backchannel signals during interaction is interesting thing and support for the
Besides, non verbal background signals may also vary across culture. For
example, American students usually nod and smile to signals that they are following
the lectures, when they understand and interested in their lectures‟ explanation.
While, for students of other language, they just keep listening to but not necessarily
following or appreciating the lecture.
In our environment also, some students usually use frown and lack of eye
contact to signals lecturers when the material which given to them is already known
and lecture is boring.
3. Ritual Constraints and Turnover Signals
In cooperative communication, participants expect to contribute evenly to
communication and so they often compete for this ´right´ by timing of their turns
such as gaps, latching, and silence as well as by turn ordering or who talks after
whom. However, differences in power and status may lead to interactional
The turn of talk is different across culture. The gaps, or small silences,
between turns at talk also differ across language and culture. For example, in
American conversation sometimes there is an overlaps. It means that there is only a
little gap between turns. Overlaps in communication let the speaker know that she or
he is not talking to the wall but everyone is participating. While, in Scandinavian
language, gaps between turns are relatively long. Nevertheless, the important thing is
not the differences in length of gaps but the social interpretation made of this small
4. Ritual Constraints and Acoustically Adequate and Interpretable Messages
Participants may adjust their codes in order to show alignment and solidarity.
They may even play a kind of ´game´ which Hatch (1992) names ´benevolent
conspiracy´, viz. they try to conceal communication problems caused by the
insufficient overlap (knowledge) of their codes (this may often happen in
communication of native with non-native language users); or, participants may wish
to exclude the third party by not attempting to accommodate their code.
Social consequences are obvious when messages are either too acoustically
adequate or acoustically inadequate. For examples, in ordinary conversation, friends
use a relaxed register of speech where careful enunciation is not demanded. In fact, if
they enunciate each other clearly, or if they are unable to match the general
articulation patterns of those around them, there are sure to be social consequences.
5. Ritual Constraints and Bracket Signals
Side sequences without overt boundaries may be in certain types of texts
(e.g., postmodern fiction) preferred more than in others (e.g., academic writing), and
it is the reader who is invited to take greater effort to supply missing connections.
Bracket signals help separate ´off-line´ (side) talk from ´on-line´ talk. They
mark the beginning of a side sequence (by the way) and a return to the main message
(well, anyway). In writing, the bracketed asides are conventionally marked off
spatially (footnotes) or by punctuation.
Bracket signals differ across language groups and the appropriateness of
allowing asides or side sequences also differs. In academic discourse, for example,
some language groups allow for what might be called a very ornate style, where
personal comments, anecdotes and illustrative side sequences are valued.
In other language groups, no such diversion is allowed. Footnotes or notes
may be allowed, but side sequences and markers that provide ways of tracing back to
the original thesis are not allowed.
6. Ritual Constraints and Nonparticipants Signals
Joining communication in progress (e.g., in conversation) may be a difficult
task because of the danger that a potential new participant will be treated as an
intruder; also whispering and passing notes is a socially sanction able behavior
because it excludes another party like assigns participants a non-participant status.
Nonparticipant constraints block up sources of communication noise with
potentially disrupting effects. As a result, nonparticipants must compete for the
admission to ongoing communication by gazing steadily or intently, waving, asking
for a permission to enter conversation, etc..
Most of us do not feel comfortable attending a party where we know
practically no one. Though we may know the conventional signals for joining the
group, we may not be sure our entry into the group will be seen as valuable.
When our host draws us into a group, introduces us and tells us something
about the others, he or she is trying to build a bridge by establishing that we do
indeed belong to the group and that each member of the group has something of
worth to contribute.
7. Ritual Constraints and Preempt Signals
Preempt signal is Ways of participants to interrupt an ongoing channel
message. For examples, in joining the lecture, the tea servers come in to take orders
for tea, cigarettes, and biscuits, office people wanting to distribute materials for other
courses and family members wishing to talk with the students.
Interruptions tend to be treated as disrespectful (and politeness-sensitive)
acts, but, depending on the culture, situation, participants, etc., there exist socially
´acceptable interruptions´, i.e., ones without damaging effects to one´s face (e.g.,
when a task is urgent or beneficial to the ´interrupter´).
8. Ritual Constraints and Grice’s Maxims
The lack of adherence to the principles of cooperation usually leads to social
sanctions. For example, some conversationalists may be disliked or hence only
suffered or even avoided because they offer too much irrelevant detail (violation of
the principle of quantity), they are incapable of talking to the point (violation of the
principle of relevance), they may provide information which appears to contravene
reality (violation of the principle of quality) and they may often lose sight of the
main focus (violation of the principle of clarity). In none of the cases do they behave
cooperatively. It is not the case, though, that conversationalists are always clearly
focused or that they never lie - it is their partners´ assumption that they do observe
the principles. Underlying all human communication is the mutually shared effort to
achieve communication success and, at the same time, present oneself as a competent
social creature while respecting identical social needs of the others.
In relevant maxim, we expect listeners will judge our talk not only as relevant
but also as a valuable contribution to the theme of the conversation. We also expect
that the speaker says what he/she believes to be true or be truthful. While, the maxim
of quantity is differ greatly among language and social groups. The allowable
quantity of talk relates to turn taking, it also relates to the amount of information
given in talk. For example, in religious services, only a limited number of people are
allowed to talk for any length of time. There are also social consequences linked to
the notion of clarity maxim. For example in American prose, it is customary to use
headings to promote clarity to help the reader remember the writer‟s focus or theme.
SCRIPTS AND COMMUNICATION THEORY
A. The Script
The central focus of Schank's theory has been the structure of knowledge,
especially in the context of language understanding. Schank (1975) outlined
contextual dependency theory which deals with the representation of meaning in
sentences. Building upon this framework, Schank & Abelson (1977) introduced the
concepts of scripts, plans and themes to handle story-level understanding. Later work
(e.g., Schank, 1982, 1986) elaborated the theory to encompass other aspects of
The key element of conceptual dependency theory is the idea that all
conceptualizations can be represented in terms of a small number of primitive acts
performed by an actor on an object. For example, the concept, "John read a book"
could be represented as: John MTRANS (information) to LTM from book, where
MTRANS is the primitive act of mental transfer. In Schank's theory, all memory is
episodic, i.e., organized around personal experiences rather than semantic categories.
Generalized episodes are called scripts -- specific memories are stored as pointers to
scripts plus any unique events for a particular episode. Scripts allow individuals to
make inferences needed for understanding by filling in missing information (i.e.,
Schank (1986) uses script theory as the basis for a dynamic model of
memory. This model suggests that events are understood in terms of scripts, plans
and other knowledge structures as well as relevant previous experiences. An
important aspect of dynamic memory is explanatory processes (XPs) that represent
stereotyped answers to events that involve analomies or unusual events. Schank
proposes that XPs are a critical mechanism of creativity.
Scripts are similar to schemata, though they are more specific and are not as
flexible based on context. Scripts carry detailed information on how events unfold
and in what particular order. In the restaurant script, for example, the participants
wait to be seated, a host or waiter takes them to their table and gives them menus.
The participants are then left to choose something off the menu, they order food, wait
for food, and then eat it. Then they wait for the bill, pay the bill, and leave (Jay,
2003). Knowing the script guides people on how to behave in a restaurant situation,
and provides an outline for how to write stories involving restaurants.
In social cognition theory, scripts are essentially perception-and action
schemas. Aschema is "a spatially and/or temporally organized cognitive structure in
which the parts are connected on the basis of contiguities that have been experienced
in time or space" (Mandler, 1979:263). Scripts are generalized event schemas, which
are "derived from concrete experience of events and thus represent „how the world
works.' Nonetheless, they are very much abstractions from experienced reality."
(Nelson, 1986:8). Schemas organize both perception and action, and this applies
equally to scripts: 'A script is a knowledge structure in long-term memory that
specifies the conditions and actions for achieving a goal" (Barsalou, 1992:76);
compare "scripts tell people what to do in familiar situations" (Nelson, 1981:109).
Script theory attempts to explain how individuals understand and act within a
recognizable and routinely ordered world of events. It assumes that events
themselves (social events primarily) are more or less ordered and predictable, such
that competence to perceive, to recall, and to take part in those events rests on our
capacity as individuals to draw generalized abstractions across variations in
experience, and to notice and learn from exceptions (expectation failures). This
foundational "cognitive-perceptual" meta theory is retained across variations and
developments in its basic principles (Abelson, 1981; Schank, 1982; Schank &
Abelson, 1977), and throughout its various extensions from cognitive science into
experimental psychology (e.g., Bellezza & Bower, 1982; Bower, Black, & Tirrner,
1979; Graesser, Woll, Kowalski, & Smith, 1981), developmental psychology (e.g.,
Nelson, 1981, 1986; Nelson & Gruendel, 1986), and social psychology (e.g., A
belson,1976, 1981; Wyur Carlston, 1979). The classic example is the restaurant
script. Nelson (1981, p' 102) offers the following useful summary, derived from
schank and Abelson (1977).
Based on the description above, it can be conclude that the structure of a
script includes a set of actions in temporal sequence to meet a goal. Within a script,
there are three main points, they are; scenes, actors (roles), props and actions. Scenes
are the place where the script is happened. For example, a restaurant script will
include an ordering scene, eating scene and paying scene. Actor roles are
independent of the individual person who plays the roles. For example, a customer in
shopping script. Props are an important thing of the script. For example, in a grocery
shopping script, the items for sale, the checkout counter, the register and the basket
are important to the script. Each actor carries a series of actions to meet his or her
goal within script.
B. The Application of Script
Script theory is primarily intended to explain language processing and higher
thinking skills. A variety of computer programs have been developed to demonstrate
the theory. Schank (1991) applies his theoretical framework to storytelling and the
development of intelligent tutors. Shank & Cleary (1995) describe the application of
these ideas to educational software.
C. The Example of Script
The classic example of Schank's theory is the restaurant script. The script has
the following characteristics:
Scene 1: Entering
S PTRANS S into restaurant, S ATTEND eyes to tables, S MBUILD< where
to sit, S PTRANS S to table, S MOVE S to sitting position.
Scene 2: Ordering
S PTRANS< menu to S (menu already on table), S MBUILD< choice of food,
S MTRANS< signal to waiter, waiter PTRANS to table, S MTRANS< 'I want
food' to waiter, waiter PTRANS to cook.
Scene 3: Eating
Cook ATRANS food to waiter, waiter PTRANS food to S, S INGEST food
Scene 4: Exiting
waiter MOVE write check, waiter PTRANS to S, waiter ATRANS check to S,
S ATRANS money to waiter, S PTRANS out of restaurant.
There are many variations possible on this general script having to do with
different types of restaurants or procedures. For example, the script above assumes
that the waiter takes the money; in some restaurants, the check is paid to a cashier.
Such variations are opportunities for misunderstandings or incorrect inferences.
D. Principles of Script
Based on Schank (1991) theory of script, the principles of script are as
1. Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a
2. All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primative
3. All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
4. Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand
5. Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans.
E. The Classroom Script
As teachers and as students, we participate in many school-related scripts. one
of them is the language classroom script. There is general idea of what the goal of the
classroom or learning objectives. During teaching and learning process, there are
some activities or scenes. The actors in a classroom script include the teacher and the
students. The teacher and students MOVE from place to place and DO a series of
actions within classroom.
Some of these actions are PTRANS as students place their books on desks,
ATRANS as the teacher collects and returns papers, and MTRANS as ideas are
exchange among students and teachers.
There are a number ways in which the actions of the classroom have been
described aside from script theory. Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) divided the
discourse into lessons, which include transactions, which include exchange made up
moves, which include acts. These could be integrated into script using the DO
segment of the script and the primitives of MTRANS, MBUILD, PTRANS,
ATRANS and so on. The teachers and students together DO the lesson and they
contribute to transactions, exchange, moves and acts according to their roles.
In Sinclair and Coullthard‟s system, the lesson is made up of transactions.
These transactions include preliminary, medial and terminal exchanges. There are
several subtypes of teaching exchange that could be classified as DO or MTRANS in
script theory. Each exchange elaborates moves. There are types of moves, they are;
framing moves, focusing moves, opening moves, answering moves and follow-up
Framing moves indicate that the one stages of the lesson is ended and another
is about to begin, for examples, “right, OK, well” or a stressed silence. Focusing
moves tell the students what the students is going to happen or what has happened.
Framing : Right (silence stress). Now,
Focusing : What we‟ve done, what we‟ve just done is we‟ve decided how to
outline our arguments.
Opening moves get students to participate in the teaching exchange. These
are often following by an answering move.
Opening : there were differences in who interrupted the most.
Do you know who did the most interruption? I‟m sure you do.
Answering : The-the men did. At least in meetings.
The answering moves is then given a follow-up moves.
Follow-up : The men did. That‟s another important finding.
Each of these moves is further subdivided into acts. For example, in the
framing move, “right” and “now” are marker acts. The system used by Sinclair and
Clouthard allow you to take a classroom transcript and annotate it in a way that
reveals levels of structure within it.
F. Script and Memory
Schank (1982) suggest that scripts serve as pointers to two types of memory,
general event memory such as your memory of visit to the dentist and situation
memory, which includes memory of common to many events such as paying a bill.
Thus, a visit to the dentist is no longer a script. If it were, we could no transfer
knowledge across scripts (say from the dentist to the doctor), nor could we transfer
parts of scripts, for example paying a doctor for services is part of a more general
Lytinen and Schank (1982) represent a visit to the doctor‟s office as calling
up two other MOPS, one for professional office visit and another for the contract.
The M-Contract is one that would be activated in all services encounter scripts. M-
POV refers to professional office visit. A MOP activated by doctor, dentist, lawyer,
or other such service visit.
Note for the diagram above is as follows:
Negotiate + get service + pay
M-Professional Office Visit (M-POV)
Have problem + make appointment + go + enter + waiting room + get service
In conclusion, scripts direct us in a sense to generic outline memory. When
we encounter a new instance, we immediately understand much of what will happen
based on the general event memory. We understand what processes are involved and
what roles are to be played.
SPEECH ACTS AND SPEECH EVENTS
A. Speech Acts
Conversation analysis is an approach to the study of natural conversation both
verbal and non-verbal in situations of daily life, especially with a view to
determining the participants‟ ways of turn taking, constructing sequences of
utterances across turns, identifying and repairing problems, and employing gaze and
movement. It also determines how conversation works in different conventional
Conversation analysis was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s
principally by the sociologist Harvey Sacks and his close associates Emanuel
Scheghloff and Gail Jefferson. In the present age conversation analysis is an
established method used in sociology, anthropology, linguistics, speech-
communication and psychology. It is particularly influential in interactional
sociolinguistics, discourse analysis and discursive psychology, as well as being a
coherent discipline in its own rigtht. Recently, Conversation analysis techniques of
sequential analysis have been employed for instance by phoneticians to explore the
fine phonetic detail of speech (Kelly and Local: 1989).
In analyzing conversations one should, among other things, be aware of
speech acts. According to Austin (1962), the acts performed by uttering something
are called speech acts. There are three levels at which speech acts are analyzed. They
are as follows:
1. Locutionary Act
Lucotionary act is the act of saying or writing something in a language. It
should be constructed by respecting the grammatical rules of the language we are
speaking. It can be analyzed syntactically, morphologically, phonetically, etc.
Locutionary act is simply the speech act that has taken place the performance
of an utterance. A locutionary act is the act of using a referring expression and a
predicating expression to express a proposition.
“I warn you to stop smoking”
It constitutes an expressed locutionary act because its propositional content
predicates a future act (to stop smoking) of the hearer (you).
2. Illocutionary Speech Act
Illocutionary speech act is a complete speech act, made through utterances
that consist of the delivery of the propositional contents of the utterance and a
particular illocutionary force, by which a speaker asserts, suggests, demands,
promises. For example, in saying, "Watch out, the ground is slippery", It performs
the speech act of warning to someone to be careful.
3. Perlocutionary Speech Act
A perlocutionary speech act is a speech act that produces an effect, intended
or not, achieved in an addressee by a speaker‟s utterance. Perlocutionary effect is in
some sense external to the performance, it may be thought of, in a sense, as the effect
of the illocutionary act. Therefore, when examining perlocutionary acts, the effect on
the hearer or reader is emphasized. For example, if the addressee complies with the
illocutionary speech act, that means, if he/she carries out the act of bringing a glass
of water, it will be a perlocutionary speech act.
According to John Searle (1975), all speech act classified into five categories,
they are; directives, commissives, representatives, declaratives and expressive.
Directives are speech acts where the speaker requests the hearer to carry out
some action or to bring about some state of affairs. Speech acts that speakers use to
get someone else to do something. Directives express what the speaker wants, such
as commands, orders, requests, and suggestions whether it is positive or negative.
The speaker attempts to make the world fit the words via the hearer.
- Gimme a cup of coffe. Make it black
- Could you lend me a pen, please?
- Don't touch that
To account the choice of directives forms, Ervin-Tripp (1972) classify
directives into five types that include the relationship between the speaker and the
addressee roles, they are:
a. Personal need or desire statements, for example, “I need a book or I want a
book”. Addressee is subordinates.
b. Imperative, for example, “gimme a cake”. The addressee is subordinates or
c. Imbedded imperative, for example, “Could you give me charger, please?” The
addressee is unfamiliar people; a person who differs in rank or who are
physically distant; people who is in his or her own territory; or someone whose
willingness to comply is in doubt.
d. Permission directive, for example, “May I have this pen? Is there any cake left?”
The addressee is someone who might not comply and also used when there is an
obstacle to compliance.
e. Hint (sometimes with humor), for example, “This has to be done over. What
about yours?” The addressee is person with shared rules such as members of a
family, people living together and work group.
Commissives are speech acts where the purpose of which is to commit the
speaker to carry out some action or to bring about some state of affairs. Commissive
peech acts that speaker use to commit themselves to some future action. They
express what the speaker intends, they are promises, threats, refusals, pledges. They
can be performed by the speaker alone, or by as a member of a group. The speaker
undertakes to make the world fit the words via the speaker
- I'll be back
- I'm going to get it right next time
- We will not do that
Representatives are speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the
case or not, statements of fact, assertions, conclusions and descriptions are all
examples of the speaker representing the world as he/she believes. The speaker
makes words fit the world (of belief).
- The earth is flat
- Chomsky didn't write about peanuts
- It was a warm sunny day
A representative speech act can be judged for truth value. It usually also
called assertive speech act. Representatives may vary in terms of how hedged or
aggravated the assertion might be. Hedges are not always the same as “weasel
words” which temper directness if a statement. However, hedges also serve a ritual
function. They may act like disfluencies in something over a disagreement with a
Declaratives are the speech acts that change the world via their utterance. The
speaker has to have a special institutional role, in a specific situation. The speaker
changes the world via words. In other words, Declaratives are speech acts where the
speaker brings about some state of affairs by the mere performance of the speech act.
- Priest : I now pronounce you husband and wife
- Referee : You're out
- Jury Foreman : We find the defendant guilty
Expressives are speech acts that state what the speaker feels. They express
psychological states and can be statements of pleasure, pain, likes, dislikes, joy and
sorrow. The speaker makes words fit the world (of feeling).
- I'm really sorry
- Oh yes, great, mmmmm!
Some speech acts like apologizing, promising, and thanking, can be
performed by anyone, whereas others like, arresting, and declaring war, bear
important restrictions; allowing only qualified people to perform them under suitable
circumstances. Nowadays, even computer systems can be allowed to perform speech
acts, e.g., granting parking permits, issuing passports, etc.
B. Speech Act Functions and Subfunctions
While the Council drew on the work of Austin and Searle, the final set of
speech functions differ somewhat. There are six major functions of speech acts, they
are as follows.
1. Exchange factual information, for example, “The bus arrives at 8 a.m.”
(representative speech act).
2. Exchange intellectual information, for example, “Your answer is correct”
(representative speech act).
3. Exchange emotional attitudes, for example, “She is really worried about me”
(expressive speech act).
4. Exchange moral attitudes, for example, “The teacher appreciates the best
students” (expressive speech act).
5. Suasion, for example, “Submit your paper as soon as possible” (directive speech
6. Socializing, for example, “Hi, Ridhel, what‟s up!” (directive speech act).
In the notional-functional framework, each function is divided into
subfunction then. The following is a list of some of the sub functions identified in
van Ek (1976).
1. Imparting or seeking factual information: identify, ask, report, say, and think X.
2. Express or discover intellectual attitudes: state whether you/ask if others agree or
disagree, know or don‟t know, remember or forgot, ask or give information,
accept or decline an offer/invitation.
3. Express or inquire about emotional attitudes: express your own or question
others‟ interest or lack of interest, surprise, hope, disappointed, fear or worry,
intention, want or desire.
4. Express or question moral attitudes: express or request, apology or forgiveness,
approval or disapproval, appreciation, regret, indifference.
5. Suasion: suggest, request, invite, instruct, advise or warn someone to not do
6. Socializing: greet, take leave, introduce, congratulate, and begin a meal.
These lists functions have become the basis for “threshold” level syllabus
design in teaching where the emphasis is on teaching functions. The functions are
sequenced into a syllabus so that students are taught how to apologize, express
preference or disappointment, disagree and so on.
Linguists may use different names for functions, but most descriptions do
resemble each other. Halliday‟s system (1975, 1976) although not incorporated into a
teaching syllabus is widely used in child language research. Halliday‟s primary
1. Instrumental that serves our wants or needs.
2. Regulatory that lets us control actions.
3. Interactional that gets attention and allows us to interact with others.
4. Personal that expresses our individual personalities through language.
5. Heuristic that helps us build our own worlds, such as “teach me” or “tell me.”
6. Imaginative that helps us build our own worlds, such as “let‟s pretend.”
7. Informative that let us share information with others.
C. Speech Act Analysis
Speech act analysis has provided researchers with a valuable way to look at
language function and the connection between function and grammar forms. Much
work has been done on children‟s acquisition of particular function, for example,
comprehension of direct and indirect directives.
In spite of the insight that can be gained from speech act analysis, a number
problem remains in applying to language analysis. First, it is difficult to input the
function speakers intend for utterance, especially if one has recourse only to an
utterance out of context. Second, it is not clear how the subcategories relate to one
another. Third, it is still relate what has to do with the system.
Speech act analysis has been of value to applied linguistics as researchers and
test and materials developers have moved to include it as one of the many resources
available for their work. In addition, speech act theory has lead to the design of the
national-functional syllabus in language teaching, setting off a major change in
language teaching methodology, away from an emphasis on linguistic form to an
emphasis on language use.
D. Speech Events
According to Richards et. al (1985), speech events are activities that are
ordered by norms and rules for the use of human speech. Language users in such
events use language that indicate the way the participants belong to or their social
interactions. In analyzing conversations speech events are also to be considered.
While, Hatch (1992) stated that speech event is larger unit with multiple turns, for
example, job interview.
A speech event is an activity in which participants interact via language in some
conventional way to arrive at some outcome. It may include one obvious central
speech act. Also, may include other utterances leading up to and subsequently
reacting to that central action.
A: Oh, Mary, I'm glad you're here.
B: What's up?
A: I can't get my computer to work. (the request is the whole speech event)
B: Is it broken? not a single speech act.
A: I don't think so.
B: What's it doing? (no actual request is made)
A: I don't know. I'm useless with computers.
B: What kind is it?
A: It's a Mac. Do you use them?
A: Do you have a minute?
A: Oh, great
The question 'Do you have a minute?' could be characterized as a pre-request,
allowing the hearer to say that she's busy or that she has to be somewhere else.
While, the response 'Sure' is taken to be an acknowledgement not only of having
time available, but a willingness to perform the unstated action.
Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar said that a speech event can be defined by a unified set
of components throughout same purpose of communication, same topic, same
participants, and same language variety (generally). For example: exchanging
greetings, telling jokes, giving speeches.
Three examples of speech events are compliments, complaints, and advice.
Olshtain and Weinbach (1988) looked at 330 Israeli & 330 American
responses on DCT and found five forms of response:
a. reinforcing the compliment
b. simply thanking the complimenter
c. agree with it
d. justify it
e. express surprise
Compliments serve to invigorate, establish or create or hearten solidarity
between the speaker and the hearer. Holmes (1986) says, “Compliments are positive
expression or evaluation, which is directed either explicitly or implicitly to someone
for something valued positively by the speaker and the hearer.” So, it is evident that
the function of compliments is to establish and maintain social connections and
amiability between participants.
Conversation where a father is complimenting his daughter on her success in
a music examination and its analysis:
Father : Nuha (.) How was your exam today?
Daughter : My exam was fantastic=My teacher told me, “Well done!”
Father : CONGRATULATIONS!
Daughter : Thank you.
Father : You are welcome!
Daughter : I have an art exam tomorrow.
Father : O.K. Practice it. =You can do well in that also.
Among a number of functions of compliments, Hatch (1992) says, one is to
reinforce and encourage good performance. Analyzing the above conversation it has
been found that the language used is of politeness. Next, the function of the
compliments is a positive evaluation of the daughter‟s performance in the
examination she has done well. This compliment on the part of the father will work
to enhance the bonds between the father and the daughter. Again, this conversation
has turn-allocation component of the turn taking system. It means that the speaker
and the hearer know when to speak and when to end. Then, the adjacency pairs are
“Congratulations, Thank You, and Welcome” have been used in usual
sequence. Furthermore, the event structure of the compliment can be described as
“compliment + acknowledgement/acceptance + bridge (congratulations + thank you
+ I have another exam…).”
In conclusion, compliment speech events have a definite structure that can be
described. Parts of the event are optional (compliment elicitation, agreement,
thanks). Parts are obligatory (compliment statement, acknowledgment, bridge).
Compliment has several functions and those functions relate to their position in
conversations. Compliment may be offered to encourage good performance, to show
thanks and to criticism. The functions of compliments may turn out to be very similar
across language groups. When and where compliments are appropriate, however, are
more likely to be language or culture-specific.
Some people are naturally positive and optimistic, whereas others tend to see
the world in a more negative light and always think the glass is half-empty which is
half-full. Therefore, it is only natural that some people tend to complain more than
others do. However, complaining is not always a measuring device to judge how
pessimistic a person is. Just because some people complain a lot, it cannot be said
that they are unhappy. Obviously, there is some connection between what happens in
someone‟s life and the things that they complain about.
Complaints are meant to contrast what is with what ought to be. De Capua
(1988) study showed female made more requests for repairs than male. While, Boxer
(1993) study indicated that female mostly commiserated with indirect complaints and
male were prone to contradict or to give advice. These is the classification of
Strategies combination Remarks
Indirect complaint • It’s ok. Don’t worry about it.
• It’s ok. Accidents happen.
• It’s ok. It’s not like you meant to
Request for repair • Do/ Don’t do X
• Can (Could) I/you X…
• I’d like to X…
• I was wondering if I/you can
Brown and Levinson (1978) categorized complaints as “face-threatening
acts”, acts that have strong potential for disturbing the state of personal relationships.
Brown and Levinson suggested three kinds of reactions to complaints, they are:
a. Decide not to perform the complaint at all.
b. Use “off-record” strategies, such as hints, vagueness, or rhetorical questions.
c. Use bald “on record” strategies, such as direct or clear statements.
Later, “on record” strategies categorized as showing positive when the
listener‟s positive self image is of concern or negative politeness when the speaker‟s
freedom of action, freedom from imposition, and the addressee‟s negative self-image
are central. In the data from Americans, negative politeness was used, but the
complaints were softened with hedges:
R : Do you have any idea how long you‟ll be staying . . . just curious.
A : Uh . . . any chance of your maybe keeping . . . a little bit . . . shorter hours
during the week or something . . . maybe just going out on the weekends.
R : Ummmm . . . just a … we-we‟ve been kinda … ummm … well … we go to
bed kinda early around here.
A : We were wondering if ah … if it would … if you wouldn’t mind … and if
you could manage to come home a little bit earlier.
The role plays of the Chinese were classified as positive politeness filled with
statements of concern for an interest in the guest:
Pu yao … ma … kung tso nema shin ku a tao san ching pan yeh … ti erh t‟ien
tsao shang i ta tsao yao ch‟u ch‟u … chei yang t‟ai hsin ku … chen t‟i chung
( don‟t … work so hard till midnight … the next day go out very early … this
way it‟s too hard on you … health is important).
So far we have note that complaints have patterns that are influenced by the
social need to maintain good relationships. Complaint speech events typically
contain on opening that includes an identification of the complainer and an
explanation of why he or she is entitled to complain, for example, self-justification
for the complaint. Complaints are often presented to service agencies and business in
An analysis of advice speech events shows that here, too, a template or script
is easily discernible. Hatch (1992) notes that the components of advice follow a
predefined sequence. Normally, a group of components for seeking and giving
advice mostly follow the order below.
b. Participant identification
c. Problem statement
d. Symptom negotiation
g. Advice negotiation
h. Advice acceptance
A conversation involving academic advice in an admissions office of a
university (Bangladesh University, Dhaka) and its analysis:
Student : Hello! (Can I have some information?)
Adviser : Hello! O yea. DEFINITELY. (Can I help you?)
Student : I would like to know about your MA courses in your university +
MA in English.
Adviser : Mmmm(.3) + We have + we offer MA in English over here++ We
have it on literature+MA in literature.
Student : What is the duration of the course?
Adviser : Mmmm actually we have two options mmm over here. Like + if you
were a student with honours‟ degree + a bachelor‟ s degree in
English, then the one-year course for you. Mmm(.2) but mmm if you
don‟ t have a bacherlor‟ sdgreee in English + then it is a two-year
Student : Don‟ have a MA in ELT?
Adviser : Mmm. actually at the moment we don‟ t have it + haven‟ tMmm(.2)
MA ELT but we are planning to start from next year.
Student : Do you have hostel facilities for girls?
Adviser : O yea + of course + we have a very good facility over here for girls
only. Mmm, + yea + for girls.
Student : O.K. Thank you.
Adviser : Any other questions?
Student : No, no, I will come later.
Conversation analysis is the way to identify the components better. Here in
this advice speech event conversation also the sequence of components occur like
agency pairs. After the opening the advice seeker poses a question whether she may
have some information and when she asks the question, “If they (the university) have
MA in English course”, the problem is revealed and that should be solved by the
adviser. The advice seekers, as in here, normally spend much time to know in detail
about their query. Then the advice giving sequence begins. Sometimes, the advice is
readily accepted but sometimes not.
As is the case in here, the advice is not readily accepted. It is assumed that
some more negotiation is required. When the first questions “whether the university
has MA in English”, what the duration were answered, the advice seeker does not
say she has accepted the advice. Rather she goes on asking whether they have a MA
in ELT and hostel facilities. Here the advice seeker does not seem to accept the
advice because at the end of the advice session she just thanks the adviser. When
asked whether she has any other questions, she says “no” and adds that she will come
again. However, whether the advice is accepted or rejected, the sequential order of
the components of the advising speech event has been maintained.
E. Speech Event Analysis
In speech event analysis, we are concerned with how speech act functions are
realized in larger units. The structure of the event forms a template similar to those of
scripts. Speech event analysis also attempts to build an abstract representation by
identifying components like what have been explained above in speech event
In sociolinguistics, speech event analysis would include a description of the
speech setting, the participants, and the structure of the event set in a template
sequence. In applied linguistics, given the popularity of the notional-functional
approach to language teaching, it was only a matter of time before researcher began
to look at the cross-culture or cross-linguistic similarities in speech act and speech
events. For examples, the research which examining similarities and differences of
speech acts and speech events across different language group, such as Wolfson and
Judd (1983) and Blum-Kulka et al. (1989). It is not only shows us that speech events
have structure in all languages but also the value that discourse analysis of this type
has for teaching profession.
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