The Uganda pig value chain: Constraints and characteristics of actors


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Poster prepared by Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Peter Lule, Kristina Roese, Lawrence Mayega, David Kiryabwire, Gideon Nadiope, Natalie Carter and Danilo Pezo for the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish Gender Working Group Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, 14-18 October 2013

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The Uganda pig value chain: Constraints and characteristics of actors

  1. 1. The Uganda pig value chain: constraints and characteristics of actors Emily Ouma1, Michel Dione1, Peter Lule1,2 , Kristina Roesel1,3, Lawrence Mayega4, David Kiryabwire5, Gideon Nadiope6 , Natalie Carter1,7 and Danilo Pezo1 Pictures Emily A. Ouma ● Box 24384 Kampala ● +256 39-2-081154/5 Kampala Uganda ● This project is funded by IFAD/EU This document is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution –Non commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License October 2013 Training of facilitators on the application of the VC tools Constraints Input supply and services • Veterinary services and drug stockists: Para-vets are the main suppliers of veterinary and husbandry services, each covering an average of 8-15 villages. Most of them are male (72%) with an average age of 37 years and are either diploma or certificate holders. Most also own drug shops supplying basic veterinary products, especially de-worming drugs. • Breeding services - village boars: 3-4 boars per village servicing up to 7-9 sows/month. Owners of village boars- 52% males, 48% females with an average age of 45 years and 47% having at least primary level of education. In terms of income ranking from the boar services: 24% and 36% of men and women, respectively rank boar services as the major source of income. • Feed stockists: Mostly male (67%) with an average age of 45 years and sole proprietorship business (81%). They sell different feed mixtures (concentrates) for poultry, pigs and cattle. Main sources of raw materials such as maize bran, “mukene” (fish meal), and sunflower seeds are middlemen and maize milling firms. Pig Production • Production is predominantly by smallholders – approximately 80%: Breeders (own 1-3 sows) and Growers (own 1-4 grown pigs for slaughter). • 60% of pig farm activities are managed by women, and the enterprise is a primary income earner especially in the peri-urban areas. • Most of the labor for the pig enterprise is supplied by women and children, including cleaning of pens, fetching water and feeds , and watering the pigs. • A few institutions such as NAADS and VEDCO work with communities on aspects of the pig value chain and invest in microfinance. Some such as BRAC have credit lines that support women groups such as those involved in pig value chains. Collection/ Bulking • Some traders are vertically integrated performing pig collection, transporting, slaughtering and retailing roles. In some instances brokers living within the pig production areas link large urban traders with growers by identifying “ready-to-market “ pigs and bulking them ready for transportation to towns, e.g. in Kampala to slaughter slabs or Wambizzi abbatoir , the only pig abbatoir in Uganda . • The smaller traders buy 1-2 pigs per week for slaughtering and sale in butcheries and/or pork joints. • Majority of the pig traders are male (94%), having primary level of education (45%) and an average age of 38 years. Slaughtering • Mainly done by men – backyard slaughters are common. A few slaughter slabs exist, with some level of inspection by the Veterinary Officers (e.g. common slaughter point in Kamuli and Gulu districts) Processing • Cutting the carcass into different “cuts” mainly done at the slaughter point. A few formal processors such as Fresh Cuts and Farmers Choice exist – they process pork into different products such as sausages, ham, etc. • The backyard slaughters and slaughter slabs also cut carcass into different “cuts” with differing prices. Retailing • Common retail outlets are the pork butcheries. A few females (33%) operate butcheries, mainly sourcing pork from the backyard slaughters or slaughter slabs. Pork price in the butcheries range from 6,000 – 7,000 UG Shilling/Kg. • Other retail outlets include supermarkets where different pork products are sold. Consumption • Consumption of pork – common in pork joints, where people meet to socialize too. Consumption forms include roasted or fried pork. Most consumers in those places are male.  Over the past three decades pig population has increased from 0.19 to 3.2 million. In 2011, Uganda had the highest per capita consumption of pork in Sub-Saharan Africa (3.4 kg person-1 year-1).  More than 1.1 million poor households (18% of total in 2008) own pigs, mostly managed by women and children as a crop-livestock systems’ backyard activity.  The number and types of actors in the smallholder pigs value chains is large, diverse and complex and face different challenges. Introduction Objective and Methodology  To assess the structure of the pig value chain and identify constraints at various nodes.  Questionnaire surveys in the form of individual interviews were conducted in 3 districts: Masaka, Mukono and Kamuli in May-August 2013 covering feed stockists (n = 36), live pig traders (n=86), village veterinarians (n = 53), agro-veterinary stockists (n = 36), village boars owners (n = 90), pork retailers (n = 20), and pig farmers (n = 348).  Focus group discussions were also held with approx. 1400 pig farmers in 35 villages using structured checklists utilizing various Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. o Risk of disease transmission between boars and sows and poor feeding. o Scarcity and price fluctuations of raw materials for feeds. o Expensive and fluctuating price of drugs. o Inputs (feeds, drugs) and services are generally expensive, of poor quality and not easily accessible. o Limited output markets and poor bargaining power due to lack of organization and lack of information on pig weights. o Poor access to extension services and market information, especially for women. o Lack of capacity on low cost easy to prepare feed rations. o Lack of record keeping. o High transaction costs (search and transportation). o Poor quality pigs – poor management or diseased. o Unstructured pig meat inspection and lack of inspection capacity due to minimal training on pig production and health in the curriculum. o Very few formal processors - monopolistic tendencies. o Lack of contracts between producers and processors. Characteristic of actorsFunction o Pork delivery delays. o Inability to meet consumer demand – preference for less fat. o Unreliable electricity supply – pork storage. 1International Livestock Research Institute, Kampala-Uganda, 2Department of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Economics, Makerere University, 3Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 4 Masaka Municipality, 5Mukono Municipality, 6 Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO) , and 7University of Guelph