in the last several century...the intellectualresources have beenstored in strong andimposing buildings ...for a few people... http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bodleian_Library.jpg
NOWADAYS...The Internet offers instead everyone theopportunity to access to the intellectual resources
A new map of knowledge based on electronic data searches in which users moved from one journal to another, thusestablishing associations between them. from the Ny York Times published: March 16, 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/16/science/16visuals.html
“The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is essential aspect.” Tim Berners-Lee ,W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web
Content is accessible when it may be used by someone with a disability Glossary, W3C Recomandetion
someone with a diversity... • Ethnicity & Culture • Gender • Age • ESL/Native language • Learning Styles/Intelligen ces • Disability
someone with a disability... • Mobility Impairments • Blindness/Visual Impairments • Deafness/Hearing Impairments • Speech disabilities • Learning Disabilities • Cognitive and neurological disabilitiesShort-term and long-term, apparent and non-apparent....
The Web is fundamentally designed to work for all people, whatever their hardware,software, language, culture, location, either physical or mental ability. When the Webmeets this goal, it is accessible to people with adiverse range of hearing, movement, sight, and cognitive ability...
Thus the impact of disability is radically changed on the Web because the Webremoves barriers to communication andinteraction that many people face in the physical world. http://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility
W3C = www Consortium,Tim Berners Lee Directorand inventor of the World Wide Web WAI = a section of W3C W eb A ccessibility I nitiative
These guidelines are the basis of most web accessibility law in theworld. Version 2.0 of these guidelines, published in December 2008, are based on four principles:•Perceivable: Available to the senses (vision and hearing primarily)either through the browser or through assistive technologies (e.g.screen readers, screen enlargers, etc.)•Operable: Users can interact with all controls and interactiveelements using either the mouse, keyboard, or an assistive device.•Understandable: Content is clear and limits confusion andambiguity.•Robust: A wide range of technologies (including old and new useragents and assistive technologies) can access the content.These first letters of these four principles spell the word POUR. Thismay help you remember them.
Remember this word:PerceivableOperableUnderstandableRobust
One of the most often cited examples is the curb cut, which is used by people on roller blades or skate boards,parents pushing strollers, travelers hauling luggage, people making deliveries with hand carts, and others, ...as well by people with disabilities. Similarly, many people benefit from the provision ofautomatic doors, elevators, door handles instead of knobs, and so on.
A holistic approach for Accessibility design is based on DESIGN FOR ALL (DfA) and Universal Instructional Design (UDI)
Universal design is the design ofproducts and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. Ran Mace
Universal Design promotes the consideration of the needs of all potentialusers in the planning and development of aspace, product, or program—an approachthat is equally applicable to architecture or education.
Universal Design is based on 7 principles that can be extended in Learning Environements and in Online-Learning EnvironmentsThe ultimate acid test of online software is its ability tocater to users with disabilities. Software whicheffectively serves their needs could just be the bestsoftware for all users. Baggaley J, 2007
PRINCIPLE ONE: Equitable Use The design is useful and accessible for people with diverse abilities and in diverselocations. The same means of use should be provided for all students, identically whenever possible or in an equivalent form when not.
PRINCIPLE TWO: Flexibility in UseThe design accommodates a wide range of individualpreferences and abilities.
PRINCIPLE THREE: Simple and IntuitiveUseUse of the design is easy to understand, regardless of theusers experience, knowledge, language skills, or currentconcentration level.
PRINCIPLE FOUR: PerceptibleInformationThe design communicates necessary informationeffectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or
PRINCIPLE FIVE: Tolerance for ErrorThe design minimizes hazards and theadverse consequences of accidental orunintended actions.
PRINCIPLE SIX: Low Physical and thecnicalEffortThe design can be used efficiently and comfortably and witha minimum of phisical or mental fatigue.
PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Size and Space for Approach and Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach,reach, manipulation, and use regardless of users bodysize, posture, or mobility.
The Universal Design principles (CUD1995) have been adapted to education through a number ofmodels that emerged in the last decade, includingUniversal Design for Learning, Universal Designfor Instruction, and Universal Instructional Design
UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR INSTRUCTION An approach to teaching that consist of the proactive design and use inclusive instructional strategies that benefit abroad range of learners including student of disabilities
UD + UDI • ACCESSIBLE WEBSITES to access to knowledge• ACCESSIBLE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS • ACCESSIBILE DISTANCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
Many resources in this site: Association on Higher Education And Disabilityhttp://www.ahead.org/resources/universal-design/resources
An approach that goes toward the social justice perspective, which combines elements of the minority group model and the social construction model, takes both the individual and the environment into consideration.
In effect, society often “creates” disability byconsidering some forms of being and doing asnormal and correct and others as dysfunctionaland not normal.
It is the environment that needs to be changedrather than the individual (Fine & Asch, 2000).
Internet can enhance the opportunites for all people to partecipate …More partecipatory democracy…
Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy,College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN.www.cehd.umn.edu/passit/docs/PASS-IT-Book.pdf
E-learning e disabilità.Progettare l’accessibilità, promuovere l’inclusione. Eleonora Guglielman Università degli Studi Roma Trehttp://www.scribd.com/doc/48568200/E-learning-e-disabilita- Progettare-l%E2%80%99accessibilita-promuovere- l%E2%80%99inclusione
Universal Instructional design Principles for Moodle Tanya Elias Altabasca university, Canadahttp://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/rt/printerFrie ndly/869/1575
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!Bressanone 6, 7, 8 Sept 2012