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Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value 
chain: What has been achieved 
Lucy Lapar 
Smallholder pigs value chain...
Achievements in Vietnam 
• Research on smallholder competitiveness and 
market access helped bring livestock policy focus ...
Projects / activities linked to L&F 
• REVALTER (CIRAD) – systems analysis of potential 
livestock development scenarios i...
Components and actual outputs for Vietnam Value chain 
1 Site selection completed 
2 Rapid VC Assessments; focus on animal...
Site selection completed: 
Northern cluster (Son La, Hoa Binh, 
Nghe An, Thanh Hoa) 
Southern cluster (Dak Lak, Dak Nong, ...
Provinces 
Selected 
in two clusters 
- North 
- South 
Criteria: 
• Pig density 
• Poverty 
• Market 
access 
Orange and ...
VC assessments: 
• Nghe An (ACIAR-funded Pig Risk 
Project); Rural – Rural and Rural – 
Periurban/Urban VC gradients 
• Da...
Characterizing pig value chains in Vietnam: 
descriptive analysis from survey data Duong Nam Ha1, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen1, N...
Reviews: 
• Feed technology reviews 
• Laboratory (diagnostics) inventory 
review
Best-bet selection and testing: 
• Production (GAHP) and market 
interventions (upgrading) (WB-funded 
LIFSAP implemented ...
Vietnam pig sector model: 
• Updated with new data (2012- 
2013) 
• New simulation on import tariffs 
for pork
Use VPM to answer policy questions 
• How will rising income & urbanization affect total 
pork demand and the composition ...
Ex ante assessment of VC 
interventions: 
• System Dynamics model framework
Using a System Dynamics Framework to Assess Risks 
of Pig Value Chains in Vietnam 
Thi Thu Huyen Nguyen1, Nam Ha Duong1, V...
Priority Activities for Vietnam VC until 2017 
 Pilot testing of best bets (animal health and food safety constraints), 
...
CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish 
livestockfish.cgiar.org 
CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizat...
Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value chain: What has been achieved
Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value chain: What has been achieved
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Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value chain: What has been achieved

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Presented by Lucy Lapar at the Smallholder Pigs Value Chain Strategy and Implementation Planning Meeting, Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak, Vietnam, 25-26 September 2014

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Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value chain: What has been achieved

  1. 1. Livestock and Fish Vietnam smallholder pigs value chain: What has been achieved Lucy Lapar Smallholder pigs value chain strategy and implementation planning meeting Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak, Vietnam 25-26 September 2014
  2. 2. Achievements in Vietnam • Research on smallholder competitiveness and market access helped bring livestock policy focus back to issues around small producers • Shaping livestock sector policymaking through policy advocacy carried out by partners • Partnerships across a range of institutions from government, universities, research institutes, civil society, development partners • Capacity development through internships and graduate students
  3. 3. Projects / activities linked to L&F • REVALTER (CIRAD) – systems analysis of potential livestock development scenarios in Vietnam – Dong Nai • Management of indigenous pigs and poultry in Vietnam (GEF, NIAS, MARD) – Son La • Situation analysis and scoping of Vietnam pig VC constraints and opportunities (HUA, TNU, CIAT) • Reviews – feed technology (IASVN); lab inventory (HSPH) • Vietnam pig sector model updating (CAP) - continuing • VC assessment on breeding and genetics (NIAS) - 2014 • Pig Risk Project (ACIAR-funded, 2012-2017) – animal health/zoonosis (link with A4NH)
  4. 4. Components and actual outputs for Vietnam Value chain 1 Site selection completed 2 Rapid VC Assessments; focus on animal health and food safety 3 In depth assessments; focus on animal health and food safety 4 Situation analysis 5 Value Chain scoping study, central highlands 6 Review of pig feed technologies 7 Lab inventory review (pig disease and zoonoses) 8 Updated pig sector model 9 SD Framework developed for VC performance assessment (to be used for evaluating effects of food safety interventions on VC performance) 10 Impact pathway (narrative)
  5. 5. Site selection completed: Northern cluster (Son La, Hoa Binh, Nghe An, Thanh Hoa) Southern cluster (Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Lam Dong, Dong Nai)
  6. 6. Provinces Selected in two clusters - North - South Criteria: • Pig density • Poverty • Market access Orange and Hatched: Provinces listed under both R2R/R2U and U2U Orange: Provinces listed under R2R/ R2U Hatched: Provinces listed under U2U
  7. 7. VC assessments: • Nghe An (ACIAR-funded Pig Risk Project); Rural – Rural and Rural – Periurban/Urban VC gradients • Dak Lak and Dak Nong (L&F seed fund)
  8. 8. Characterizing pig value chains in Vietnam: descriptive analysis from survey data Duong Nam Ha1, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen1, Ninh Xuan Trung1, Tran Van Long1, Nguyen Anh Duc1, Vu Khac Xuan1, Nguyen Thi Duong Nga1, Pham Van Hung1, Fred Unger2, Karl M. Rich3, Lucy Lapar4 1 Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA), 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya, 3 Lab 863 s.r.o., Czech Republic, 4 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam Introduction • The traditional pig sector plays a significant role in Vietnam’s economy where more than 90% of pork consumed is supplied by conventional wet markets; • However, the traditional pig sector is under threat from animal health and food safety risks that impact both its profitability and future viability; • Nonetheless, little research exists on defining key intervention points that could manage risks in a pro-poor, cost-effective manner. Materials and methods Hung Yen province: (i) 15 Input suppliers; (ii) 212 Producers; (iii) 4 Traders; (iv) 23 Slaughterhouses (SH); (v) 11 Processors; (vi) 34 Retailers; (vii) 208 Consumers • The role of middlemen may imply a potential control point for risk management in response to diseases transmitted in the short-term as well as (pro-poor) profit distribution over the longer-term • Information from this study will provide more insightful understanding of these existing value chains and serve as the base for further economic and risk analysis (i.e. the System Dynamic (SD) analysis). Duong Nam Ha dnha@vnua.edu.vn and duongnamha@gmail.com ● Vietnam University of Agriculture (VNUA), Hanoi, Vietnam http://www.vnua.edu.vn ● http://pigrisk.wikispaces.com Acknowledgements: The CGIAR Research Programs on Livestock and Fish (L&F) and Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), ILRI, and VNUA Funding: The Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), L&F, and A4NH This document is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution –Non commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License September 2014 Photo: VNUA/Duong Nam Ha • Semi-structured questionnaires: about 400 pig producing farmers and 400 pork consumers in both provinces during July and August 2013, paying particular attention to typologies of production and consumption in rural, semi-urban, and urban zones; • Semi-structured and In-depth interviews: 200 other intermediary value chain (VC) actors. Results Research into use Objective To highlight and contrast between pig value chains (VCs) in two provinces that represent different levels of economic development in Vietnam (Hung Yen and Nghe An). Figure 1: (Proportional) Sample size of each province selected for the study Source: The PigRISK report of PRA/FGD findings, 2013; And updated findings from field surveys, Jul & Aug 2013 Nghe An province: (i) 16 Input suppliers; (ii) 208 Producers; (iii) 7 Traders; (iv) 28 Slaughterhouses (SH); (v) 11 Processors; (vi) 40 Retailers; (vii) 208 Consumers COMPARISONS OF THE TWO VALUE CHAINS (VCs) • Similar in terms of: • Actor typology in which middlemen are often multi-functional and are the most powerful actors because of their better access to information and dominance in value-added activities; • Pig-pork flows; • Feeding practices of pig smallholders: collecting leftover food, locally-available feed resources; • Different in terms of: • In Figure 2: Differences between 2 VCs are highlighted in red (texts and arrows); Other functions of actors are ranked by number of observations; • Scales of production and marketing (Hung Yen is often larger); • Behaviors of actors as a result of differences in production scale, knowledge, attitude and habits; • Actors in Hung Yen are more likely to be more market-oriented and commercialized; • Nghe An operates its chains more “self-sufficiently”, with own-produced inputs, particularly feeds. Figure 2: Typical pig value chains in the two provinces (scope of the study is within orange background)
  9. 9. Reviews: • Feed technology reviews • Laboratory (diagnostics) inventory review
  10. 10. Best-bet selection and testing: • Production (GAHP) and market interventions (upgrading) (WB-funded LIFSAP implemented by MARD), 2015?
  11. 11. Vietnam pig sector model: • Updated with new data (2012- 2013) • New simulation on import tariffs for pork
  12. 12. Use VPM to answer policy questions • How will rising income & urbanization affect total pork demand and the composition of pork demand? • How will shifts in pork demand influence pig producers, particularly small-scale producers ie will small-scale pig producers be squeezed out of the market? • How will growth of pig production affect maize markets – will imports grow? • How would alternative policies, institutions, and technologies influence evolution of pig sector?
  13. 13. Ex ante assessment of VC interventions: • System Dynamics model framework
  14. 14. Using a System Dynamics Framework to Assess Risks of Pig Value Chains in Vietnam Thi Thu Huyen Nguyen1, Nam Ha Duong1, Van Hung Pham1, Thi Duong Nga Nguyen1, Fred Unger2, Karl M. Rich3, Lucy Lapar4 1 Vietnam National University of Agriculture, 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya, 3 Lab 863 s.r.o., Czech Republic, 4 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam Background  Over 4 million households produce pigs, representing 57% of the quantity of meat consumed;  The most critical constraints are animal diseases such as FMD, PRRS, CSF, and food safety issues, such as pork borne diseases;  How might changes in consumption behavior in response to diseases affect smallholders? Objectives  To develop a framework that explores the public health, animal health, and livelihoods impacts of pig diseases and assesses options for appropriate, pro-poor policy response. Materials and methods • Data from a sample of 1000 farmers and value chain actors including all actors in the pig value chain; • A system dynamics (SD) analysis framework is used for investigating ex-ante disease risks, impacts, and policy options (Rich et al. 2011). • SD model looks at the whole value chain (figure 1), including herd demographics and marketing (figure 2), pig demand at a cut level (figure 3), and feedbacks from Figure 1: Representation of the pig value chain Figure 2: Herd demographics and marketing Figure 3: Meat demand and price formation Figure 4: A model of producer adoption producer profits and adoption behavior (figure 4) Results • The SD model highlights contrasts in marketing, breeding, and production practices in three systems (farrow-wean, grow-finish, mixed) in two different provinces of Viet Nam (Hung Yen, Nghe An) • Key intervention points include improved productivity, cost-effective technologies, and efficient marketing channels • Future simulations to highlight cost-effectiveness of different interventions and system-specific differences. Contact: Thi Thu Huyen Nguyen, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, huyenquyet2002@gmail.com Funding: The authors acknowledge funding provided by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the Livestock and Fish CGIAR Research Program, and the Agriculture for Nutrition and Health CRP
  15. 15. Priority Activities for Vietnam VC until 2017  Pilot testing of best bets (animal health and food safety constraints), evaluating their viability for uptake  Identify appropriate intervention options, evaluate viability and effectiveness  Development and testing of diagnostic tests for identified priority pig diseases  Assess options for optimal breeding strategies to conform to demand for breeds in smallholder pig systems  Pilot test options for optimal feeding strategies in smallholder pig systems  Capacity development of national partners on all aspects of value chain research  Policy analysis building on developed pig sector model and refining its structure, parameters & policy scenario  Technology dissemination, uptake, and scaling out
  16. 16. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish livestockfish.cgiar.org CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world.

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