Animal health services delivery systems and disease surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda
Animal health services delivery systems and disease
surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda
MM Dione1, EA Ouma1, P Lule2, D Pezo1
1 International Livestock Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda
2 Department of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Economics, Makerere University, Uganda
Main message of the poster
• The health delivery systems actors are
dominated by veterinary paraprofessionals
• Besides the health and the drug related
activities, they also carry out secondary
activities including crop production, non-
farming business and extension.
• The delivery systems are characterized by
poor implementation of quality assurance
of products especially drugs and their
• Constraints faced by the actors along the
health delivery chain include: low profit
margins due to high cost of drugs; lack of
logistics for communication between
farmers and service providers; self –
medication by farmers; ineffectiveness of
treatment with specific drugs; lack of
surveillance and diagnostic capacities at the
• There is need to strengthen the animal
health services delivery systems and
reinforce policies in the smallholder pig
value chains in Uganda.
36 stockists, 53 veterinary service providers were
randomly selected from la sampling frame
provided by livestock production/veterinary staff
of the local governments in the three districts.
They were interviewed using structured
questionnaires. The District Veterinary Officer of
each district was also interviewed. The data
collected were entered in CSPro version 4.1 and
descriptive analyses conducted in STATA version
• The animal health delivery providers in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda are dominated
by veterinary para-professionals. There is poor quality of products and services in all districts.
• Close monitoring of service delivery and disease monitoring systems is needed to ensure that
farmers have access to high quality animal health products and services.
• There is need to strengthen the pig value chains and re-enforce policies in the area of health
services delivery in order to improve productivity in a sustainable manner.
• Typology of actors involved in the health
services systems in the pig value chains and
their level of training and qualification
• Description of the disease surveillance
mechanism in place
• Constraints faced by actors involved in the
animal health delivery systems
• Identification of opportunities for
improving the health delivery systems in
the pig value chains
To characterize the existing animal health
services delivery systems and pig disease
surveillance mechanisms along the pig value
chain in Uganda, in order to identify entry
points for improvement.
Michel M. Dione
M.Dione@cgiar.org ● ILRI ● Kampala, Uganda ● ilri.org
This project was funded by IFAD
This document is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution –Non commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
License June 2012
2nd International Conference on Animal Health
La Habana, Cuba, 7th -9th May 2014
Figure 3: Most common pig diseases encountered by health
service providers (n=53); others: Coccidiosis, Collibacilosis,
Respiratory syndromes, Foot and Mouth Disease, Agalactia, Hog
cholera, Lumpy skin
Figure 1: Animal health services delivery systems in the pig value chains
Figure 2: Type of services provided by the veterinary service providers
(n=53). Others: Artificial insemination, Issuance of movement permits
Figure 4: Pig zoonosis encountered
by veterinary services providers
others: Jiggers, Swine Erysipelas,
Continuous line: very strong link; Dashed line: not very strong link
Red color: disease surveillance; Blue color: drugs supply
Violet color: treatment, disease control and advice ; Black: regulation
and quality control
• Typology of veterinary service providers:
Veterinary para-professionals (61%),
Community Animal Health Workers (31%) and)
Veterinary Doctors (8%) (Figure 1).
• Typology of drug stockists: retailers at the
district level (55%), veterinary pharmacies
(31%) and wholesalers (14%) (Figure 1).
• There are 8 veterinary officers in Mukono, 8 in
Kamuli and 3 in Masaka.
• Most commonly bought drugs by farmers are
dewormers (93%), with most commonly used
being albendazole (46%) and ivermectin (40%)
• Frequently bought antibiotics include
oxytetracyclin (37%), penicillin/streptomycin
(28%), tylosin (18%), sulfonamides (16%) and
• There is low coverage of villages by health
• Drug stockists claimed that the main causes of
drug ineffectiveness are wrong dosage (38%),
wrong drug administration route (24%) and
poor drugs handling and storage (19%).
• Main services provided by veterinary service
providers are: curative treatment, parasite
control and advisory services (Figure 2).
• Main pig production diseases encountered are
African swine fever and healminthiasis (Figure
3), while the main pig zoonotic diseases are
porcine brucellosis (42%) and cysticercosis
(29%) (Figure 4).
• A among the veterinary service providers, 36%
practice disease surveillance and monitoring as
part of their activities. These activities are
mainly monitoring of swine fever and parasite
• 12% have access to functional laboratory in
• 4% have frequent interaction with public health
authorities including medical doctors on issues
related to zoonosis and food-borne diseases;
• 25% are part of a sharing information platform
on disease control, outbreaks monitoring and
syndrome surveillance with farmers groups.
• Several constraints were noted including high
cost of the drugs, poor regulations
enforcement amongst others.