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<ul><li>Designing community based breeding  </li></ul><ul><li>strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Et...
Presentation  outline  <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedu...
1. Introduction  <ul><li>Current productivity of Ethiopian indigenous sheep is low.  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off-take ra...
2. Procedures  <ul><li>Project team formation:  </li></ul><ul><li>the team was composed of researchers with different back...
2. Procedures …  <ul><li>Description of the production system study conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding objectives define...
3. Achievements in brief  <ul><li>3.1.  Different workshops were held @ shambu where the wider community, project manageme...
3. Achievements in brief…  <ul><li>3.2.1. Major findings from production system study ….  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flock ...
3. Achievements  <ul><li>3.3. Breeding objectives defined  </li></ul><ul><li>The major achievements under this core activi...
3. Achievements …  <ul><li>3.3. Breeding objectives defined … </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.2.  Three major traits were identified...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.4.  Alternative breeding strategies designed </li></ul><ul><li>Four breeding schemes (strategi...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.4. Alternative breeding strategies designed …  </li></ul><ul><li>These strategies were made cl...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.5. Implementation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All age and sex group of animals were identified </li...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.5. Implementation …  </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction performance of each ewe were recorded  </l...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3. 5. Implementation…. </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups for ram utilization were formed </li><...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Intervention activities </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention activities supposed to reinforce the...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions…  </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.2. Health </li></ul><ul><li>Liver fluke was and is th...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions…  </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.3. Cooperative  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed upon...
3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions ….  </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.4. Other activities  </li></ul><ul><li>With the spr...
4. Problems  <ul><li>Data generated at project sites were not communicated with ILRI  </li></ul><ul><li>as needed </li></u...
5. Conclusion  <ul><li>Achievements made so far were promising.  </li></ul><ul><li>Once the strategy is designed, due emph...
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>
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Designing community based breeding strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Ethiopia: The case of Horro sheep

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Presented by Temesgen Jembere at the ICARDA-ILRI-BOKU project workshop on Designing community-based breeding strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, October 29, 2010.

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Transcript of "Designing community based breeding strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Ethiopia: The case of Horro sheep "

  1. 1. <ul><li>Designing community based breeding </li></ul><ul><li>strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Ethiopia: </li></ul><ul><li>the case of Horro sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Temesgen Jembere (CLTL) at the ICARDA-ILRI-BOKU project workshop on Designing community-based breeding strategies for indigenous sheep breeds of smallholders in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, October 29, 2010. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Presentation outline <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Current productivity of Ethiopian indigenous sheep is low. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off-take rate is 33% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carcass output is 10 kg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net meat output is 3.7kg. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerable genetic variation for growth and survival is there for </li></ul><ul><li>these indigenous breeds including Horro. </li></ul><ul><li>Horro sheep are widely distributed in the western part of Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>in the area which lies within 35 0 to 38 0 E and 6 0 to 10 0 N. </li></ul><ul><li>The breed is one of the heaviest breeds in the country and 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>largest in terms of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Horro warada (where the project was implemented) is situated on </li></ul><ul><li>the longitude of 36 0 47’E and latitude of 7 0 26’N. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Procedures <ul><li>Project team formation: </li></ul><ul><li>the team was composed of researchers with different background (breeding, nutrition, health) and led by CLTL. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sites and community selection as per the project criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep population (secondary data and Observation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communal grazing land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Intensive discussions were made with the wider community and also warada level bureau of agriculture (through workshops) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Procedures … <ul><li>Description of the production system study conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding objectives defined </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative breeding strategies designed </li></ul><ul><li>Access to selected rams created for the community </li></ul><ul><li>(implementation phase) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Achievements in brief <ul><li>3.1. Different workshops were held @ shambu where the wider community, project management from ILRI, warada level decision makers and the collaborating research institute were in attendance. Through these workshops very good ground was established for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. Being with the M.Sc. student, description of the production system study was conducted </li></ul><ul><li>3. 2.1. Major findings from production system study </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep are ranked first in terms of importance and income among livestock species in the project area </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Achievements in brief… <ul><li>3.2.1. Major findings from production system study …. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flock size was 8.2 ± 5.86 and the male to female ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>was 1: 13.4. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main sources of feeds were found to be natural pasture, crop aftermath, and crop residues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeds, breeding, health and training were outstanding interventions identified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenotypic attributes of the breed were also characterized </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Achievements <ul><li>3.3. Breeding objectives defined </li></ul><ul><li>The major achievements under this core activity were definition of </li></ul><ul><li>breeding objectives, breeding strategies and creation of access to </li></ul><ul><li>selected ram </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.1. Supplementary activities were performed to production system study work to define the real breeding objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical choice card experimentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Own flock ranking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group ranking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.3. Breeding objectives defined … </li></ul><ul><li>3.3.2. Three major traits were identified to be the breeding </li></ul><ul><li>objectives of the project sites: these were body size, prolificacy (twining) and survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic improvement for these traits was agreed to be on the </li></ul><ul><li>paternal (sire) side. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.4. Alternative breeding strategies designed </li></ul><ul><li>Four breeding schemes (strategies) were designed by PhD </li></ul><ul><li>student discussed with project team and the community. </li></ul><ul><li>These were: </li></ul><ul><li>10% ram selection and 2 years of ram use </li></ul><ul><li>15 % ram selection and 2 years of ram use </li></ul><ul><li>10% ram selection and 3 years of ram use and </li></ul><ul><li>15 % of ram selection and 3 years of ram use. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.4. Alternative breeding strategies designed … </li></ul><ul><li>These strategies were made clear for the community. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st scheme was selected by the community </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons the farmers put for choosing the 1 st scheme were </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of inbreeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older rams may not respond to feeding when they be out of breeding system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social network analysis was conducted to set the rams use </li></ul><ul><li>bylaws. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.5. Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All age and sex group of animals were identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A total of 2248 animals were identified with permanent ear tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Except newly born lambs all animals were de wormed with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albendazole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age and live weights of all animals were recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The age of animals were back traced based on info from owners and dentition </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.5. Implementation … </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction performance of each ewe were recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Record formats developed and provided both to enumerators and farmers for ewes and lambs record. </li></ul><ul><li>Two weighing scale (100 Kg) with 200 g graduation were </li></ul><ul><li>provided to enumerators of the to sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Records have been taken on birth weight, weaning weight, 6 </li></ul><ul><li>month weight and yearling weights. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3. 5. Implementation…. </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups for ram utilization were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Twice ram selections were conducted where the 1 st batch are under service and the second batch are on the way to be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, some dragging back situations have been changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved productivity by reducing reproductive losses (right time mating when ewes are in heat made possible in contrary to the used to be practice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rams of interest (preferred) made available for breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These actions are expected to bring individual as well as flock level genetic change (improvement) </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Intervention activities </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention activities supposed to reinforce the main breeding </li></ul><ul><li>work have been conducted at the project sites. </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.1. Feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Trainings on the conservation and utilization of crop residues and </li></ul><ul><li>establishment of backyard forages were provided for the </li></ul><ul><li>community member. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions… </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.2. Health </li></ul><ul><li>Liver fluke was and is the most economically important </li></ul><ul><li>disease of the areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pasturolosis, pneumonia, circling diseases and other GIT </li></ul><ul><li>parasites are also common in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, 3X de worming per year, vaccinating against pasturolosis </li></ul><ul><li>and treating the project embraced animals were some activities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions… </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.3. Cooperative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed upon the importance of the cooperative formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farther discussion made with warada level experts and farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forming and making it legal is under way </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Achievements … <ul><li>3.6. Interventions …. </li></ul><ul><li>3.6.4. Other activities </li></ul><ul><li>With the sprit of integrated approach, the crop sector of Bako RS </li></ul><ul><li>was gravitated to the project sites and conducted potato, wheat </li></ul><ul><li>and barely researches. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 4. Problems <ul><li>Data generated at project sites were not communicated with ILRI </li></ul><ul><li>as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Way of making the non selected animals out breeding system was </li></ul><ul><li>not yet correctly designed </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging interests of the wider community to join the project </li></ul><ul><li>were difficult to entertain </li></ul>
  20. 20. 5. Conclusion <ul><li>Achievements made so far were promising. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the strategy is designed, due emphasis should be given to </li></ul><ul><li>interventions particularly to feeds and health. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic approach should be devised to make the none </li></ul><ul><li>selected male sheep out of breeding system </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting improvement (change) at least at warada level, way of </li></ul><ul><li>encompassing more community shall be thought over. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>
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