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Community-based small ruminant breeding programs—Attractive option in low input systems


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Presented by Tesfaye Getachew and Aynalem Haile at the FAO-ILRI Regional Training Workshop on Proven Livestock Technologies, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 3-5 December 2018

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Community-based small ruminant breeding programs—Attractive option in low input systems

  1. 1. FAO-ILRI Regional Training Workshop on Proven Livestock Technologies, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 3-5 December 2018 Community-based small ruminant breeding programs- attractive option in low input systems Tesfaye Getachew and Aynalem Haile
  2. 2. 2 Contents • CBBP and implementation • Major outcomes/ impacts from CBBP in Ethiopia • Up/out scale option • Major challenges • Lessons/ key messages from breeding programs
  3. 3. CBBP: what is it? • Participatory breeding – decentralized breeding plans and programs • Improvement programs carried out by communities of smallholder farmers often at subsistence level • Considers proper farmers breeding objectives, infrastructure, participation and ownership • CBBPs are built on bottom-up participatory approach
  4. 4. 4 Steps for setting up community-based breeding • Setting up CBBPs follows the same basic steps and principles as that of conventional breeding programs – Identification of target sites and understanding the production system – Definition of breeding objectives – Choice of selection criteria and recording system – Development of a genetic evaluation and breeding structures and its organization – Creation of an enabling environment – Monitoring and evaluation of the program
  5. 5. 5 Steps for setting up community-based breeding
  6. 6. 6 Steps for setting CBBP: selection of community A. External aspects – Good market access – Guard against possible impacts by other projects – Synergies with other projects – Government support – NGO support – Availability of inputs and services B. Community aspects – Willingness/interest to participate in the program – Priority livestock species – Existence of communal/shared resources or institutional arrangements – Existing communal champion C. Suggested steps to follow – Consultation at different levels – Visit the communities and organize a participatory workshop. – Not to forget to document the whole process
  7. 7. Steps: Description of production systems Survey/ measurements/observation - Phenotypic characteristics - Production/Reproduction data - Current breeding practices - Marketing channels and opportunities - Institutional settings that affect breeding and management
  8. 8. 8 Steps: Farmers’ breeding objectives • Structured questionnaire • Focus group discussion • Hypothetical choice experiment • Ranking of groups of live animals • On-farm ranking based on farmer’s choice
  9. 9. Steps: modeling alternative breeding plans • ZPLAN (Willam et al., 2008) • Based on comprehensive evaluation of both genetic and economic efficiencies of breeding strategies considering one cycle of selection • Important outcomes of ZPLAN include: – annual genetic gain for each single trait, – annual monetary genetic gain for the aggregate genotype, – profit for a given investment period
  10. 10. 10 Steps: Selection Criteria and recording in CBBP • Once breeding objectives are defined, identify selection criteria • Focus on very few traits for ease of recording and subsequent use • Qualitative traits could be as important as quantitative • Design and implement simple recording system • Link recording to activities/ services that are of immediate value to the communities • Pedigree information needs to be recorded. Sire identification could be difficult in group mating but is not impossible • Extremely important that data is recorded and managed in a database
  11. 11. 11 Steps: designing CBBP structures and organization There are different breeding structures for CBBP • Select in the whole population of the community the best males and females as replacement breeding stock • Rearing of male candidates in central governmental test stations or may be entrusted to one or more members of the community • Identify some farmers with ‘best’ animals (nucleus system) to fulfil the specific function of producing males for the whole population • When the nucleus animals are run by several farmers, the nucleus is dispersed amongst them • There are also livestock systems with large herds per family. Here a single farmer may own the nucleus and produce males for several farmers which in turn supply best females to this nucleus farmer
  12. 12. 12 Young rams selection procedures • Performance records: – weight (birth, weaning, 6 and 12 months) – all breeds – number weaned (all breeds); twinning (Bonga & Horro) • Ram selection: – candidates are ranked based recorded information – physical soundness (tail type, coat color, horns, conformation and general appearance) • A research team and a committee consisting of five community members jointly screen the candidates
  13. 13. 13 Enabling environment • Institutional back up- e.g. revolving fund • Farmer organizations with committed leaders • Complementary services – Feeds – Health – Market linkage – Capacity development
  14. 14. 14 Steps: Evaluation of CBBPs 1. Broad socio-economic criteria • Participation of livestock keepers and the distribution of benefits • The contribution of breeding programmes to achieving increased productivity of livestock for the community • Monetary and non-monetary benefits 2. Technical criteria • Changes in productivity indicators; Flock management; Recording practices; Genetic evaluation; Selection scheme; Genetic progress; Delivery of genetic material and technical service; Breeding rams; Ram sharing (use); The cooperatives; Gender
  15. 15. • Ethiopia, 3200 HH in 40 villages directly benefiting; 35 functional cooperatives • Increased productivity (more births, better growth (AGP 0.2 kg/year for 6 MWT) and reduced mortality) • Increased income (average of 20%) from CBBP in Bonga, Horro and Menz • Increased mutton consumption (average of 3 vs 1) in Bonga, Horro, Menz • Capdev at different level • CBBP is strategy of choice for small ruminants in Ethiopia: LMP, GTP2, WB Major outcomes and impact of CBBP to date in Ethiopia
  16. 16. 16 Genetic trend in six months body weight -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 EBV (kg) -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 EBV (kg) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 EBV (kg) Bonga Horro Menz
  17. 17. 17 Most of the established cooperatives have been able to build capital: Boka-Shuta cooperative in Bonga Establish: 2009 Lambs: 19342 Members: 378 Flock size: 3986
  18. 18. 18 Income from improved sheep sold Year Income from ram Sale Income from fattening Total income 2012 276302 23250 299552 2013 269300 18600 287900 2014 344550 44250 388800 2015 389750 55600 445350 2016 744900 44450 789350 2017 767900 101950 869850 2018 190900 30890 221790 Total 2,983,602 318,990 3,302,592
  19. 19. 19 CBBP up/out scaling Where When did it start? How many villages Ethiopia 2007 More than 40 Uganda 2014 4 Tanzania 2017 2 Malawi 2014 6 South Africa 2017 2 Iran 2018 1 Sudan 2018 1 Tunisia 2017 1 Mongolia 2017? 1
  20. 20. 20 Up/out scaling framework • Increasing the number of CBBPs requires additional project staff for recording and extension work, additional identification and weighing supplies, larger coordination and supervision efforts, etc. • Increasing the number of rams supplied per CBBP requires participating farmers to enhance reproduction, recording and maintaining a higher proportion of male progeny till final selection. The supply can also be increased reducing the requirements for a ram to qualify for breeding. – In the latter case this is achieved at the cost of a reduced selection differential. • Increasing the use of improved rams through higher dissemination or through extending their use in time. – Higher dissemination is possible through artificial insemination (AI – Increasing the age of ram disposal also leads to higher dissemination, although at the cost of an increased generation interval
  21. 21. 21 Delivery system for improved genetics from CBBP • Develop certification protocols of improved rams/ bucks • Develop non-steroid synchronization protocols prior to AI • Develop a technically and financially feasible field solution model for AI • Develop capacity in RT and fertility management including field solution for Ultrasound based PD • We have established 7 low cost field AI labs
  22. 22. 22 Major challenges • Data recording, quality • Mixing of sires in communal grazing areas • Mobility makes difficult animal identification, data collection • Drought and climate change • Initial reluctance to take up perceived long-term investment • Complementary services (health, feeds, markets….)
  23. 23. 23 Lessons/ key messages • CBBPs are technically feasible, financially rewarding, help change livelihoods • Institutional arrangements to support functionality and sustainability • Support for long periods with committed technical staff (either extension or research) mainly in data management, analysis and feedback of estimated breeding values • Complementary services including disease prevention and control, feeding, market linkages for meat and breeding animals • Adaptation to different situations and production systems; and • System for certification of improved rams/bucks by an authorized body to ensure quality control which will support and create demand for the breeding animals.